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The use of sports science in preparation for Olympic competition

Description

The Olympic Games represents the pinnacle of most athletes' careers and as the memories of Beijing 2008 fade, the focus now is very clearly on Vancouver 2010 and London 2012 and the preparation programmes that will lead to optimal performance. Over the last 25 years, there has been a significant growth in the importance of sports science in assisting, improving, and monitoring athlete preparation for the Olympic Games. Most individual athletes and teams will have several sport scientists who are integral to both the preparation phase and at the Olympic Games themselves. In this special issue, we have brought together a number of review papers from several disciplines with a coherent focus on optimizing preparation for Olympic competition. More specifically, the papers in this issue cover

Subjects

HLST | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | HLSTOER | sport | leisure | tourism | hospitality | sport science | athletes performance | performance monitoring | training | preparation | talent identification | sport specialisation | competition | nurturing | coaching | physiology | psychology.

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Whence 776? The Origin of the Date for the First Olympiad

Description

This essay explores the origin of the date of 776 bc for the first Olympiad. That date was established by Hippias of Elis c.400 bc when he compiled the first complete list of Olympic victors. Contrary to what one might expect, Hippias did not arrive at the date of 776 on the basis of written records pertaining to the Olympics or to Olympic victors. Instead, he calculated the date of the first Olympiad by associating that Olympiad with a famous Spartan lawgiver named Lycurgus, who was a member of one of the Spartan royal families and who was believed to have helped organize the Olympic Games. Hippias used a list of Spartan kings to determine the number of generations between his own time and that of Lycurgus. He then assigned a fixed number of years to each generation and ended up with a da

Subjects

HLST | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | HLSTOER | sport | leisure | tourism | hospitality | Olympic movement | first Olympic Games | Athens | Ancient Olympic Games | Hippias | 776bc | Hippias of Elis | Olympic victors | Olympiad 1 | Lycurgus | Olympic History.

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Manly Displays: Exhibitions and the Revival of the Olympic Games

Description

This article explores the shift from international exhibitions to the Modern Olympic Games as the preferred site for the public performance of manly character. As fin-de-siecle European and American societies increasingly grew concerned about the waning vitality of men and the individual's marginalization in a mechanized world, they sought out a new form of mass spectacle. National tensions grew that would eventually lead to WWI, and citizenry previously enraptured by the displays of state-directed competition at the international exhibitions were attracted to a venue in which the performance and effort of the individual was the central focus. The Games, particularly in the emergence of the marathon as the showcase event, became the preferred location for the performance of active masculi

Subjects

HLST | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | HLSTOER | sport | leisure | tourism | hospitality | modern Olympic Games | Pierre de Coubertin | masculinity | machismo | exhibitions | Athens 1896 | sports events | first Olympiad | World's Fair | Great Exhibition.

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Manly Displays: Exhibitions and the Revival of the Olympic Games

Description

This article explores the shift from international exhibitions to the Modern Olympic Games as the preferred site for the public performance of manly character. As fin-de-siecle European and American societies increasingly grew concerned about the waning vitality of men and the individual's marginalization in a mechanized world, they sought out a new form of mass spectacle. National tensions grew that would eventually lead to WWI, and citizenry previously enraptured by the displays of state-directed competition at the international exhibitions were attracted to a venue in which the performance and effort of the individual was the central focus. The Games, particularly in the emergence of the marathon as the showcase event, became the preferred location for the performance of active masculi

Subjects

HLST | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | HLSTOER | sport | leisure | tourism | hospitality | modern Olympic Games | Pierre de Coubertin | masculinity | machismo | exhibitions | Athens 1896 | sports events | first Olympiad | World's Fair | Great Exhibition.

License

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The use of sports science in preparation for Olympic competition

Description

The Olympic Games represents the pinnacle of most athletes' careers and as the memories of Beijing 2008 fade, the focus now is very clearly on Vancouver 2010 and London 2012 and the preparation programmes that will lead to optimal performance. Over the last 25 years, there has been a significant growth in the importance of sports science in assisting, improving, and monitoring athlete preparation for the Olympic Games. Most individual athletes and teams will have several sport scientists who are integral to both the preparation phase and at the Olympic Games themselves. In this special issue, we have brought together a number of review papers from several disciplines with a coherent focus on optimizing preparation for Olympic competition. More specifically, the papers in this issue cover

Subjects

HLST | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | HLSTOER | sport | leisure | tourism | hospitality | sport science | athletes performance | performance monitoring | training | preparation | talent identification | sport specialisation | competition | nurturing | coaching | physiology | psychology.

License

Copyright Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. See the individual resource for usage rights. Copyright Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. See the individual resource for usage rights.

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Whence 776? The Origin of the Date for the First Olympiad

Description

This essay explores the origin of the date of 776 bc for the first Olympiad. That date was established by Hippias of Elis c.400 bc when he compiled the first complete list of Olympic victors. Contrary to what one might expect, Hippias did not arrive at the date of 776 on the basis of written records pertaining to the Olympics or to Olympic victors. Instead, he calculated the date of the first Olympiad by associating that Olympiad with a famous Spartan lawgiver named Lycurgus, who was a member of one of the Spartan royal families and who was believed to have helped organize the Olympic Games. Hippias used a list of Spartan kings to determine the number of generations between his own time and that of Lycurgus. He then assigned a fixed number of years to each generation and ended up with a da

Subjects

HLST | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | HLSTOER | sport | leisure | tourism | hospitality | Olympic movement | first Olympic Games | Athens | Ancient Olympic Games | Hippias | 776bc | Hippias of Elis | Olympic victors | Olympiad 1 | Lycurgus | Olympic History.

License

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The Olympic idea

Description

It is hardly surprising that in the midst of his combat with Grousset, de Coubertin felt the need once again to revitalize himself on foreign soil, this time in the United States. Because of the Grousset campaign, he wrote: 'I wanted to enlarge the circle of models to follow; there were also some across the ocean and, if a crisis of educational Anglophobia was befalling us in France, we had at least the youth of the United States to provide as an example to our own.' [ 1] While it was true enough, as he went on to claim, that few Frenchmen cared about the doings of the American universities at the time, broad interest in the US was apparent in Parisian circles. [2] Boutmy, for one, had passed on from his English studies to an equal obsession with writing about the USA, and many of the Le

Subjects

HLST | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | HLSTOER | sport | leisure | tourism | hospitality | Pierre de Coubertin | Olympic movement | IOC | modern games | 1896 Summer Olympics | first Olympic Games | Athens | Ancient Olympic Games | multi-sport event | Demetrius Vikelas.

License

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The Olympic Games and Politics

Description

‘political’ Olympic Games are undoubtedly Berlin, 1936; Mexico, 1968; and Munich, 1972.

Subjects

UKOER | HLST | ENGSCOER | OER | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | Oxford Brookes University | HLSTOER | cc-by | creative commons | IOC | LOCOG | athletics | competition | discussion starter | discuss | oxb:060111:004dd | Berlin 1936 | politics | political issues | racism | equality | Mexico City 1968 | OPHR | Olympic Project for Human Rights | Munich 1972 | Munich massacre | hospitality | leisure | sport | tourism | Team GB | The Olympics Ethics and Values | The Olympics Impact and Legacy | The Olympics and Politics.

License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 UK: England and Wales License,except where otherwise noted within the resource. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 UK: England and Wales License,except where otherwise noted within the resource.

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Race and Ethnicity in the Olympic Games

Description

On October 2, 1968, more than 300 students and workers at La Plaza de las Tres Culturas in Tlatelolco, Mexico City were gunned down by police, on the order of former President Luis Echeverria. Those that lost their lives were protesting against the staging of the Olympic Games in a country that was struggling with poverty and an endemic lack of funding in vital public services such as education and healthcare.

Subjects

oxb:060111:014cs | sport | leisure | tourism | hospitality | cc-by | creative commons | UKOER | HLST | ENGSCOER | OER | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | Oxford Brookes University | HLSTOER | IOC | LOCOG | athletics | competition | Race and ethnicity | race | ethnicity | equality | black power | Mexico City 1968 | Munich 1972 | OPHR | Olympic Project for Human Rights | Joe Lewis | boycott | protest | racism | Berlin 1936 | Maccabi Games 2007 | The Olympics Impact and Legacy.

License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 UK: England and Wales License,except where otherwise noted within the resource. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 UK: England and Wales License,except where otherwise noted within the resource.

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–2012): origins, evolution and projections

Description

The Olympic Games is recognised worldwide as the largest sports mega-event - certainly, the event attracting the largest amount of media coverage globally. As well as a sports event, the Olympics are a cultural phenomenon, with a history spanning more than 100 years and supported by a global network of organisations with an educational and intercultural remit that defines itself as a Movement and aspires to promote Olympism as a 'philosophy of life', headed by the International Olympic Committee. What is less known is that the Games also incorporate 100 years of Olympic cultural and arts programming and that such experience is playing a growing role defining or contributing to respective host cities' cultural policies. This paper offers an overview of the cultural dimension of the Olymp

Subjects

HLST | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | HLSTOER | sport | leisure | tourism | hospitality | Olympic Games | cultural policy | Cultural Olympiad | Olympic cultural programme | culture | arts | art festival | London 2012 | Vancouver 2010 | values | policy | mega event | commercialisation |

License

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"Amoral universalism": mediating and staging global and local in the 1998 Nagano Olympic Winter Games

Description

This paper is a case study that critically analyzes the 1998 Nagano Winter Olympic Games. The Olympics are a gigantic global event, largely as a result of significant global media attention, particularly through television and corporate sponsors. However, these entities simultaneously need a specific locale in which to operate. Analytically, the paper focuses on interactions between the global media actors and the host city and its people. It argues that the commercialized nature of the Olympic Games controls not only the program, but also numerous aspects of the local host city to maximize benefit for the media. This paper reviews how historically and structurally the media were able to obtain such extensive control. Then, it argues how the media actually control the locale through the in

Subjects

HLST | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | HLSTOER | sport | leisure | tourism | hospitality | broadcasting | 1998 Winter Games | mega event | event management | politicians | media | media management | legacy | television | culture.

License

Copyright Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. See the individual resource for usage rights. Copyright Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. See the individual resource for usage rights.

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Olympic Games: catalyst of urban change

Description

The Olympic Games have emerged as a significant catalyst of urban change and can act as a key instrument of urban policy for their host cities. This paper reviews the effect of the Games on the built environment of the various cities which have acted as hosts in the modern Olympic period (1896-1996) and assesses the preparations now being made for the Games in Sydney in the year 2000. The review indicates that the Games have been increasingly used as a trigger for a wide range of urban improvements, although there have been considerable variations in the scale of infrastructural investment and in the public-private sector mix.

Subjects

HLST | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | HLSTOER | sport | leisure | tourism | hospitality | urban environment | built environment | urban design | architecture | development | regeneration | redevelopment | host city | Olympic park | Olympic Village | Olympic Stadium | Olympic facilities | post-Fordism | public expenditure | funding | financing | investment | modern olympics | Pierre de Coubertin | sustainability | Munich 1972 | Montreal 1976 | Moscow 1980 | Los Angeles 1984 | Seoul 1988 | Barcelona 1992 | Atlanta 1996 | Sydney 2000 | globalisation.

License

Copyright Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. See the individual resource for usage rights. Copyright Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. See the individual resource for usage rights.

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Race and Ethnicity in the Olympic Games

Description

On October 2, 1968, more than 300 students and workers at La Plaza de las Tres Culturas in Tlatelolco, Mexico City were gunned down by police, on the order of former President Luis Echeverria. Those that lost their lives were protesting against the staging of the Olympic Games in a country that was struggling with poverty and an endemic lack of funding in vital public services such as education and healthcare.

Subjects

oxb:060111:014cs | sport | leisure | tourism | hospitality | cc-by | creative commons | UKOER | HLST | ENGSCOER | OER | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | Oxford Brookes University | HLSTOER | IOC | LOCOG | athletics | competition | Race and ethnicity | race | ethnicity | equality | black power | Mexico City 1968 | Munich 1972 | OPHR | Olympic Project for Human Rights | Joe Lewis | boycott | protest | racism | Berlin 1936 | Maccabi Games 2007 | The Olympics Impact and Legacy.

License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 UK: England and Wales License,except where otherwise noted within the resource. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 UK: England and Wales License,except where otherwise noted within the resource.

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Perceptions of Terrorism Threats at the 2004 Olympic Games: Implications for Sport Events

Description

Keltner, 2001), we investigated effects of anger and fear on risk judgments of 277 attendees at the 2004 Athens Olympics. Attendees who reported being fearful or feeling unsafe at the Games displayed increased risk estimates and associated concerns, whilst respondents expressing defiance and anger produced opposite reactions. Male respondents had less pessimistic risk perceptions than did females, and men were more likely than women to report that the increased security measures detracted from their Olympic Games experience. Nationality had minimal effect on perceptions of risk except in the case of the host country, with Greek respondents reporting fewer concerns for safety but greater awareness of the security measures present at the Games. The discussion focuses on theoretical, methodol

Subjects

HLST | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | HLSTOER | sport | leisure | tourism | hospitality | Terrorism | Risk | Sport Events | threats | security | Munich 1972 | Munich Massacre | black September | extremists | terrorists | terrorist attacks | anti-terror | violence | protest | disruption | safety | event management.

License

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The Olympic Games and Politics

Description

‘political’ Olympic Games are undoubtedly Berlin, 1936; Mexico, 1968; and Munich, 1972.

Subjects

UKOER | HLST | ENGSCOER | OER | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | Oxford Brookes University | HLSTOER | cc-by | creative commons | IOC | LOCOG | athletics | competition | discussion starter | discuss | oxb:060111:004dd | Berlin 1936 | politics | political issues | racism | equality | Mexico City 1968 | OPHR | Olympic Project for Human Rights | Munich 1972 | Munich massacre | hospitality | leisure | sport | tourism | Team GB | The Olympics Ethics and Values | The Olympics Impact and Legacy | The Olympics and Politics.

License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 UK: England and Wales License,except where otherwise noted within the resource. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 UK: England and Wales License,except where otherwise noted within the resource.

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Public diplomacy games: a comparative study of American and Japanese responses to the interplay of nationalism, ideology and Chinese soft power strategies around the 2008 Beijing Olympics

Description

The Olympic Games are global communication events that offer host-nations the unique opportunity to promote a soft power agenda by allowing them to construct global messages about their cultural identities and work towards public diplomacy goals that may be more difficult to achieve under normal circumstances. At the same time, however, the Olympics accentuate nationalist and patriotic sentiment, especially in host-nations. Nationalist conviction must be conceptually differentiated from support for the national government. Indeed, we suggest that one of the tasks of governments of Olympic host cities is to manage strong nationalist emotions in order that they support the public diplomacy efforts associated with the Olympic Games. In this paper, American and Japanese media responses to the

Subjects

HLST | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | HLSTOER | sport | leisure | tourism | hospitality | politics | diplomacy | cultural identity | broadcasting | propaganda | Beijing 2008 | nationalism | mega-event | event management | media | television | Human Rights | NGO | OPHR | Olympic Torch relay | Sichuan earthquake | protest.

License

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The Olympic Games and politics

Description

Whilst the Olympic Movement states that politics have no place in sport, political events have nonetheless exerted a significant effect on modern Olympic Games. Three of the most ‘political’ Olympic Games are undoubtedly Berlin, 1936; Mexico, 1968; and Munich, 1972

Subjects

cc-by | creative commons | athletics | competition | discussion starter | discuss | oxb:060111:004dd | politics | political issues | racism | equality | hospitality | leisure | sport | tourism | radar brookes | ukoer | hlst | engscoer | oer | ll2012 | london 2012 | olympics | olympic games | paralympics | paralympic games | learning legacies | jisc | hea | oxford brookes university | hlstoer | ioc | locog | berlin 1936 | mexico city 1968 | ophr | olympic project for human rights | munich 1972 | munich massacre | team gb | the olympics ethics and values | the olympics impact and legacy | the olympics and politics | Social studies | L000

License

Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/

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Olympic Games: catalyst of urban change

Description

The Olympic Games have emerged as a significant catalyst of urban change and can act as a key instrument of urban policy for their host cities. This paper reviews the effect of the Games on the built environment of the various cities which have acted as hosts in the modern Olympic period (1896-1996) and assesses the preparations now being made for the Games in Sydney in the year 2000. The review indicates that the Games have been increasingly used as a trigger for a wide range of urban improvements, although there have been considerable variations in the scale of infrastructural investment and in the public-private sector mix.

Subjects

HLST | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | HLSTOER | sport | leisure | tourism | hospitality | urban environment | built environment | urban design | architecture | development | regeneration | redevelopment | host city | Olympic park | Olympic Village | Olympic Stadium | Olympic facilities | post-Fordism | public expenditure | funding | financing | investment | modern olympics | Pierre de Coubertin | sustainability | Munich 1972 | Montreal 1976 | Moscow 1980 | Los Angeles 1984 | Seoul 1988 | Barcelona 1992 | Atlanta 1996 | Sydney 2000 | globalisation.

License

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Public diplomacy games: a comparative study of American and Japanese responses to the interplay of nationalism, ideology and Chinese soft power strategies around the 2008 Beijing Olympics

Description

The Olympic Games are global communication events that offer host-nations the unique opportunity to promote a soft power agenda by allowing them to construct global messages about their cultural identities and work towards public diplomacy goals that may be more difficult to achieve under normal circumstances. At the same time, however, the Olympics accentuate nationalist and patriotic sentiment, especially in host-nations. Nationalist conviction must be conceptually differentiated from support for the national government. Indeed, we suggest that one of the tasks of governments of Olympic host cities is to manage strong nationalist emotions in order that they support the public diplomacy efforts associated with the Olympic Games. In this paper, American and Japanese media responses to the

Subjects

HLST | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | HLSTOER | sport | leisure | tourism | hospitality | politics | diplomacy | cultural identity | broadcasting | propaganda | Beijing 2008 | nationalism | mega-event | event management | media | television | Human Rights | NGO | OPHR | Olympic Torch relay | Sichuan earthquake | protest.

License

Copyright Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. See the individual resource for usage rights. Copyright Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. See the individual resource for usage rights.

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Perceptions of Terrorism Threats at the 2004 Olympic Games: Implications for Sport Events

Description

Keltner, 2001), we investigated effects of anger and fear on risk judgments of 277 attendees at the 2004 Athens Olympics. Attendees who reported being fearful or feeling unsafe at the Games displayed increased risk estimates and associated concerns, whilst respondents expressing defiance and anger produced opposite reactions. Male respondents had less pessimistic risk perceptions than did females, and men were more likely than women to report that the increased security measures detracted from their Olympic Games experience. Nationality had minimal effect on perceptions of risk except in the case of the host country, with Greek respondents reporting fewer concerns for safety but greater awareness of the security measures present at the Games. The discussion focuses on theoretical, methodol

Subjects

HLST | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | HLSTOER | sport | leisure | tourism | hospitality | Terrorism | Risk | Sport Events | threats | security | Munich 1972 | Munich Massacre | black September | extremists | terrorists | terrorist attacks | anti-terror | violence | protest | disruption | safety | event management.

License

Copyright Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. See the individual resource for usage rights. Copyright Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. See the individual resource for usage rights.

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The Olympic idea

Description

It is hardly surprising that in the midst of his combat with Grousset, de Coubertin felt the need once again to revitalize himself on foreign soil, this time in the United States. Because of the Grousset campaign, he wrote: 'I wanted to enlarge the circle of models to follow; there were also some across the ocean and, if a crisis of educational Anglophobia was befalling us in France, we had at least the youth of the United States to provide as an example to our own.' [ 1] While it was true enough, as he went on to claim, that few Frenchmen cared about the doings of the American universities at the time, broad interest in the US was apparent in Parisian circles. [2] Boutmy, for one, had passed on from his English studies to an equal obsession with writing about the USA, and many of the Le

Subjects

HLST | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | HLSTOER | sport | leisure | tourism | hospitality | Pierre de Coubertin | Olympic movement | IOC | modern games | 1896 Summer Olympics | first Olympic Games | Athens | Ancient Olympic Games | multi-sport event | Demetrius Vikelas.

License

Copyright Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. See the individual resource for usage rights. Copyright Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. See the individual resource for usage rights.

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?2012): origins, evolution and projections

Description

The Olympic Games is recognised worldwide as the largest sports mega-event - certainly, the event attracting the largest amount of media coverage globally. As well as a sports event, the Olympics are a cultural phenomenon, with a history spanning more than 100 years and supported by a global network of organisations with an educational and intercultural remit that defines itself as a Movement and aspires to promote Olympism as a 'philosophy of life', headed by the International Olympic Committee. What is less known is that the Games also incorporate 100 years of Olympic cultural and arts programming and that such experience is playing a growing role defining or contributing to respective host cities' cultural policies. This paper offers an overview of the cultural dimension of the Olymp

Subjects

HLST | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | HLSTOER | sport | leisure | tourism | hospitality | Olympic Games | cultural policy | Cultural Olympiad | Olympic cultural programme | culture | arts | art festival | London 2012 | Vancouver 2010 | values | policy | mega event | commercialisation |

License

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"Amoral universalism": mediating and staging global and local in the 1998 Nagano Olympic Winter Games

Description

This paper is a case study that critically analyzes the 1998 Nagano Winter Olympic Games. The Olympics are a gigantic global event, largely as a result of significant global media attention, particularly through television and corporate sponsors. However, these entities simultaneously need a specific locale in which to operate. Analytically, the paper focuses on interactions between the global media actors and the host city and its people. It argues that the commercialized nature of the Olympic Games controls not only the program, but also numerous aspects of the local host city to maximize benefit for the media. This paper reviews how historically and structurally the media were able to obtain such extensive control. Then, it argues how the media actually control the locale through the in

Subjects

HLST | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | HLSTOER | sport | leisure | tourism | hospitality | broadcasting | 1998 Winter Games | mega event | event management | politicians | media | media management | legacy | television | culture.

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Copyright Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. See the individual resource for usage rights. Copyright Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. See the individual resource for usage rights.

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The Olympic Games and Politics

Description

?political? Olympic Games are undoubtedly Berlin, 1936; Mexico, 1968; and Munich, 1972.

Subjects

UKOER | HLST | ENGSCOER | OER | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | Oxford Brookes University | HLSTOER | cc-by | creative commons | IOC | LOCOG | athletics | competition | discussion starter | discuss | oxb:060111:004dd | Berlin 1936 | politics | political issues | racism | equality | Mexico City 1968 | OPHR | Olympic Project for Human Rights | Munich 1972 | Munich massacre | hospitality | leisure | sport | tourism | Team GB | The Olympics Ethics and Values | The Olympics Impact and Legacy | The Olympics and Politics.

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Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales License, except where otherwise noted within the resource. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales License, except where otherwise noted within the resource.

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Race and Ethnicity in the Olympic Games

Description

On October 2, 1968, more than 300 students and workers at La Plaza de las Tres Culturas in Tlatelolco, Mexico City were gunned down by police, on the order of former President Luis Echeverria. Those that lost their lives were protesting against the staging of the Olympic Games in a country that was struggling with poverty and an endemic lack of funding in vital public services such as education and healthcare.

Subjects

oxb:060111:014cs | sport | leisure | tourism | hospitality | cc-by | creative commons | UKOER | HLST | ENGSCOER | OER | LL2012 | London 2012 | Olympics | Olympic Games | Paralympics | Paralympic Games | Learning Legacies | JISC | HEA | Oxford Brookes University | HLSTOER | IOC | LOCOG | athletics | competition | Race and ethnicity | race | ethnicity | equality | black power | Mexico City 1968 | Munich 1972 | OPHR | Olympic Project for Human Rights | Joe Lewis | boycott | protest | racism | Berlin 1936 | Maccabi Games 2007 | The Olympics Impact and Legacy.

License

Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales License, except where otherwise noted within the resource. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales License, except where otherwise noted within the resource.

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