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7.345 The War on Superbugs: Antibiotic Development and the Emergence of Drug-Resistant Bacteria (MIT) 7.345 The War on Superbugs: Antibiotic Development and the Emergence of Drug-Resistant Bacteria (MIT)

Description

Bacteria and fungi have produced antibiotics, small molecules that can prevent the growth of or kill bacteria by inhibiting essential biological pathways, as a defense mechanism long before humans walked the earth. The discovery of antibiotics and their implementation in the clinic radically changed modern medicine, saving countless lives by treating infections that were once difficult to cure, such as syphilis, strep throat and tuberculosis. During this course, we will cover many aspects of antibiotics including techniques used to discover these inhibitors, their mode of action and use in medicine. For example, we will learn about the techniques used to discover antibiotics, such as penicillin and vancomycin. We will discuss antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the molecular mechanisms under Bacteria and fungi have produced antibiotics, small molecules that can prevent the growth of or kill bacteria by inhibiting essential biological pathways, as a defense mechanism long before humans walked the earth. The discovery of antibiotics and their implementation in the clinic radically changed modern medicine, saving countless lives by treating infections that were once difficult to cure, such as syphilis, strep throat and tuberculosis. During this course, we will cover many aspects of antibiotics including techniques used to discover these inhibitors, their mode of action and use in medicine. For example, we will learn about the techniques used to discover antibiotics, such as penicillin and vancomycin. We will discuss antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the molecular mechanisms under

Subjects

superbugs | superbugs | antibiotics | antibiotics | drug-resistance | drug-resistance | bacteria | bacteria | infection | infection | penicillin | penicillin | drug discovery | drug discovery | vancomycin | vancomycin

License

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Recovery strategies in sport and exercise

Description

The ability to recover quickly from an intensive training session or match can be extremely advantageous to sports performers. Sport and fitness participants are increasingly using strategies such as ice baths and compression clothing to enhance their recovery from intensive exercise, but how effective are these strategies? Do they really speed up the recovery process? To answer questions such as these this free course ?Recovery strategies in sport and exercise? investigates the science behind recovery exploring the physiological processes involved in training and recovery and the potential role of recovery strategies. First published on Wed, 27 Jan 2016 as Recovery strategies in sport and exercise. To find out more visit The Open University's Openlearn website. Creative-Commons 201

Subjects

Health | Sports & Psychology | Sport & Fitness | E314_1 | sport | fitness | recovery strategies

License

Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence - see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Discovering management Discovering management

Description

This free course, Discovering management, introduces you to the role of the manager. It covers management activities looking at leadership, human resources, finance, project management, change management, operations management and stakeholder management. First published on Fri, 26 Feb 2016 as Discovering management. To find out more visit The Open University's Openlearn website. Creative-Commons 2016 This free course, Discovering management, introduces you to the role of the manager. It covers management activities looking at leadership, human resources, finance, project management, change management, operations management and stakeholder management. First published on Fri, 26 Feb 2016 as Discovering management. To find out more visit The Open University's Openlearn website. Creative-Commons 2016

Subjects

Leadership and Management | Leadership and Management | leadership | leadership | Supernovae explosions | Supernovae explosions | neutron stars | neutron stars | human resources | human resources | project management | project management | X-ray binary stars | X-ray binary stars | binary star systems | binary star systems | Doppler shifts | Doppler shifts | B716_1 | B716_1

License

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence - see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ - Original copyright The Open University

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14.461 Advanced Macroeconomics I (MIT) 14.461 Advanced Macroeconomics I (MIT)

Description

This course covers three sets of topics. The first part will cover business cycle models with imperfect information. We will ask questions such as: What shocks drive business cycles? What is the relative role of shocks to fundamentals and shocks affecting expectations about (current and future) economic developments? How do informational frictions affect the shape of the responses to various shocks? The second part will cover models of investment with credit constraints. We will ask questions such as: What is the transmission mechanism from shocks to the financial sector to the real economy? What determines optimal decisions about capitalization at the individual and at the social level? The third part will cover search models of decentralized trade applied both to labor markets and to This course covers three sets of topics. The first part will cover business cycle models with imperfect information. We will ask questions such as: What shocks drive business cycles? What is the relative role of shocks to fundamentals and shocks affecting expectations about (current and future) economic developments? How do informational frictions affect the shape of the responses to various shocks? The second part will cover models of investment with credit constraints. We will ask questions such as: What is the transmission mechanism from shocks to the financial sector to the real economy? What determines optimal decisions about capitalization at the individual and at the social level? The third part will cover search models of decentralized trade applied both to labor markets and to

Subjects

news about the future and fluctuations | news about the future and fluctuations | dispersed information | dispersed information | estimating models with imperfect information | estimating models with imperfect information | models with limited pledgeability | models with limited pledgeability | models with corporate control problems | models with corporate control problems | models with intermediation and securitization | models with intermediation and securitization | financial frictions | financial frictions | investment | investment | labor market search and inefficiency | labor market search and inefficiency | wage dispersion | wage dispersion | moral hazard | moral hazard | optimal unemployment insurance | optimal unemployment insurance | money search | money search | liquidity | liquidity | adverse selection and lemons problem | adverse selection and lemons problem | decentralized trading in financial markets | decentralized trading in financial markets

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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18.997 Topics in Combinatorial Optimization (MIT) 18.997 Topics in Combinatorial Optimization (MIT)

Description

In this graduate-level course, we will be covering advanced topics in combinatorial optimization. We will start with non-bipartite matchings and cover many results extending the fundamental results of matchings, flows and matroids. The emphasis is on the derivation of purely combinatorial results, including min-max relations, and not so much on the corresponding algorithmic questions of how to find such objects. The intended audience consists of Ph.D. students interested in optimization, combinatorics, or combinatorial algorithms. In this graduate-level course, we will be covering advanced topics in combinatorial optimization. We will start with non-bipartite matchings and cover many results extending the fundamental results of matchings, flows and matroids. The emphasis is on the derivation of purely combinatorial results, including min-max relations, and not so much on the corresponding algorithmic questions of how to find such objects. The intended audience consists of Ph.D. students interested in optimization, combinatorics, or combinatorial algorithms.

Subjects

combinatorial optimization | combinatorial optimization | Ear decompositions | Ear decompositions | Nonbipartite matching | Nonbipartite matching | Gallai-Milgram and Bessy-Thomasse theorems on partitioning/covering graphs by directed paths/cycles | Gallai-Milgram and Bessy-Thomasse theorems on partitioning/covering graphs by directed paths/cycles | Minimization of submodular functions | Minimization of submodular functions | Matroid intersection | Matroid intersection | Polymatroid intersection | Polymatroid intersection | Jump systems | Jump systems | Matroid union | Matroid union | Matroid matching | path matchings | Matroid matching | path matchings | Packing trees and arborescences | Packing trees and arborescences | Packing directed cuts and the Lucchesi-Younger theorem | Packing directed cuts and the Lucchesi-Younger theorem | Submodular flows and the Edmonds-Giles theorem | Submodular flows and the Edmonds-Giles theorem | Graph orientation | Graph orientation | Connectivity tree and connectivity augmentation | Connectivity tree and connectivity augmentation | Multicommodity flows | Multicommodity flows | Connectivity tree | Connectivity tree | connectivity augmentation | connectivity augmentation | Gallai-Milgram Theorem | Gallai-Milgram Theorem | Bessy-Thomasse Theorem | Bessy-Thomasse Theorem | paritioning graphs | paritioning graphs | covering graphs | covering graphs | directed paths | directed paths | directed cycles | directed cycles | matroid matching | matroid matching | path matching | path matching | packing directed cuts | packing directed cuts | Luchessi-Younger Theorem | Luchessi-Younger Theorem | packing trees | packing trees | arborescences | arborescences | submodular flows | submodular flows | Edmonds-Giles Theorem | Edmonds-Giles Theorem

License

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Recovery strategies in sport and exercise

Description

The ability to recover quickly from an intensive training session or match can be extremely advantageous to sports performers. Sport and fitness participants are increasingly using strategies such as ice baths and compression clothing to enhance their recovery from intensive exercise ?Recovery strategies in sport and exercise? investigates the science behind recovery exploring the physiological processes involved in training and recovery and the potential role of recovery strategies.

Subjects

Psychology | Fitness | E314_1 | sport | fitness | recovery strategies

License

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated in the acknowledgement section (see our terms and conditions http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions) this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence. - http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 Except for third party materials and otherwise stated in the acknowledgement section (see our terms and conditions http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions) this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence. - http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0

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10.445 Separation Processes for Biochemical Products (MIT) 10.445 Separation Processes for Biochemical Products (MIT)

Description

This course serves as an introduction to the fundamental principles of separation operations for the recovery of products from biological processes, membrane filtration, chromatography, centrifugation, cell disruption, extraction, and process design. This course was last taught during the regular school year in the Spring semester of 1999, but has been a part of the MIT Technology and Development Program (TDP) at the Malaysia University of Science and Technology (MUST), as well as at MIT's Professional Institute in more recent years. This course serves as an introduction to the fundamental principles of separation operations for the recovery of products from biological processes, membrane filtration, chromatography, centrifugation, cell disruption, extraction, and process design. This course was last taught during the regular school year in the Spring semester of 1999, but has been a part of the MIT Technology and Development Program (TDP) at the Malaysia University of Science and Technology (MUST), as well as at MIT's Professional Institute in more recent years.

Subjects

separation operations | separation operations | recovery of products from biological processes | recovery of products from biological processes | membrane filtration | membrane filtration | chromatography | chromatography | centrifugation | centrifugation | cell disruption | cell disruption | extraction | extraction | process design | process design | downstream processing | downstream processing | biochemical product recovery | biochemical product recovery | modes of recovery and purification | modes of recovery and purification | biochemical engineering | biochemical engineering

License

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HST.722J Brain Mechanisms for Hearing and Speech (MIT) HST.722J Brain Mechanisms for Hearing and Speech (MIT)

Description

An advanced course covering anatomical, physiological, behavioral, and computational studies of the central nervous system relevant to speech and hearing. Students learn primarily by discussions of scientific papers on topics of current interest. Recent topics include cell types and neural circuits in the auditory brainstem, organization and processing in the auditory cortex, auditory reflexes and descending systems, functional imaging of the human auditory system, quantitative methods for relating neural responses to behavior, speech motor control, cortical representation of language, and auditory learning in songbirds. An advanced course covering anatomical, physiological, behavioral, and computational studies of the central nervous system relevant to speech and hearing. Students learn primarily by discussions of scientific papers on topics of current interest. Recent topics include cell types and neural circuits in the auditory brainstem, organization and processing in the auditory cortex, auditory reflexes and descending systems, functional imaging of the human auditory system, quantitative methods for relating neural responses to behavior, speech motor control, cortical representation of language, and auditory learning in songbirds.

Subjects

HST.722 | HST.722 | 9.044 | 9.044 | separation operations | separation operations | recovery of products from biological processes | recovery of products from biological processes | membrane filtration | membrane filtration | chromatography | chromatography | centrifugation | centrifugation | cell disruption | cell disruption | extraction | extraction | process design | process design | downstream processing | downstream processing | biochemical product recovery | biochemical product recovery | modes of recovery and purification | modes of recovery and purification | biochemical engineering | biochemical engineering | hearing | hearing | speech | speech | auditory brainstem | auditory brainstem | auditory cortex | auditory cortex | auditory reflexes | auditory reflexes | descending systems | descending systems | human auditory system | human auditory system | speech motor control | speech motor control | auditory learning | auditory learning | cortical representation | cortical representation | dorsal cochlear nucleus | dorsal cochlear nucleus | neural coding | neural coding | thalamo-cortical organization | thalamo-cortical organization | thalamo-cortical processing | thalamo-cortical processing | audio-visual integration | audio-visual integration

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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1.206J Airline Schedule Planning (MIT) 1.206J Airline Schedule Planning (MIT)

Description

Explores a variety of models and optimization techniques for the solution of airline schedule planning and operations problems. Schedule design, fleet assignment, aircraft maintenance routing, crew scheduling, passenger mix, and other topics are covered. Recent models and algorithms addressing issues of model integration, robustness, and operations recovery are introduced. Modeling and solution techniques designed specifically for large-scale problems, and state-of-the-art applications of these techniques to airline problems are detailed. Explores a variety of models and optimization techniques for the solution of airline schedule planning and operations problems. Schedule design, fleet assignment, aircraft maintenance routing, crew scheduling, passenger mix, and other topics are covered. Recent models and algorithms addressing issues of model integration, robustness, and operations recovery are introduced. Modeling and solution techniques designed specifically for large-scale problems, and state-of-the-art applications of these techniques to airline problems are detailed.

Subjects

Airline Schedule Planning | Airline Schedule Planning | Optimization | Optimization | Operations | Operations | Fleet Assignment | Fleet Assignment | Aircraft Maintenance Routing | Aircraft Maintenance Routing | Crew Scheduling | Crew Scheduling | Passenger Mix | Passenger Mix | Model Integration | Model Integration | Robustness | Robustness | Operations Recovery | Operations Recovery | models | models | optimization techniques | optimization techniques | airline schedule planning problems | airline schedule planning problems | schedule design | schedule design | fleet assignment | fleet assignment | aircraft maintenance routing | aircraft maintenance routing | crew scheduling | crew scheduling | robust planning | robust planning | passenger mix | passenger mix | integrated schedule planning | integrated schedule planning | solution techniques | solution techniques | decomposition | decomposition | Lagrangian relaxation | Lagrangian relaxation | column generation | column generation | partitioning | partitioning | applications | applications | algorithms | algorithms | model integration | model integration | robustness | robustness | operations recovery | operations recovery | airline schedule planning | airline schedule planning | 16.77 | 16.77 | ESD.215 | ESD.215

License

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STS.003 The Rise of Modern Science (MIT) STS.003 The Rise of Modern Science (MIT)

Description

This course will study the development of modern science from the seventeenth century to the present, focusing on Europe and the United States. It will not focus on discoveries and their discoverers. Instead, it will examine: What is science? How has science been practiced, and by whom? How are discoveries made and accepted? What is the nature of scientific progress? What is the impact of science and society? What is the impact of society on science? Topics will be drawn from the histories of physics, chemistry, biology, geology, medicine, psychology, and computer science. This course will study the development of modern science from the seventeenth century to the present, focusing on Europe and the United States. It will not focus on discoveries and their discoverers. Instead, it will examine: What is science? How has science been practiced, and by whom? How are discoveries made and accepted? What is the nature of scientific progress? What is the impact of science and society? What is the impact of society on science? Topics will be drawn from the histories of physics, chemistry, biology, geology, medicine, psychology, and computer science.

Subjects

Science | Science | technology | technology | society | society | modern | modern | seventeenth century | seventeenth century | present | present | Europe | Europe | United States | United States | practice | practice | discoveries | discoveries | progress | progress | history | history | physics | physics | chemistry | chemistry | biology | biology | geology | geology | medicine | medicine | psychology | psychology | computer science | computer science

License

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RES.LL-002 Adaptive Antennas and Phased Arrays (MIT) RES.LL-002 Adaptive Antennas and Phased Arrays (MIT)

Description

Includes audio/video content: AV lectures. The 16 lectures in this course cover the topics of adaptive antennas and phased arrays. Both theory and experiments are covered in the lectures. Part one (lectures 1 to 7) covers adaptive antennas. Part two (lectures 8 to 16) covers phased arrays. Parts one and two can be studied independently (in either order). The intended audience for this course is primarily practicing engineers and students in electrical engineering. This course is presented by Dr. Alan J. Fenn, senior staff member at MIT Lincoln Laboratory. Online Publication Includes audio/video content: AV lectures. The 16 lectures in this course cover the topics of adaptive antennas and phased arrays. Both theory and experiments are covered in the lectures. Part one (lectures 1 to 7) covers adaptive antennas. Part two (lectures 8 to 16) covers phased arrays. Parts one and two can be studied independently (in either order). The intended audience for this course is primarily practicing engineers and students in electrical engineering. This course is presented by Dr. Alan J. Fenn, senior staff member at MIT Lincoln Laboratory. Online Publication

Subjects

License

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7.88J Protein Folding Problem (MIT) 7.88J Protein Folding Problem (MIT)

Description

This course focuses on the mechanisms by which the amino acid sequence of polypeptide chains (proteins), determine their three-dimensional conformation. Topics in this course include sequence determinants of secondary structure, the folding of newly synthesized polypeptide chains within cells, folding intermediates aggregation and competing off-pathway reactions, and the unfolding and refolding of proteins in vitro. Additional topics covered are the role of helper proteins such as chaperonins and isomerases, protein recovery problems in the biotechnology industry, and diseases found associated with protein folding defects. This course focuses on the mechanisms by which the amino acid sequence of polypeptide chains (proteins), determine their three-dimensional conformation. Topics in this course include sequence determinants of secondary structure, the folding of newly synthesized polypeptide chains within cells, folding intermediates aggregation and competing off-pathway reactions, and the unfolding and refolding of proteins in vitro. Additional topics covered are the role of helper proteins such as chaperonins and isomerases, protein recovery problems in the biotechnology industry, and diseases found associated with protein folding defects.

Subjects

amino acid sequence | amino acid sequence | polypeptide chains | polypeptide chains | sequence determinants | sequence determinants | folding | folding | synthesized polypeptide chains within cells | synthesized polypeptide chains within cells | unfolding and refolding of proteins in vitro | unfolding and refolding of proteins in vitro | folding intermediates aggregation | folding intermediates aggregation | competing off-pathway reactions | competing off-pathway reactions | chaperonins | chaperonins | isomerases | isomerases | helper proteins | helper proteins | protein recovery problems | protein recovery problems | biotechnology industry | biotechnology industry | protein folding defects | protein folding defects | 3-D conformation | 3-D conformation | globular proteins | globular proteins | fibrous proteins | fibrous proteins | kinetics | kinetics | in vitro refolding | in vitro refolding | pathways | pathways | in vivo folding | in vivo folding | synthesized proteins | synthesized proteins | aggregation | aggregation | protein misfolding | protein misfolding | human disease | human disease | protein folding | protein folding | genome sequences | genome sequences | 7.88 | 7.88 | 5.48 | 5.48 | 7.24 | 7.24 | 10.543 | 10.543

License

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17.42 Causes and Prevention of War (MIT) 17.42 Causes and Prevention of War (MIT)

Description

The causes and prevention of interstate war are the central topics of this course. The course goal is to discover and assess the means to prevent or control war. Hence we focus on manipulable or controllable war-causes. The topics covered include the dilemmas, misperceptions, crimes and blunders that caused wars of the past; the origins of these and other war-causes; the possible causes of wars of the future; and possible means to prevent such wars, including short-term policy steps and more utopian schemes. The historical cases covered include World War I, World War II, Korea, Indochina, and the Peloponnesian, Crimean and Seven Years wars. The causes and prevention of interstate war are the central topics of this course. The course goal is to discover and assess the means to prevent or control war. Hence we focus on manipulable or controllable war-causes. The topics covered include the dilemmas, misperceptions, crimes and blunders that caused wars of the past; the origins of these and other war-causes; the possible causes of wars of the future; and possible means to prevent such wars, including short-term policy steps and more utopian schemes. The historical cases covered include World War I, World War II, Korea, Indochina, and the Peloponnesian, Crimean and Seven Years wars.

Subjects

war | war | foreign policy | foreign policy | World War I | World War I | World War II | World War II | Indochina | Indochina | Peloponnesian War | Peloponnesian War | Crimean War | Crimean War | Seven Years War | Seven Years War | conflict resolution | conflict resolution

License

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14.123 Microeconomic Theory III (MIT) 14.123 Microeconomic Theory III (MIT)

Description

This is a half-semester course which covers the topics in Microeconomic Theory that everybody with a Ph.D. from MIT Economics Department should know but that have not yet been covered in the Micro sequence. Hence, it covers several unrelated topics. The topics come from three general areas: Decision Theory, Game Theory, and Behaviorla Economics.  I will try my best to put them in a coherent narrative, but there will be inherent jumps from topic to topic. This is a half-semester course which covers the topics in Microeconomic Theory that everybody with a Ph.D. from MIT Economics Department should know but that have not yet been covered in the Micro sequence. Hence, it covers several unrelated topics. The topics come from three general areas: Decision Theory, Game Theory, and Behaviorla Economics.  I will try my best to put them in a coherent narrative, but there will be inherent jumps from topic to topic.

Subjects

microeconomic theory | microeconomic theory | reputation formation | reputation formation | rationalizability | rationalizability | game theory | game theory | behavioral economics | behavioral economics

License

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7.016 Introductory Biology (MIT) 7.016 Introductory Biology (MIT)

Description

7.016 Introductory Biology provides an introduction to fundamental principles of biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics for understanding the functions of living systems. Taught for the first time in Fall 2013, this course covers examples of the use of chemical biology and twenty-first-century molecular genetics in understanding human health and therapeutic intervention. The MIT Biology Department Introductory Biology courses, 7.012, 7.013, 7.014, 7.015, and 7.016 all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these mol 7.016 Introductory Biology provides an introduction to fundamental principles of biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics for understanding the functions of living systems. Taught for the first time in Fall 2013, this course covers examples of the use of chemical biology and twenty-first-century molecular genetics in understanding human health and therapeutic intervention. The MIT Biology Department Introductory Biology courses, 7.012, 7.013, 7.014, 7.015, and 7.016 all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these mol

Subjects

biochemistry | biochemistry | molecular biology | molecular biology | genetics | genetics | human genetics | human genetics | pedigrees | pedigrees | biochemical genetics | biochemical genetics | chemical biology | chemical biology | molecular genetics | molecular genetics | recombinant DNA technology | recombinant DNA technology | cell biology | cell biology | cancer | cancer | viruses | viruses | HIV | HIV | bacteria | bacteria | antibiotics | antibiotics | human health | human health | therapeutic intervention | therapeutic intervention | cell signaling | cell signaling | evolution | evolution | reproduction | reproduction | infectious diseases | infectious diseases | therapeutics | therapeutics

License

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6.033 Computer System Engineering (SMA 5501) (MIT) 6.033 Computer System Engineering (SMA 5501) (MIT)

Description

This course covers topics on the engineering of computer software and hardware systems: techniques for controlling complexity; strong modularity using client-server design, virtual memory, and threads; networks; atomicity and coordination of parallel activities; recovery and reliability; privacy, security, and encryption; and impact of computer systems on society. We will also look at case studies of working systems and readings from the current literature provide comparisons and contrasts, and do two design projects. Students engage in extensive written communication exercises. Enrollment may be limited. This course is worth 4 Engineering Design Points.This course was also taught as part of the Singapore-MIT Alliance (SMA) programme as course number SMA 5501 (Computer System Engineering). This course covers topics on the engineering of computer software and hardware systems: techniques for controlling complexity; strong modularity using client-server design, virtual memory, and threads; networks; atomicity and coordination of parallel activities; recovery and reliability; privacy, security, and encryption; and impact of computer systems on society. We will also look at case studies of working systems and readings from the current literature provide comparisons and contrasts, and do two design projects. Students engage in extensive written communication exercises. Enrollment may be limited. This course is worth 4 Engineering Design Points.This course was also taught as part of the Singapore-MIT Alliance (SMA) programme as course number SMA 5501 (Computer System Engineering).

Subjects

computer software | computer software | hardware systems | hardware systems | controlling complexity | controlling complexity | strong modularity | strong modularity | client-server design | client-server design | virtual memory | virtual memory | threads | threads | networks | networks | atomicity | atomicity | coordination | coordination | parallel activities | parallel activities | recovery | recovery | reliability | reliability | privacy | privacy | security | security | encryption | encryption | impact on society | impact on society | computer systems | computer systems | case studies | case studies

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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6.890 Algorithmic Lower Bounds: Fun with Hardness Proofs (MIT) 6.890 Algorithmic Lower Bounds: Fun with Hardness Proofs (MIT)

Description

Includes audio/video content: AV lectures. 6.890 Algorithmic Lower Bounds: Fun with Hardness Proofs is a class taking a practical approach to proving problems can't be solved efficiently (in polynomial time and assuming standard complexity-theoretic assumptions like P ≠ NP). The class focuses on reductions and techniques for proving problems are computationally hard for a variety of complexity classes. Along the way, the class will create many interesting gadgets, learn many hardness proof styles, explore the connection between games and computation, survey several important problems and complexity classes, and crush hopes and dreams (for fast optimal solutions). Includes audio/video content: AV lectures. 6.890 Algorithmic Lower Bounds: Fun with Hardness Proofs is a class taking a practical approach to proving problems can't be solved efficiently (in polynomial time and assuming standard complexity-theoretic assumptions like P ≠ NP). The class focuses on reductions and techniques for proving problems are computationally hard for a variety of complexity classes. Along the way, the class will create many interesting gadgets, learn many hardness proof styles, explore the connection between games and computation, survey several important problems and complexity classes, and crush hopes and dreams (for fast optimal solutions).

Subjects

NP-completeness | NP-completeness | 3SAT | 3SAT | 3-partition | 3-partition | Hamiltonicity | Hamiltonicity | PSPACE | PSPACE | EXPTIME | EXPTIME | EXPSPACE | EXPSPACE | games | games | puzzles | puzzles | computation | computation | Tetris | Tetris | Nintendo | Nintendo | Super Mario Bros. | Super Mario Bros. | The Legend of Zelda | The Legend of Zelda | Metroid | Metroid | Pokémon | Pokémon | constraint logic | constraint logic | Sudoku | Sudoku | Nikoli | Nikoli | Chess | Chess | Go | Go | Othello | Othello | board games | board games | inapproximability | inapproximability | PCP theorem | PCP theorem | OPT-preserving reduction | OPT-preserving reduction | APX-hardness | APX-hardness | vertex cover | vertex cover | Set-cover hardness | Set-cover hardness | Group Steiner tree | Group Steiner tree | k-dense subgraph | k-dense subgraph | label cover | label cover | Unique Games Conjecture | Unique Games Conjecture | independent set | independent set | fixed-parameter intractability | fixed-parameter intractability | parameter-preserving reduction | parameter-preserving reduction | W hierarchy | W hierarchy | clique-hardness | clique-hardness | 3SUM-hardness | 3SUM-hardness | exponential time hypothesis | exponential time hypothesis | counting problems | counting problems | solution uniqueness | solution uniqueness | game theory | game theory | Existential theory of the reals | Existential theory of the reals | undecidability | undecidability

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.964 Topics in Phonology (MIT) 24.964 Topics in Phonology (MIT)

Description

This course introduces students to the theory and practice of modeling phonology, with an empirical focus on modeling the discovery of static phonotactics, the discovery of alternations, learning in the midst of variation and exceptions, and the discovery of gradient patterns. This course is also intended to provide hands-on experience with various aspects of using and developing models, including preparing training data, running simulations, and interpreting their results. This course introduces students to the theory and practice of modeling phonology, with an empirical focus on modeling the discovery of static phonotactics, the discovery of alternations, learning in the midst of variation and exceptions, and the discovery of gradient patterns. This course is also intended to provide hands-on experience with various aspects of using and developing models, including preparing training data, running simulations, and interpreting their results.

Subjects

phonology | phonology | language | language | phonological learning | phonological learning | phonotactics | phonotactics | modeling | modeling | grammar | grammar | perl | perl | learning | learning | alternations | alternations | gradient patterns | gradient patterns | linguistics | linguistics

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Happy 8th Birthday, Flickr Commons! 3 days to go (LOC) Happy 8th Birthday, Flickr Commons! 3 days to go (LOC)

Description

Subjects

oregon | oregon | bridges | bridges | rivers | rivers | libraryofcongress | libraryofcongress | willametteriver | willametteriver | coveredbridges | coveredbridges | lanecounty | lanecounty | nationalregisterofhistoricplaces | nationalregisterofhistoricplaces | carolmhighsmith | carolmhighsmith | westfiroregon | westfiroregon | officebridge | officebridge | westfircoveredbridge | westfircoveredbridge | aufderheidenationalscenicbyway | aufderheidenationalscenicbyway | westcascadesnationalscenicbyway | westcascadesnationalscenicbyway | northforkmiddleforkwillametteriver | northforkmiddleforkwillametteriver | howetrussbridges | howetrussbridges | happybirthdayflickrcommons | happybirthdayflickrcommons | westfirlumbercompany | westfirlumbercompany | thebridgesoflanecounty | thebridgesoflanecounty | thecoveredbridgesocietyoforegon | thecoveredbridgesocietyoforegon

License

No known copyright restrictions

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14.123 Microeconomic Theory III (MIT) 14.123 Microeconomic Theory III (MIT)

Description

This is a half-semester course which covers the topics in Microeconomic Theory that everybody with a Ph.D. from MIT Economics Department should know but that have not yet been covered in the Micro sequence. Hence, it covers several unrelated topics. The topics come from three general areas: Decision Theory, Game Theory, and Behaviorla Economics.  I will try my best to put them in a coherent narrative, but there will be inherent jumps from topic to topic. This is a half-semester course which covers the topics in Microeconomic Theory that everybody with a Ph.D. from MIT Economics Department should know but that have not yet been covered in the Micro sequence. Hence, it covers several unrelated topics. The topics come from three general areas: Decision Theory, Game Theory, and Behaviorla Economics.  I will try my best to put them in a coherent narrative, but there will be inherent jumps from topic to topic.

Subjects

microeconomic theory | microeconomic theory | reputation formation | reputation formation | rationalizability | rationalizability | game theory | game theory | behavioral economics | behavioral economics

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Image 27 from a photograph album of presentations to shipyard workers, social events and launches

Description

Taken from the Joseph L. Thompson & Sons Ltd, shipbuilders, Sunderland Collection, c1960s - c1981. Reference no. DS.JLT/6/6 (image 27) This photograph was selected by Andy Martin as part of the 'Uncovering Archives Photography' Workshop held at Tyne and Wear Museums and Archives in November 2012. See Andy's response to this image here: www.flickr.com/photos/interzone-inc/8357950261/in/pool-un... Find out more about the project here: www.flickr.com/groups/uncoveringarchivesphotography/ (Copyright) We're happy for you to share this digital image within the spirit of The Commons. Please cite 'Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums' when reusing. Certain restrictions on high quality reproductions and commercial use of the original physical version apply though; if you're unsure please email archives@twmuseums.org.uk

Subjects

blackandwhite | shipyard | men | suit | necktie | light | shade | television | paper | comradeship | socialinteraction | poignant | presentation | shipbuilding | industrialheritage | industry | maritime | abstract | social | past | continuous | pastcontinuous | digitalimage | blackandwhitephotograph | image27 | photographalbum | presentations | shipyardworkers | socialevents | launches | josephlthompsonsonsltd | sunderlandcollection | sunderland | c1960sc1981 | andymartin | photographer | uncoveringarchivesphotography | workshop | november2012 | unusual | interesting | crease | standing | lightshade | cloth | fabric | stripes | trousers | shirt | jacket | button | pocket | award | inscription | mount | smiling | wire | hardhat | glasses | building | wall | roof | window | frame | glass | timber | bolt | blind | daylight | book | leather | cover | hand

License

No known copyright restrictions

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10.547J Principles and Practice of Drug Development (MIT) 10.547J Principles and Practice of Drug Development (MIT)

Description

This course serves as a description and critical assessment of the major issues and stages of developing a pharmaceutical or biopharmaceutical. Topics covered include drug discovery, preclinical development, clinical investigation, manufacturing and regulatory issues considered for small and large molecules, and economic and financial considerations of the drug development process. A multidisciplinary perspective is provided by the faculty, who represent clinical, life, and management sciences. Various industry guests also participate. This course serves as a description and critical assessment of the major issues and stages of developing a pharmaceutical or biopharmaceutical. Topics covered include drug discovery, preclinical development, clinical investigation, manufacturing and regulatory issues considered for small and large molecules, and economic and financial considerations of the drug development process. A multidisciplinary perspective is provided by the faculty, who represent clinical, life, and management sciences. Various industry guests also participate.

Subjects

pharmaceutical | pharmaceutical | biopharmaceutical | biopharmaceutical | drug discovery | drug discovery | preclinical development | preclinical development | clinical investigation | clinical investigation | major issues of developing drugs | major issues of developing drugs | major stages of developing drugs | major stages of developing drugs | manufacturing issues | manufacturing issues | regulatory issues | regulatory issues | economic considerations of drug development process | economic considerations of drug development process | financial considerations of drug development process | financial considerations of drug development process | clinical perspective | clinical perspective | life sciences perspective on drug development | life sciences perspective on drug development | management sciences perspective on drug development | management sciences perspective on drug development | pharmaceutical industry guests | pharmaceutical industry guests

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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15.136J Principles and Practice of Drug Development (MIT) 15.136J Principles and Practice of Drug Development (MIT)

Description

This course serves as a description and critical assessment of the major issues and stages of developing a pharmaceutical or biopharmaceutical. Topics covered include drug discovery, preclinical development, clinical investigation, manufacturing and regulatory issues considered for small and large molecules, and economic and financial considerations of the drug development process. A multidisciplinary perspective is provided by the faculty, who represent clinical, life, and management sciences. Various industry guests also participate. This course serves as a description and critical assessment of the major issues and stages of developing a pharmaceutical or biopharmaceutical. Topics covered include drug discovery, preclinical development, clinical investigation, manufacturing and regulatory issues considered for small and large molecules, and economic and financial considerations of the drug development process. A multidisciplinary perspective is provided by the faculty, who represent clinical, life, and management sciences. Various industry guests also participate.

Subjects

15.136 | 15.136 | 7.547 | 7.547 | 10.547 | 10.547 | ESD.691 | ESD.691 | HST.920 | HST.920 | pharmaceutical | pharmaceutical | biopharmaceutical | biopharmaceutical | drug discovery | drug discovery | preclinical development | preclinical development | clinical investigation | clinical investigation | major issues of developing drugs | major issues of developing drugs | major stages of developing drugs | major stages of developing drugs | manufacturing issues | manufacturing issues | regulatory issues | regulatory issues | economic considerations of drug development process | economic considerations of drug development process | financial considerations of drug development process | financial considerations of drug development process | clinical perspective | clinical perspective | life sciences perspective on drug development | life sciences perspective on drug development | management sciences perspective on drug development | management sciences perspective on drug development | pharmaceutical industry guests | pharmaceutical industry guests

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Competition and Entrepreneurship Competition and Entrepreneurship

Description

Written the year of Mises's death, this is the book that brought new prominence to the Austrian theory of the entrepreneur. Kirzner views him as the discoverer of opportunities in the competitive process, and contrasts this view with the general equilibrium view-which defines away the entrepreneur-and the Schumpeterian view that discovery is always disequilibrating. For its lucidity and focus, this remains an Austrian classic.  Written the year of Mises's death, this is the book that brought new prominence to the Austrian theory of the entrepreneur. Kirzner views him as the discoverer of opportunities in the competitive process, and contrasts this view with the general equilibrium view-which defines away the entrepreneur-and the Schumpeterian view that discovery is always disequilibrating. For its lucidity and focus, this remains an Austrian classic.  Written the year of Mises's death, this is the book that brought new prominence to the Austrian theory of the entrepreneur. Kirzner views him as the discoverer of opportunities in the competitive process. Written the year of Mises's death, this is the book that brought new prominence to the Austrian theory of the entrepreneur. Kirzner views him as the discoverer of opportunities in the competitive process.

Subjects

Entrepreneurship | Monopoly and Competition | Value and Exchange | Entrepreneurship | Monopoly and Competition | Value and Exchange

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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9.20 Animal Behavior (MIT) 9.20 Animal Behavior (MIT)

Description

Includes audio/video content: AV lectures. The introductory topics will cover various approaches to the study of animals and their behavior. Key concepts in studies of animal behavior, emphasizing ethology, are covered in class and in the assigned readings from Scott (2005), supplemented by selections from other books, especially from classics in the field as well as selected videos. Next, key concepts in sociobiology are covered using readings from Alcock (2001), supplemented by selections from additional books and some video presentations. Includes audio/video content: AV lectures. The introductory topics will cover various approaches to the study of animals and their behavior. Key concepts in studies of animal behavior, emphasizing ethology, are covered in class and in the assigned readings from Scott (2005), supplemented by selections from other books, especially from classics in the field as well as selected videos. Next, key concepts in sociobiology are covered using readings from Alcock (2001), supplemented by selections from additional books and some video presentations.

Subjects

animal behavior | animal behavior | ethology | ethology | behavioral organization | behavioral organization | sociobiology | sociobiology | mammals | mammals | behavioral ecology | behavioral ecology | naturalists | naturalists | behavioral evolution | behavioral evolution | social organization | social organization | sexuality | sexuality | mating | mating | reproduction | reproduction | animal learning | animal learning | antipredatory behavior | antipredatory behavior | feeding | feeding | foraging | foraging | adaptive behavior | adaptive behavior

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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