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6.877J Computational Evolutionary Biology (MIT) 6.877J Computational Evolutionary Biology (MIT)

Description

Why has it been easier to develop a vaccine to eliminate polio than to control influenza or AIDS? Has there been natural selection for a 'language gene'? Why are there no animals with wheels? When does 'maximizing fitness' lead to evolutionary extinction? How are sex and parasites related? Why don't snakes eat grass? Why don't we have eyes in the back of our heads? How does modern genomics illustrate and challenge the field? This course analyzes evolution from a computational, modeling, and engineering perspective. The course has extensive hands-on laboratory exercises in model-building and analyzing evolutionary data. Why has it been easier to develop a vaccine to eliminate polio than to control influenza or AIDS? Has there been natural selection for a 'language gene'? Why are there no animals with wheels? When does 'maximizing fitness' lead to evolutionary extinction? How are sex and parasites related? Why don't snakes eat grass? Why don't we have eyes in the back of our heads? How does modern genomics illustrate and challenge the field? This course analyzes evolution from a computational, modeling, and engineering perspective. The course has extensive hands-on laboratory exercises in model-building and analyzing evolutionary data.

Subjects

6.877 | 6.877 | HST.949 | HST.949 | computational approaches | computational approaches | evolutionary biology | evolutionary biology | evolutionary theory and inferential logic of evolution by natural selection | evolutionary theory and inferential logic of evolution by natural selection | computational and algorithmic implications and requirements of evolutionary models | computational and algorithmic implications and requirements of evolutionary models | whole-genome species comparison | whole-genome species comparison | phylogenetic tree construction | phylogenetic tree construction | molecular evolution | molecular evolution | homology and development | homology and development | optimization and evolvability | optimization and evolvability | heritability | heritability | disease evolution | disease evolution | detecting selection in human populations | and evolution of language | detecting selection in human populations | and evolution of language | extensive laboratory exercises in model-building and analyzing evolutionary data | extensive laboratory exercises in model-building and analyzing evolutionary data

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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21H.112 The American Revolution (MIT) 21H.112 The American Revolution (MIT)

Description

This course is concerned primarily with the revolutionary origins of American government. Topics covered include: English and American backgrounds of the Revolution; issues and arguments in the Anglo-American conflict; colonial resistance and the beginnings of republicanism; the Revolutionary War; constitution writing for the states and nation; and effects of the American Revolution. Readings emphasize documents from the period--pamphlets, correspondence, the minutes or resolutions of resistance organizations, constitutional documents and debates. This course is concerned primarily with the revolutionary origins of American government. Topics covered include: English and American backgrounds of the Revolution; issues and arguments in the Anglo-American conflict; colonial resistance and the beginnings of republicanism; the Revolutionary War; constitution writing for the states and nation; and effects of the American Revolution. Readings emphasize documents from the period--pamphlets, correspondence, the minutes or resolutions of resistance organizations, constitutional documents and debates.

Subjects

English and American backgrounds of the Revolution | English and American backgrounds of the Revolution | issues and arguments in the Anglo-American conflict | issues and arguments in the Anglo-American conflict | colonial resistance and the beginnings of republicanism | colonial resistance and the beginnings of republicanism | the Revolutionary War | the Revolutionary War | constitution writing for the states and nation | constitution writing for the states and nation | and effects of the American Revolution | and effects of the American Revolution | Concerned primarily with the revolutionary origins of American government | Concerned primarily with the revolutionary origins of American government | pamphlets | correspondence | the minutes or resolutions of resistance organizations | constitutional documents and debates | pamphlets | correspondence | the minutes or resolutions of resistance organizations | constitutional documents and debates | English background | English background | American Revolution effects | American Revolution effects | Anglo-American conflict | Anglo-American conflict | colonial resistance | republicanism | colonial resistance | republicanism | constitution writing | constitution writing | revolutionary origins of American government | revolutionary origins of American government | pamphlets | pamphlets | correspondence | correspondence | resistance organizations | resistance organizations | constitutional documents | constitutional documents | debates | debates | colonial resistance | colonial resistance | republicanism | republicanism

License

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21H.001 How to Stage a Revolution (MIT) 21H.001 How to Stage a Revolution (MIT)

Description

This course explores fundamental questions about the causes and nature of revolutions by looking at how people overthrow their rulers and establish new governments. Considers a set of major political transformations throughout the world and across centuries to understand the meaning of revolution and evaluate its impact. Examines how revolutionaries have attempted to establish their ideals and realize their goals. Asks whether radical upheavals require bloodshed, violence, or even terror. Seeks to explain why some revolutions succeed and others fail. Materials include the writings of revolutionaries, declarations and constitutions, music, films, art, novels, memoirs, and newspapers. This course explores fundamental questions about the causes and nature of revolutions by looking at how people overthrow their rulers and establish new governments. Considers a set of major political transformations throughout the world and across centuries to understand the meaning of revolution and evaluate its impact. Examines how revolutionaries have attempted to establish their ideals and realize their goals. Asks whether radical upheavals require bloodshed, violence, or even terror. Seeks to explain why some revolutions succeed and others fail. Materials include the writings of revolutionaries, declarations and constitutions, music, films, art, novels, memoirs, and newspapers.

Subjects

haiti | haiti | revolution | revolution | america | america | american revolution | american revolution | haitian revolution | haitian revolution | slavery | slavery | freedom | freedom | colonization | colonization | european migration | european migration | egypt | egypt | arab spring | arab spring | mubarak | mubarak

License

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12.517 Dynamics of Complex Systems: Biological and Environmental Coevolution Preceding the Cambrian Explosion (MIT) 12.517 Dynamics of Complex Systems: Biological and Environmental Coevolution Preceding the Cambrian Explosion (MIT)

Description

This seminar will focus on dynamical change in biogeochemical cycles accompanying early animal evolution -- beginning with the time of the earliest known microscopic animal fossils (~600 million years ago) and culminating (~100 million years later) with the rapid diversification of marine animals known as the "Cambrian explosion." Recent work indicates that this period of intense biological evolution was both a cause and an effect of changes in global biogeochemical cycles. We will seek to identify and quantify such coevolutionary changes. Lectures and discussions will attempt to unite the perspectives of quantitative theory, organic geochemistry, and evolutionary biology. This seminar will focus on dynamical change in biogeochemical cycles accompanying early animal evolution -- beginning with the time of the earliest known microscopic animal fossils (~600 million years ago) and culminating (~100 million years later) with the rapid diversification of marine animals known as the "Cambrian explosion." Recent work indicates that this period of intense biological evolution was both a cause and an effect of changes in global biogeochemical cycles. We will seek to identify and quantify such coevolutionary changes. Lectures and discussions will attempt to unite the perspectives of quantitative theory, organic geochemistry, and evolutionary biology.

Subjects

Evolution | Evolution | fossils | fossils | Cambrian explosion | Cambrian explosion | global biogeochemical cycles | global biogeochemical cycles | geobiology | geobiology | coevolution | coevolution | quantitative theory | quantitative theory | organic geochemistry | organic geochemistry | evolutionary biology | evolutionary biology | marine animals | marine animals

License

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21H.001 How to Stage a Revolution (MIT) 21H.001 How to Stage a Revolution (MIT)

Description

21H.001, a HASS-D, CI course, explores fundamental questions about the causes and nature of revolutions. How do people overthrow their rulers? How do they establish new governments? Do radical upheavals require bloodshed, violence, or even terror? How have revolutionaries attempted to establish their ideals and realize their goals? We will look at a set of major political transformations throughout the world and across centuries to understand the meaning of revolution and evaluate its impact. By the end of the course, students will be able to offer reasons why some revolutions succeed and others fail. Materials for the course include the writings of revolutionaries, declarations and constitutions, music, films, art, memoirs, and newspapers. 21H.001, a HASS-D, CI course, explores fundamental questions about the causes and nature of revolutions. How do people overthrow their rulers? How do they establish new governments? Do radical upheavals require bloodshed, violence, or even terror? How have revolutionaries attempted to establish their ideals and realize their goals? We will look at a set of major political transformations throughout the world and across centuries to understand the meaning of revolution and evaluate its impact. By the end of the course, students will be able to offer reasons why some revolutions succeed and others fail. Materials for the course include the writings of revolutionaries, declarations and constitutions, music, films, art, memoirs, and newspapers.

Subjects

insurgents | insurgents | war | war | freedom fighters | freedom fighters | independence | independence | self-determination | self-determination | emancipation | emancipation | revolution | revolution | Mao | Mao | Lenin | Lenin | Reagan | Reagan | L'Ouverture | L'Ouverture | reactionary | reactionary | imperialism | imperialism | human rights | human rights | democracy | democracy | populism | populism | Communism | Communism | equality | equality | nationalism | nationalism | resistance | resistance | ideology | ideology | subversion | subversion | underground | underground | suppression | suppression

License

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6.891 Computational Evolutionary Biology (MIT) 6.891 Computational Evolutionary Biology (MIT)

Description

Why has it been easier to develop a vaccine to eliminate polio than to control influenza or AIDS? Has there been natural selection for a 'language gene'? Why are there no animals with wheels? When does 'maximizing fitness' lead to evolutionary extinction? How are sex and parasites related? Why don't snakes eat grass? Why don't we have eyes in the back of our heads? How does modern genomics illustrate and challenge the field? This course analyzes evolution from a computational, modeling, and engineering perspective. The course has extensive hands-on laboratory exercises in model-building and analyzing evolutionary data. Why has it been easier to develop a vaccine to eliminate polio than to control influenza or AIDS? Has there been natural selection for a 'language gene'? Why are there no animals with wheels? When does 'maximizing fitness' lead to evolutionary extinction? How are sex and parasites related? Why don't snakes eat grass? Why don't we have eyes in the back of our heads? How does modern genomics illustrate and challenge the field? This course analyzes evolution from a computational, modeling, and engineering perspective. The course has extensive hands-on laboratory exercises in model-building and analyzing evolutionary data.

Subjects

evolution from a computational | evolution from a computational | modeling | modeling | and engineering perspective | and engineering perspective | analyzing evolutionary data | analyzing evolutionary data | vaccine | vaccine | polio | polio | influenza | influenza | AIDS | AIDS | evolutionary extinction | evolutionary extinction | sex | sex | parasites | parasites | modern genomics | modern genomics | polio vaccine | polio vaccine | hands-on | hands-on | evolution from a computational | modeling | and engineering perspective | evolution from a computational | modeling | and engineering perspective

License

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21H.433 The Age of Reason: Europe in the 18th and 19th Centuries (MIT) 21H.433 The Age of Reason: Europe in the 18th and 19th Centuries (MIT)

Description

Has there ever been an "Age of Reason?" In the western tradition, one might make claims for various moments during Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance. In this class, however, we will focus on the two and a half centuries between 1600 and 1850, a period when insights first developed in the natural sciences and mathematics were seized upon by social theorists, institutional reformers and political revolutionaries who sought to change themselves and the society in which they lived. Through the study of trials, art, literature, theater, music, politics, and culture more generally, we will consider evolution and revolution in these two and a half centuries. We will also attend to those who opposed change on both traditional and radical grounds. Has there ever been an "Age of Reason?" In the western tradition, one might make claims for various moments during Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance. In this class, however, we will focus on the two and a half centuries between 1600 and 1850, a period when insights first developed in the natural sciences and mathematics were seized upon by social theorists, institutional reformers and political revolutionaries who sought to change themselves and the society in which they lived. Through the study of trials, art, literature, theater, music, politics, and culture more generally, we will consider evolution and revolution in these two and a half centuries. We will also attend to those who opposed change on both traditional and radical grounds.

Subjects

Age of Reason | Age of Reason | philosophy | philosophy | cultural history | cultural history | intellectual history | intellectual history | History | History | western tradition | western tradition | Antiquity | Antiquity | Middle Ages | Middle Ages | Renaissance | Renaissance | 1600 | 1600 | 1850 | 1850 | natural sciences | natural sciences | mathematics | mathematics | social theorists | social theorists | institutional reformers | institutional reformers | political revolutionaries | political revolutionaries | change | change | themselves | themselves | society | society | trials | trials | art | art | literature | literature | theater | theater | music | music | politics | politics | culture | culture | evolution | evolution | revolution. | revolution.

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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3.987 Human Origins and Evolution (MIT) 3.987 Human Origins and Evolution (MIT)

Description

This course examines the dynamic interrelations among physical and behavioral traits of humans, environment, and culture to provide an integrated framework for studying human biological evolution and modern diversity. Topics include issues in morphological evolution and adaptation; fossil and cultural evidence for human evolution from earliest times through the Pleistocene; evolution of tool use and social behavior; modern human variation and concepts of race. The class also studies stone artifacts and fossil specimens. This course examines the dynamic interrelations among physical and behavioral traits of humans, environment, and culture to provide an integrated framework for studying human biological evolution and modern diversity. Topics include issues in morphological evolution and adaptation; fossil and cultural evidence for human evolution from earliest times through the Pleistocene; evolution of tool use and social behavior; modern human variation and concepts of race. The class also studies stone artifacts and fossil specimens.

Subjects

cultural evolution | pre-hominid | hominid | Pleistocene adaptations | morphological variation | race | agriculture | urbanization | paleontology | archaeology | Oligocene | Miocene | Homo | Homo erectus | Homo heidelbergensis | Homo neanderthalensis | Homo sapiens | fossil | cultural evolution | pre-hominid | hominid | Pleistocene adaptations | morphological variation | race | agriculture | urbanization | paleontology | archaeology | Oligocene | Miocene | Homo | Homo erectus | Homo heidelbergensis | Homo neanderthalensis | Homo sapiens | fossil | cultural evolution | cultural evolution | pre-hominid | pre-hominid | hominid | hominid | Pleistocene adaptations | Pleistocene adaptations | morphological variation | morphological variation | race | race | agriculture | agriculture | urbanization | urbanization | paleontology | paleontology | archaeology | archaeology | Oligocene | Oligocene | Miocene | Miocene | Homo | Homo | Homo erectus | Homo erectus | Homo heidelbergensis | Homo heidelbergensis | Homo neanderthalensis | Homo neanderthalensis | Homo sapiens | Homo sapiens | fossil | fossil

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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21H.244 Imperial and Revolutionary Russia: Culture and Politics, 1700-1917 (MIT) 21H.244 Imperial and Revolutionary Russia: Culture and Politics, 1700-1917 (MIT)

Description

This course analyzes Russia's social, cultural, and political heritage in the 18th and 19th centuries, up to and including the Russian Revolution of 1917. It compares reforming and revolutionary impulses in the context of serfdom, the rise of the intelligentsia, and debates over capitalism. It focuses on historical and literary texts, especially the intersections between the two. This course analyzes Russia's social, cultural, and political heritage in the 18th and 19th centuries, up to and including the Russian Revolution of 1917. It compares reforming and revolutionary impulses in the context of serfdom, the rise of the intelligentsia, and debates over capitalism. It focuses on historical and literary texts, especially the intersections between the two.

Subjects

imperial russia | imperial russia | russian revolution | russian revolution | february revolution | february revolution | decemberists | decemberists | october revolution | october revolution | tolstoy | tolstoy | pushkin | pushkin | peter the great | peter the great | catherine the great | catherine the great | serfdoms | serfdoms | USSR | USSR | CCCP | CCCP

License

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An introduction to biological systematics An introduction to biological systematics

Description

This free course, An introduction to biological systematics, is concerned with macroevolution the patterns and processes of evolution above the species level. A crucial consideration in macroevolutionary studies is that of the evolutionary relationships (phylogeny) of the organisms in question. The course begins with an introduction to the scope of macroevolutionary studies and illustrates methods of reconstructing phylogeny, from both morphological and molecular data. First published on Thu, 24 Mar 2016 as An introduction to biological systematics. To find out more visit The Open University's Openlearn website. Creative-Commons 2016 This free course, An introduction to biological systematics, is concerned with macroevolution the patterns and processes of evolution above the species level. A crucial consideration in macroevolutionary studies is that of the evolutionary relationships (phylogeny) of the organisms in question. The course begins with an introduction to the scope of macroevolutionary studies and illustrates methods of reconstructing phylogeny, from both morphological and molecular data. First published on Thu, 24 Mar 2016 as An introduction to biological systematics. To find out more visit The Open University's Openlearn website. Creative-Commons 2016 First published on Thu, 24 Mar 2016 as An introduction to biological systematics. To find out more visit The Open University's Openlearn website. Creative-Commons 2016 First published on Thu, 24 Mar 2016 as An introduction to biological systematics. To find out more visit The Open University's Openlearn website. Creative-Commons 2016

Subjects

Natural History | Natural History | evolution | evolution | species | species | organisms | organisms

License

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence - see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ - Original copyright The Open University

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21H.112 The American Revolution (MIT)

Description

This course is concerned primarily with the revolutionary origins of American government. Topics covered include: English and American backgrounds of the Revolution; issues and arguments in the Anglo-American conflict; colonial resistance and the beginnings of republicanism; the Revolutionary War; constitution writing for the states and nation; and effects of the American Revolution. Readings emphasize documents from the period--pamphlets, correspondence, the minutes or resolutions of resistance organizations, constitutional documents and debates.

Subjects

English and American backgrounds of the Revolution | issues and arguments in the Anglo-American conflict | colonial resistance and the beginnings of republicanism | the Revolutionary War | constitution writing for the states and nation | and effects of the American Revolution | Concerned primarily with the revolutionary origins of American government | pamphlets | correspondence | the minutes or resolutions of resistance organizations | constitutional documents and debates | English background | American Revolution effects | Anglo-American conflict | colonial resistance | republicanism | constitution writing | revolutionary origins of American government | pamphlets | correspondence | resistance organizations | constitutional documents | debates | colonial resistance | republicanism

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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21H.112 The American Revolution (MIT)

Description

This course is concerned primarily with the revolutionary origins of American government. Topics covered include: English and American backgrounds of the Revolution; issues and arguments in the Anglo-American conflict; colonial resistance and the beginnings of republicanism; the Revolutionary War; constitution writing for the states and nation; and effects of the American Revolution. Readings emphasize documents from the period--pamphlets, correspondence, the minutes or resolutions of resistance organizations, constitutional documents and debates.

Subjects

English and American backgrounds of the Revolution | issues and arguments in the Anglo-American conflict | colonial resistance and the beginnings of republicanism | the Revolutionary War | constitution writing for the states and nation | and effects of the American Revolution | Concerned primarily with the revolutionary origins of American government | pamphlets | correspondence | the minutes or resolutions of resistance organizations | constitutional documents and debates | English background | American Revolution effects | Anglo-American conflict | colonial resistance | republicanism | constitution writing | revolutionary origins of American government | pamphlets | correspondence | resistance organizations | constitutional documents | debates | colonial resistance | republicanism

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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6.877J Computational Evolutionary Biology (MIT)

Description

Why has it been easier to develop a vaccine to eliminate polio than to control influenza or AIDS? Has there been natural selection for a 'language gene'? Why are there no animals with wheels? When does 'maximizing fitness' lead to evolutionary extinction? How are sex and parasites related? Why don't snakes eat grass? Why don't we have eyes in the back of our heads? How does modern genomics illustrate and challenge the field? This course analyzes evolution from a computational, modeling, and engineering perspective. The course has extensive hands-on laboratory exercises in model-building and analyzing evolutionary data.

Subjects

6.877 | HST.949 | computational approaches | evolutionary biology | evolutionary theory and inferential logic of evolution by natural selection | computational and algorithmic implications and requirements of evolutionary models | whole-genome species comparison | phylogenetic tree construction | molecular evolution | homology and development | optimization and evolvability | heritability | disease evolution | detecting selection in human populations | and evolution of language | extensive laboratory exercises in model-building and analyzing evolutionary data

License

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21H.346 France 1660-1815: Enlightenment, Revolution, Napoleon (MIT) 21H.346 France 1660-1815: Enlightenment, Revolution, Napoleon (MIT)

Description

A century and a half ago, Alexis de Tocqueville argued that the Revolution of 1789 in France constituted the culmination of long-term administrative and social changes, rather than a rupture with the past. In this class, we will consider that Tocquevillian insight by examining four aspects of French experience from the reign of the Sun King, Louis XIV, to the rule of the Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte: Absolutism, Enlightenment, Revolution, and Empire. Through the study of primary and secondary sources, we will see how the material lives, mental worlds, and individual and communal identities of the French changed over this century and a half. A century and a half ago, Alexis de Tocqueville argued that the Revolution of 1789 in France constituted the culmination of long-term administrative and social changes, rather than a rupture with the past. In this class, we will consider that Tocquevillian insight by examining four aspects of French experience from the reign of the Sun King, Louis XIV, to the rule of the Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte: Absolutism, Enlightenment, Revolution, and Empire. Through the study of primary and secondary sources, we will see how the material lives, mental worlds, and individual and communal identities of the French changed over this century and a half.

Subjects

French Revolution | French Revolution | Napoleon | Napoleon | constitutional monarchy | constitutional monarchy | France | France | de Tocqueville | de Tocqueville | administrative | administrative | social | social | changes | changes | Louis XIV | Louis XIV | absolutism | absolutism | enlightenment | enlightenment | revolution | revolution | empire | empire

License

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21H.346 The French Revolution and Napoleonic France (MIT) 21H.346 The French Revolution and Napoleonic France (MIT)

Description

The French esteem the Revolution of 1789 to be the turning point in their national history; journalists, politicians, scholars, and others outside France have called this moment the birth of modern political culture. In this subject we will begin with a brief survey of French politics, culture and society in the century prior to the Revolution, emphasizing the reasons for the end of the Old Regime and the origins of the Revolution. Next, we will examine the turbulent decade of the 1790s, when the French experimented with a constitutional monarchy, a republic, a dictatorship by committee, and a parliamentary form of government, only to end in a military coup d'état staged by Napoléon Bonaparte and his supporters. In 1804, Napoléon crowned himself emperor thus ini The French esteem the Revolution of 1789 to be the turning point in their national history; journalists, politicians, scholars, and others outside France have called this moment the birth of modern political culture. In this subject we will begin with a brief survey of French politics, culture and society in the century prior to the Revolution, emphasizing the reasons for the end of the Old Regime and the origins of the Revolution. Next, we will examine the turbulent decade of the 1790s, when the French experimented with a constitutional monarchy, a republic, a dictatorship by committee, and a parliamentary form of government, only to end in a military coup d'état staged by Napoléon Bonaparte and his supporters. In 1804, Napoléon crowned himself emperor thus ini

Subjects

French Revolution | French Revolution | Napoleon | Napoleon | constitutional monarchy | constitutional monarchy | Old Regime | Old Regime | republic | republic | dictatorship | dictatorship | committee | committee | parliament | parliament | First Empire | First Empire

License

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21L.471 Major English Novels: Reading Romantic Fiction (MIT) 21L.471 Major English Novels: Reading Romantic Fiction (MIT)

Description

Though the era of British Romanticism (ca. 1790-1830) is sometimes exclusively associated with the poetry of these years, this period was just as importantly a time of great innovation in British prose fiction. Romantic novelists pioneered or revolutionized several genres, including social/philosophical problem novels, tales of sentiment and sensibility, and the historical novel. Writing in the years of the French Revolution, the Napoleonic wars, and the early industrial revolution, these writers conveyed a spirit of chaos and upheaval even in stories whose settings are seemingly farthest removed from those cataclysmic historical events. In this year's offering of "Major English Novels," we will read of plagues, wars, hysterics, monsters and more in novels by authors incl Though the era of British Romanticism (ca. 1790-1830) is sometimes exclusively associated with the poetry of these years, this period was just as importantly a time of great innovation in British prose fiction. Romantic novelists pioneered or revolutionized several genres, including social/philosophical problem novels, tales of sentiment and sensibility, and the historical novel. Writing in the years of the French Revolution, the Napoleonic wars, and the early industrial revolution, these writers conveyed a spirit of chaos and upheaval even in stories whose settings are seemingly farthest removed from those cataclysmic historical events. In this year's offering of "Major English Novels," we will read of plagues, wars, hysterics, monsters and more in novels by authors incl

Subjects

British Romanticism | British Romanticism | prose | prose | fiction | fiction | novel | novel | social/philosophical problem novels | social/philosophical problem novels | sentiment | sentiment | sensibility | sensibility | historical novel | historical novel | French Revolution | French Revolution | Napoleonic wars | Napoleonic wars | industrial revolution | industrial revolution | William Godwin | William Godwin | Maria Edgeworth | Maria Edgeworth | Jane Austen | Jane Austen | Mary Shelley | Mary Shelley | Walter Scott | Walter Scott

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Readme file for Introduction to Artificial Intelligence

Description

This readme file contains details of links to all the Introduction to Artificial Intelligence module's material held on Jorum and information about the module as well.

Subjects

ukoer | evolutionary algorithm lecture | algorithm tutorial | genetic algorithm lecture | genetic algorithm example | evolutionary computation tutorial | artificial intelligence lecture | artificial intelligence tutorial | random processes reading material | semantic web reading material | neural networks video | evolutionary computation test | artificial intelligence test | knowledge representation test | neural networks test | evolutionary algorithm | genetic computation | genetic programming | evolutionary computation | artificial intelligence | introduction to artificial intelligence | search | problem solving | revision | knowledge representation | semantic web | neural network | neural networks | artificial neural networks | swarm intelligence | collective intelligence | robot societies | genetic computation lecture | genetic programming lecture | evolutionary computation lecture | introduction to artificial intelligence lecture | evolutionary algorithm tutorial | genetic computation tutorial | genetic programming tutorial | introduction to artificial intelligence tutorial | evolutionary algorithm example | genetic computation example | genetic programming example | evolutionary computation example | artificial intelligence example | introduction to artificial intelligence example | search lecture | problem solving lecture | search tutorial | problem solving tutorial | search example | problem solving example | revision reading material | search reading material | artificial intelligence reading material | introduction to artificial intelligence reading material | revision lecture | knowledge representation lecture | semantic web lecture | knowledge representation practical | semantic web practical | artificial intelligence practical | introduction to artificial intelligence practical | knowledge representation reading material | knowledge representation notes | semantic web notes | artificial intelligence notes | introduction to artificial intelligence notes | neural network lecture | neural networks lecture | artificial neural networks lecture | neural network reading material | neural networks reading material | artificial neural networks reading material | neural network practical | neural networks practical | artificial neural networks practical | neural network viewing material | neural networks viewing material | artificial neural networks viewing material | artificial intelligence viewing material | introduction to artificial intelligence viewing material | swarm intelligence lecture | collective intelligence lecture | robot societies lecture | swarm intelligence tutorial | collective intelligence tutorial | robot societies tutorial | evolutionary algorithm test | genetic computation test | genetic programming test | introduction to artificial intelligence test | search test | problem solving test | semantic web test | neural network test | artificial neural networks test | g700 | ai | g700 lecture | ai lecture | g700 tutorial | ai tutorial | g700 example | ai example | g700 reading material | ai reading material | g700 practical | ai practical | g700 notes | ai notes | g700 viewing material | ai viewing material | g700 test | ai test | Computer science | I100

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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May 1st 1917, Petrograd

Description

Boris Souvarine Papers - Soviet Russia Photos graduateinstitute.ch/home/research/library/archives/boris... Notes: The back of the picture reads (in Russian and French): "May 1st, 1917". The demonstration took place in a period of political tension. A few before, the publication of the Foreign Minister Pavel Miliukov's note to the allies in the war, was interpreted as a commitment to the war policies denounced by the Russian population. Subsequently, mass demonstrations were organized in Petrograd and Moscow, which entailed the fall of the First Provisional Government during what has been called the "April Days". In the same month, Lenin came back from his exile in Switzerland, and had his April Theses published, in which he condemned World War I and the Provisional Government as bourgeois. In his History of the Russian Revolution published in 1932, Trotski wrote about the pre-October Revolution atmosphere which surrounded the demonstration in Petrograd: "Like the March funeral, the 1st of May celebration passed off without clashes or casualties as an "all-national festival". However, an attentive ear might have caught already among the rank of the workers and soldiers impatient and even threatening notes. It was becoming harder to live. Prices had risen alarmingly (...) When will the revolution bring peace? What are Kerensky and Tseterelli waiting for [Provisional Government]? The masses were listening more and more attentively to the Bolsheviks, glancing at them obliquely, waitingly, some with half hostility, others already with trust. Underneath the triumphal discipline of the demonstration the mood was tense. There was a ferment in the masses" Unknown photographer. Description: 1 photograph. Black and white ; 17 x 23 cm. Sources and further reading: Figes, Orlando. 2014. Revolutionary Russia, 1891-1991 : a History. New York: Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt and Company Figes, Orlando. Kolonitskii, B. I. 1999. Interpreting the Russian Revolution: the Language and Symbols of 1917. New Haven: Yale University Press. Galili y Garcia, Ziva. 1989. The Menshevik Leaders in the Russian Revolution: Social Realities and Political Strategies. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. Rabinowitch, Alexander. 2007. The Bolsheviks in Power: the First Year of Soviet Rule in Petrograd. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Rabinowitch, Alexander. 1976. The Bolsheviks Come to Power: the Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd. New York: W.W. Norton. Soukhanov, Nicolai. 1955. The Russian Revolution, 1917: a Personal Record. London: Oxford University Press. Trotsky, Leon. 1932. The History of the Russian Revolution. vol. 1, London: Gollancz. (Chapter "The "April Days". Quotation p. 345).

Subjects

20thcentury | sovietunion | borissouvarine | russia | octoberrevolution | may1st | 1917 | petrograd | saintpetersburg | demonstration | labourday | wwiandrussia | aprildays | provisionalgovernment | may1917

License

No known copyright restrictions

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French Revolution French Revolution

Description

This free course provides basic historical background to the French Revolution. It will show that the Revolution accelerated intellectual, cultural and psychological change, and opened up new horizons and possibilities. In fact, while much controversy and scepticism remain as to the real extent of underlying change in the social and economic structure of France, it is generally agreed by scholars that the Revolution stimulated a widening of expectations and imaginative awareness: a belief, inherited from the Enlightenment, in the possibility of progress, as well as a conviction that state and society could be reconstituted with a view to realising social and individual aspirations and human happiness generally. As it degenerated into violence and bloodshed, however, the Revolution also pro This free course provides basic historical background to the French Revolution. It will show that the Revolution accelerated intellectual, cultural and psychological change, and opened up new horizons and possibilities. In fact, while much controversy and scepticism remain as to the real extent of underlying change in the social and economic structure of France, it is generally agreed by scholars that the Revolution stimulated a widening of expectations and imaginative awareness: a belief, inherited from the Enlightenment, in the possibility of progress, as well as a conviction that state and society could be reconstituted with a view to realising social and individual aspirations and human happiness generally. As it degenerated into violence and bloodshed, however, the Revolution also pro

Subjects

History of Art | History of Art | A207_5 | A207_5

License

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence - see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ - Original copyright The Open University

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The Age of Revolutions in the Atlantic World, 1776-1848

Description

This course introduces the history of the Age of Revolutions in the Atlantic World from 1776 to 1848. The Atlantic World, dominated by European empires in 1776, was transformed through revolution into a series of independent states by 1848, experiencing profound changes through the development and consolidation of capitalism. Running alongside and extending beyond these political revolutions is the First Industrial Revolution. This free course may be completed online at any time. See course site for detailed overview and learning outcomes. (History 303)

Subjects

revolution | enlightenment | american revolution | french revolution | latin american revolution | industrial revolution | philosophical studies | V000

License

Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/

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Modern Revolutions

Description

This course examines some of the most important political revolutions that took place between the 17th century and today, beginning with pre-revolutionary Europe and the Enlightenment and continuing with the English Revolution of the 17th century, the American and the French Revolutions, the Mexican Revolution, the Russian and the Chinese Revolutions, the Iranian Revolution, and finally, the Eastern European revolutions of 1989, which brought about radical changes without recourse to violence. This free course may be completed online at any time. See course site for detailed overview and learning outcomes. (History 362)

Subjects

revolution | mexico | china | russia | iran | cold war | philosophical studies | V000

License

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21H.141 Renaissance To Revolution: Europe, 1300-1800 (MIT) 21H.141 Renaissance To Revolution: Europe, 1300-1800 (MIT)

Description

This course provides an introduction to major political, social, cultural and intellectual changes in Europe from the beginnings of the Renaissance in Italy around 1300 to the outbreak of the French Revolution at the end of the 1700s. It focuses on the porous boundaries between categories of theology, magic and science, as well as print. It examines how developments in these areas altered European political institutions, social structures, and cultural practices. It also studies men and women, nobles and commoners, as well as Europeans and some non-Europeans with whom they came into contact. This course provides an introduction to major political, social, cultural and intellectual changes in Europe from the beginnings of the Renaissance in Italy around 1300 to the outbreak of the French Revolution at the end of the 1700s. It focuses on the porous boundaries between categories of theology, magic and science, as well as print. It examines how developments in these areas altered European political institutions, social structures, and cultural practices. It also studies men and women, nobles and commoners, as well as Europeans and some non-Europeans with whom they came into contact.

Subjects

renaissance | renaissance | revolution | revolution | Europe | Europe | Italy | Italy | French Revolution | French Revolution | theology | theology | magic | magic | science | science | England | England | censorship | censorship | Rene Descartes | Rene Descartes | Italian humanism | Italian humanism | Copernicus | Copernicus | Constantine | Constantine | printing | printing | rare books | rare books | paper-making | paper-making | Erasmus of Rotterdam | Erasmus of Rotterdam | The Paraclesis | The Paraclesis | free will | free will | Luther | Luther | German Peasants War | German Peasants War | The Cheese and the Worms | The Cheese and the Worms | Protestant revolution | Protestant revolution | Catholic renewal | Catholic renewal | radical reform movements | radical reform movements | religion | religion | Menocchio | Menocchio | skepticism | skepticism | the occult | the occult | Michel de Montaigne | Michel de Montaigne | astrology | astrology | Cardano | Cardano | Cartesian Method | Cartesian Method | Discourse on Method | Discourse on Method | English Civil War | English Civil War | interregnum | Putney debates | interregnum | Putney debates | Wallington's World | Wallington's World | The Mad Hatter | The Mad Hatter | Isaac Newton | Isaac Newton | Newtonianism | Newtonianism | Principia | Principia | The Encyclopedie | The Encyclopedie | Diderot | Diderot | d'Alembert | d'Alembert | metric system | metric system

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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21H.001 How to Stage a Revolution (MIT)

Description

This course explores fundamental questions about the causes and nature of revolutions by looking at how people overthrow their rulers and establish new governments. Considers a set of major political transformations throughout the world and across centuries to understand the meaning of revolution and evaluate its impact. Examines how revolutionaries have attempted to establish their ideals and realize their goals. Asks whether radical upheavals require bloodshed, violence, or even terror. Seeks to explain why some revolutions succeed and others fail. Materials include the writings of revolutionaries, declarations and constitutions, music, films, art, novels, memoirs, and newspapers.

Subjects

haiti | revolution | america | american revolution | haitian revolution | slavery | freedom | colonization | european migration | egypt | arab spring | mubarak

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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21H.466 Imperial and Revolutionary Russia, 1800-1917 (MIT) 21H.466 Imperial and Revolutionary Russia, 1800-1917 (MIT)

Description

This subject analyzes Russia's social, cultural, political heritage; Eurasian imperialism; and autocracy. It compares reforming and revolutionary impulses in the context of serfdom, the rise of the intelligentsia, and debates over capitalism. This class focuses on historical and literary texts, and especially the intersections between the two. This subject analyzes Russia's social, cultural, political heritage; Eurasian imperialism; and autocracy. It compares reforming and revolutionary impulses in the context of serfdom, the rise of the intelligentsia, and debates over capitalism. This class focuses on historical and literary texts, and especially the intersections between the two.

Subjects

Muscovy | Muscovy | Empire | Empire | Peter the Great | Peter the Great | Catherine II | Catherine II | Pugachev | Pugachev | nobility | nobility | Constitution | Constitution | bureaucracy | bureaucracy | Nicholas I | Nicholas I | Decembrists | Decembrists | serfdom | serfdom | Alexander II | Alexander II | Great reforms | Great reforms | intelligentsia | intelligentsia | Caucasus | Caucasus | Chechnya | Chechnya | Lenin | Lenin | World War I | World War I | Nicholas II | Nicholas II | Rasputin | Rasputin | Russia | Russia | social heritage | social heritage | cultural heritage | cultural heritage | political heritage | political heritage | Eurasian imperialism | Eurasian imperialism | autocracy | autocracy | political reform | political reform | political revolution | political revolution | revolutionary | revolutionary | debates | debates | capitalism | capitalism | historical texts | historical texts | literary texts | literary texts | nineteenth century | nineteenth century | 19th century | 19th century | major European power | major European power | intellectual class | intellectual class | autocratic order | autocratic order | states | states | societies | societies | West | West | national consciousness | national consciousness | state | state | society | society

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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17.57J Soviet Politics and Society, 1917-1991 (MIT) 17.57J Soviet Politics and Society, 1917-1991 (MIT)

Description

At its greatest extent the former Soviet Union encompassed a geographical area that covered one-sixth of the Earth's landmass. It spanned 11 time zones and contained over 100 distinct nationalities, 22 of which numbered over one million in population. In the 74 years from the October Revolution in 1917 to the fall of Communism in 1991, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, its leaders and its people, had to face a number of difficult challenges: the overthrow of the Tsarist autocracy, the establishment of a new state, four years of civil war, a famine, transition to a mixed economy, political strife after Lenin's death, industrialization, collectivization, a second famine, political Show Trials, World War II, post-war reconstruction and repression, the "Thaw" after Stalin's death, At its greatest extent the former Soviet Union encompassed a geographical area that covered one-sixth of the Earth's landmass. It spanned 11 time zones and contained over 100 distinct nationalities, 22 of which numbered over one million in population. In the 74 years from the October Revolution in 1917 to the fall of Communism in 1991, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, its leaders and its people, had to face a number of difficult challenges: the overthrow of the Tsarist autocracy, the establishment of a new state, four years of civil war, a famine, transition to a mixed economy, political strife after Lenin's death, industrialization, collectivization, a second famine, political Show Trials, World War II, post-war reconstruction and repression, the "Thaw" after Stalin's death,

Subjects

Soviet Union | Soviet Union | politics | politics | communism | communism | history | history | socialist republics | socialist republics | world war two | world war two | stalin | stalin | khruschev | khruschev | brezhnev | brezhnev | october revolution | october revolution | political economy | political economy | lenin | lenin | industrialization | industrialization | collectivism | collectivism | repression | repression | society | society | culture | culture | Soviet system | Soviet system | U.S.S.R. | U.S.S.R. | Soviet society | Soviet society | political reform | political reform | social reform | social reform | revolutionary regime | revolutionary regime | Stalin revolution | Stalin revolution | post-Stalinist | post-Stalinist | Soviet collapse | Soviet collapse | political history | political history | 17.57 | 17.57 | 21H.467 | 21H.467

License

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