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6.045J Automata, Computability, and Complexity (MIT) 6.045J Automata, Computability, and Complexity (MIT)

Description

This course provides a challenging introduction to some of the central ideas of theoretical computer science. Beginning in antiquity, the course will progress through finite automata, circuits and decision trees, Turing machines and computability, efficient algorithms and reducibility, the P versus NP problem, NP-completeness, the power of randomness, cryptography and one-way functions, computational learning theory, and quantum computing. It examines the classes of problems that can and cannot be solved by various kinds of machines. It tries to explain the key differences between computational models that affect their power. This course provides a challenging introduction to some of the central ideas of theoretical computer science. Beginning in antiquity, the course will progress through finite automata, circuits and decision trees, Turing machines and computability, efficient algorithms and reducibility, the P versus NP problem, NP-completeness, the power of randomness, cryptography and one-way functions, computational learning theory, and quantum computing. It examines the classes of problems that can and cannot be solved by various kinds of machines. It tries to explain the key differences between computational models that affect their power.

Subjects

finite automata | finite automata | Turing machine | Turing machine | halting problem | halting problem | computability | computability | computational complexity | computational complexity | polynomial time | polynomial time | P | P | NP | NP | NP complete | NP complete | probabilistic algorithms | probabilistic algorithms | private-key cryptography | private-key cryptography | public-key cryptography | public-key cryptography | randomness | randomness

License

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Lecture 8: Strategy, Skill, and Chance, Part 1 Lecture 8: Strategy, Skill, and Chance, Part 1

Description

Description: Games contain various skill requirements, chance elements, and information availability, which guide strategy development. Changing the balance between these factors can create very different player experiences. Instructors/speakers: Philip Tan, Jason BegyKeywords: competition, strategy, game theory, roleplaying, vertigo, mimicry, ilinx, sports, alea, gameshows, randomness, games of skill, games of chance, luck, information theory, communication channel, noise, game state, card games, board games, determinism, probability, decision tree, utility, Nash equilibriumTranscript: PDFSubtitles: SRTAudio - download: Internet Archive (MP3)Audio - download: iTunes U (MP3)(CC BY-NC-SA) Description: Games contain various skill requirements, chance elements, and information availability, which guide strategy development. Changing the balance between these factors can create very different player experiences. Instructors/speakers: Philip Tan, Jason BegyKeywords: competition, strategy, game theory, roleplaying, vertigo, mimicry, ilinx, sports, alea, gameshows, randomness, games of skill, games of chance, luck, information theory, communication channel, noise, game state, card games, board games, determinism, probability, decision tree, utility, Nash equilibriumTranscript: PDFSubtitles: SRTAudio - download: Internet Archive (MP3)Audio - download: iTunes U (MP3)(CC BY-NC-SA)

Subjects

competition | competition | strategy | strategy | game theory | game theory | roleplaying | roleplaying | vertigo | vertigo | mimicry | mimicry | ilinx | ilinx | sports | sports | alea | alea | gameshows | gameshows | randomness | randomness | games of skill | games of skill | games of chance | games of chance | luck | luck | information theory | information theory | communication channel | communication channel | noise | noise | game state | game state | card games | card games | board games | board games | determinism | determinism | probability | probability | decision tree | decision tree | utility | utility | Nash equilibrium | Nash equilibrium

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Lecture 9: Strategy, Skill, and Chance, Part 2 Lecture 9: Strategy, Skill, and Chance, Part 2

Description

Description: This lecture reviews the concepts of information flow and uncertainty, analyzing well-known games in these terms. Examples include Scrabble, Go Fish, Mario Kart, Monopoly, chess, poker, War, and Settlers of Catan. Next, students consider feedback loops. Instructors/speakers: Philip Tan, Jason BegyKeywords: complexity, determinism, randomness, uncertainty, strategy, games of skill, games of chance, playtesting, information theory, risk, game state, board games, probability, cybernetics, positive feedback loop, negative feedback loopTranscript: PDFSubtitles: SRTAudio - download: Internet Archive (MP3)Audio - download: iTunes U (MP3)(CC BY-NC-SA) Description: This lecture reviews the concepts of information flow and uncertainty, analyzing well-known games in these terms. Examples include Scrabble, Go Fish, Mario Kart, Monopoly, chess, poker, War, and Settlers of Catan. Next, students consider feedback loops. Instructors/speakers: Philip Tan, Jason BegyKeywords: complexity, determinism, randomness, uncertainty, strategy, games of skill, games of chance, playtesting, information theory, risk, game state, board games, probability, cybernetics, positive feedback loop, negative feedback loopTranscript: PDFSubtitles: SRTAudio - download: Internet Archive (MP3)Audio - download: iTunes U (MP3)(CC BY-NC-SA)

Subjects

complexity | complexity | determinism | determinism | randomness | randomness | uncertainty | uncertainty | strategy | strategy | games of skill | games of skill | games of chance | games of chance | playtesting | playtesting | information theory | information theory | risk | risk | game state | game state | board games | board games | probability | probability | cybernetics | cybernetics | positive feedback loop | positive feedback loop | negative feedback loop | negative feedback loop

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Lecture 12: Knowing Your Players Lecture 12: Knowing Your Players

Description

Description: Today's reading analyzes user motivation along two axes: interest in the world vs. fellow players, gaining knowledge vs. proficiency. Students discuss the utility of this taxonomy, how games encourage these interactions, and come up with their own frames. Instructors/speakers: Philip Tan, Jason BegyKeywords: strategy, competition, cooperation, feedback loop, playtesting, target audience, strategy, decision tree, randomness, roleplaying, achievements, worldbuilding, virtual economy, learning curve, determinism, griefing, game theoryTranscript: PDFSubtitles: SRTAudio - download: Internet Archive (MP3)Audio - download: iTunes U (MP3)(CC BY-NC-SA) Description: Today's reading analyzes user motivation along two axes: interest in the world vs. fellow players, gaining knowledge vs. proficiency. Students discuss the utility of this taxonomy, how games encourage these interactions, and come up with their own frames. Instructors/speakers: Philip Tan, Jason BegyKeywords: strategy, competition, cooperation, feedback loop, playtesting, target audience, strategy, decision tree, randomness, roleplaying, achievements, worldbuilding, virtual economy, learning curve, determinism, griefing, game theoryTranscript: PDFSubtitles: SRTAudio - download: Internet Archive (MP3)Audio - download: iTunes U (MP3)(CC BY-NC-SA)

Subjects

strategy | strategy | competition | competition | cooperation | cooperation | feedback loop | feedback loop | playtesting | playtesting | target audience | target audience | decision tree | decision tree | randomness | randomness | roleplaying | roleplaying | achievements | achievements | worldbuilding | worldbuilding | virtual economy | virtual economy | learning curve | learning curve | determinism | determinism | griefing | griefing | game theory | game theory

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Lecture 32: Live Action Games Lecture 32: Live Action Games

Description

Description: "Live action" describes a wide range of activities, from sports, to real-time roleplaying, to playground/party games. Careful choices about mechanics, abstraction, and communication help create an engaging experience without physical or emotional harm. Instructors/speakers: Philip Tan, Jason BegyKeywords: roleplaying, verisimilitude, storybuilding, persona, improvisation, sports, party games, live-action games, game mechanic, mimicry, acting, character, dissociation, abstraction, war games, game master, randomness, feasibility, information, competition, collaboration, storytelling, ethics, MIT Assassin's Guild, emergenceTranscript: PDFSubtitles: SRTAudio - download: Internet Archive (MP3)Audio - download: iTunes U (MP3)(CC BY-NC-SA) Description: "Live action" describes a wide range of activities, from sports, to real-time roleplaying, to playground/party games. Careful choices about mechanics, abstraction, and communication help create an engaging experience without physical or emotional harm. Instructors/speakers: Philip Tan, Jason BegyKeywords: roleplaying, verisimilitude, storybuilding, persona, improvisation, sports, party games, live-action games, game mechanic, mimicry, acting, character, dissociation, abstraction, war games, game master, randomness, feasibility, information, competition, collaboration, storytelling, ethics, MIT Assassin's Guild, emergenceTranscript: PDFSubtitles: SRTAudio - download: Internet Archive (MP3)Audio - download: iTunes U (MP3)(CC BY-NC-SA)

Subjects

roleplaying | roleplaying | verisimilitude | verisimilitude | storybuilding | storybuilding | persona | persona | improvisation | improvisation | sports | sports | party games | party games | live-action games | live-action games | game mechanic | game mechanic | mimicry | mimicry | acting | acting | character | character | dissociation | dissociation | abstraction | abstraction | war games | war games | game master | game master | randomness | randomness | feasibility | feasibility | information | information | competition | competition | collaboration | collaboration | storytelling | storytelling | ethics | ethics | MIT Assassin's Guild | MIT Assassin's Guild | emergence | emergence

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Lecture 8: Strategy, Skill, and Chance, Part 1

Description

Description: Games contain various skill requirements, chance elements, and information availability, which guide strategy development. Changing the balance between these factors can create very different player experiences. Instructors/speakers: Philip Tan, Jason BegyKeywords: competition, strategy, game theory, roleplaying, vertigo, mimicry, ilinx, sports, alea, gameshows, randomness, games of skill, games of chance, luck, information theory, communication channel, noise, game state, card games, board games, determinism, probability, decision tree, utility, Nash equilibriumTranscript: PDF (English - US)Subtitles: SRTAudio - download: Internet Archive (MP3)Audio - download: iTunes U (MP3)(CC BY-NC-SA)

Subjects

competition | strategy | game theory | roleplaying | vertigo | mimicry | ilinx | sports | alea | gameshows | randomness | games of skill | games of chance | luck | information theory | communication channel | noise | game state | card games | board games | determinism | probability | decision tree | utility | Nash equilibrium

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Lecture 9: Strategy, Skill, and Chance, Part 2

Description

Description: This lecture reviews the concepts of information flow and uncertainty, analyzing well-known games in these terms. Examples include Scrabble, Go Fish, Mario Kart, Monopoly, chess, poker, War, and Settlers of Catan. Next, students consider feedback loops. Instructors/speakers: Philip Tan, Jason BegyKeywords: complexity, determinism, randomness, uncertainty, strategy, games of skill, games of chance, playtesting, information theory, risk, game state, board games, probability, cybernetics, positive feedback loop, negative feedback loopTranscript: PDF (English - US)Subtitles: SRTAudio - download: Internet Archive (MP3)Audio - download: iTunes U (MP3)(CC BY-NC-SA)

Subjects

complexity | determinism | randomness | uncertainty | strategy | games of skill | games of chance | playtesting | information theory | risk | game state | board games | probability | cybernetics | positive feedback loop | negative feedback loop

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Lecture 12: Knowing Your Players

Description

Description: Today's reading analyzes user motivation along two axes: interest in the world vs. fellow players, gaining knowledge vs. proficiency. Students discuss the utility of this taxonomy, how games encourage these interactions, and come up with their own frames. Instructors/speakers: Philip Tan, Jason BegyKeywords: strategy, competition, cooperation, feedback loop, playtesting, target audience, strategy, decision tree, randomness, roleplaying, achievements, worldbuilding, virtual economy, learning curve, determinism, griefing, game theoryTranscript: PDF (English - US)Subtitles: SRTAudio - download: Internet Archive (MP3)Audio - download: iTunes U (MP3)(CC BY-NC-SA)

Subjects

strategy | competition | cooperation | feedback loop | playtesting | target audience | decision tree | randomness | roleplaying | achievements | worldbuilding | virtual economy | learning curve | determinism | griefing | game theory

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Lecture 32: Live Action Games

Description

Description: "Live action" describes a wide range of activities, from sports, to real-time roleplaying, to playground/party games. Careful choices about mechanics, abstraction, and communication help create an engaging experience without physical or emotional harm. Instructors/speakers: Philip Tan, Jason BegyKeywords: roleplaying, verisimilitude, storybuilding, persona, improvisation, sports, party games, live-action games, game mechanic, mimicry, acting, character, dissociation, abstraction, war games, game master, randomness, feasibility, information, competition, collaboration, storytelling, ethics, MIT Assassin's Guild, emergenceTranscript: PDF (English - US)Subtitles: SRTAudio - download: Internet Archive (MP3)Audio - download: iTunes U (MP3)(CC BY-NC-SA)

Subjects

roleplaying | verisimilitude | storybuilding | persona | improvisation | sports | party games | live-action games | game mechanic | mimicry | acting | character | dissociation | abstraction | war games | game master | randomness | feasibility | information | competition | collaboration | storytelling | ethics | MIT Assassin's Guild | emergence

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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6.080 Great Ideas in Theoretical Computer Science (MIT) 6.080 Great Ideas in Theoretical Computer Science (MIT)

Description

This course provides a challenging introduction to some of the central ideas of theoretical computer science. It attempts to present a vision of "computer science beyond computers": that is, CS as a set of mathematical tools for understanding complex systems such as universes and minds. Beginning in antiquity—with Euclid's algorithm and other ancient examples of computational thinking—the course will progress rapidly through propositional logic, Turing machines and computability, finite automata, Gödel's theorems, efficient algorithms and reducibility, NP-completeness, the P versus NP problem, decision trees and other concrete computational models, the power of randomness, cryptography and one-way functions, computational theories of learning, interactive proofs, and q This course provides a challenging introduction to some of the central ideas of theoretical computer science. It attempts to present a vision of "computer science beyond computers": that is, CS as a set of mathematical tools for understanding complex systems such as universes and minds. Beginning in antiquity—with Euclid's algorithm and other ancient examples of computational thinking—the course will progress rapidly through propositional logic, Turing machines and computability, finite automata, Gödel's theorems, efficient algorithms and reducibility, NP-completeness, the P versus NP problem, decision trees and other concrete computational models, the power of randomness, cryptography and one-way functions, computational theories of learning, interactive proofs, and q

Subjects

computer science | computer science | theoretical computer science | theoretical computer science | logic | logic | turing machines | turing machines | computability | computability | finite automata | finite automata | godel | godel | complexity | complexity | polynomial time | polynomial time | efficient algorithms | efficient algorithms | reducibility | reducibility | p and np | p and np | np completeness | np completeness | private key cryptography | private key cryptography | public key cryptography | public key cryptography | pac learning | pac learning | quantum computing | quantum computing | quantum algorithms | quantum algorithms

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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18.405J Advanced Complexity Theory (MIT) 18.405J Advanced Complexity Theory (MIT)

Description

The topics for this course cover various aspects of complexity theory, such as  the basic time and space classes, the polynomial-time hierarchy and the randomized classes . This is a pure theory class, so no applications were involved. The topics for this course cover various aspects of complexity theory, such as  the basic time and space classes, the polynomial-time hierarchy and the randomized classes . This is a pure theory class, so no applications were involved.

Subjects

Basic time and space classes | Basic time and space classes | polynomial-time hierarchy | polynomial-time hierarchy | Randomized classes: RP | BPP | RL | and their relation to PH | Randomized classes: RP | BPP | RL | and their relation to PH | Counting classes: #P | Counting classes: #P | Non-uniform classes | Non-uniform classes | Oracles | relativization | Oracles | relativization | Interactive proof systems | Interactive proof systems | Pseudo-random generators | Pseudo-random generators | randomness | randomness | Some circuit lower bounds--monotone and AC0. | Some circuit lower bounds--monotone and AC0. | oracles | oracles | relativization | relativization | randomized classes | randomized classes | RP | RP | BPP | BPP | RL | RL | PH | PH | circuit lower bonds | circuit lower bonds | monotone | monotone | AC0 | AC0 | basic time classes | basic time classes | basic space classes | basic space classes | 18.405 | 18.405 | 6.841 | 6.841

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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21L.017 The Art of the Probable: Literature and Probability (MIT) 21L.017 The Art of the Probable: Literature and Probability (MIT)

Description

"The Art of the Probable" addresses the history of scientific ideas, in particular the emergence and development of mathematical probability. But it is neither meant to be a history of the exact sciences per se nor an annex to, say, the Course 6 curriculum in probability and statistics. Rather, our objective is to focus on the formal, thematic, and rhetorical features that imaginative literature shares with texts in the history of probability. These shared issues include (but are not limited to): the attempt to quantify or otherwise explain the presence of chance, risk, and contingency in everyday life; the deduction of causes for phenomena that are knowable only in their effects; and, above all, the question of what it means to think and act rationally in an uncertain world. Our course "The Art of the Probable" addresses the history of scientific ideas, in particular the emergence and development of mathematical probability. But it is neither meant to be a history of the exact sciences per se nor an annex to, say, the Course 6 curriculum in probability and statistics. Rather, our objective is to focus on the formal, thematic, and rhetorical features that imaginative literature shares with texts in the history of probability. These shared issues include (but are not limited to): the attempt to quantify or otherwise explain the presence of chance, risk, and contingency in everyday life; the deduction of causes for phenomena that are knowable only in their effects; and, above all, the question of what it means to think and act rationally in an uncertain world. Our course

Subjects

philosophy | philosophy | scientific thought | scientific thought | scientific method | scientific method | mathematics | mathematics | chance | chance | risk | risk | statistics | statistics | history of science | history of science | quantitative measurement | quantitative measurement | chaos | chaos | uncertainty | uncertainty | induction | induction | deduction | deduction | inference | inference | luck | luck | gambling | gambling | cause and effect | cause and effect | games of chance | games of chance | fate | fate | prediction | prediction | rationality | rationality | decision making | decision making | religion | religion | randomness | randomness | knowledge | knowledge | fact | fact | human nature | human nature | mind | mind | senses | senses | intelligence | intelligence | metaphor | metaphor | Darwinism | Darwinism

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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CMS.608 Game Design (MIT) CMS.608 Game Design (MIT)

Description

Includes audio/video content: AV selected lectures. This course provides practical instruction in the design and analysis of non-digital games. Students cover the texts, tools, references and historical context to analyze and compare game designs across a variety of genres, including sports, game shows, games of chance, card games, schoolyard games, board games, and role–playing games. In teams, students design, develop, and thoroughly test their original games to understand the interaction and evolution of game rules. Students taking the graduate version complete additional assignments. Includes audio/video content: AV selected lectures. This course provides practical instruction in the design and analysis of non-digital games. Students cover the texts, tools, references and historical context to analyze and compare game designs across a variety of genres, including sports, game shows, games of chance, card games, schoolyard games, board games, and role–playing games. In teams, students design, develop, and thoroughly test their original games to understand the interaction and evolution of game rules. Students taking the graduate version complete additional assignments.

Subjects

games | games | puzzles | puzzles | narrative | narrative | playtestin | playtestin | chance | chance | competition | competition | strategy | strategy | rules | rules | gambling | gambling | emergence | emergence | progression | progression | randomness | randomness | cooperation | cooperation | iterative design | iterative design | prototyping | prototyping | game mechanics | game mechanics | aesthetics | aesthetics

License

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CMS.608 Game Design (MIT) CMS.608 Game Design (MIT)

Description

An historical examination and analysis of the evolution and development of games and game mechanics. Topics include a large breadth of genres and types of games, including sports, game shows, games of chance, schoolyard games, board games, roleplaying games, and digital games. Students submit essays documenting research and analysis of a variety of traditional and eclectic games. Project teams required to design, develop, and thoroughly test their original games. An historical examination and analysis of the evolution and development of games and game mechanics. Topics include a large breadth of genres and types of games, including sports, game shows, games of chance, schoolyard games, board games, roleplaying games, and digital games. Students submit essays documenting research and analysis of a variety of traditional and eclectic games. Project teams required to design, develop, and thoroughly test their original games.

Subjects

a | a | games | games | narrative | narrative | playtesting | playtesting | student work | student work | student notes | student notes | chance | chance | competition | competition | information | information | probability | probability | strategy | strategy | theory | theory | symbolism | symbolism | rules | rules | gambling | gambling | emergence | emergence | progression | progression | randomness | randomness | cooperation | cooperation

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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18.405J Advanced Complexity Theory (MIT) 18.405J Advanced Complexity Theory (MIT)

Description

The topics for this course cover various aspects of complexity theory, such as  the basic time and space classes, the polynomial-time hierarchy and the randomized classes . This is a pure theory class, so no applications were involved. The topics for this course cover various aspects of complexity theory, such as  the basic time and space classes, the polynomial-time hierarchy and the randomized classes . This is a pure theory class, so no applications were involved.

Subjects

Basic time and space classes | Basic time and space classes | polynomial-time hierarchy | polynomial-time hierarchy | Randomized classes: RP | BPP | RL | and their relation to PH | Randomized classes: RP | BPP | RL | and their relation to PH | Counting classes: #P | Counting classes: #P | Non-uniform classes | Non-uniform classes | Oracles | relativization | Oracles | relativization | Interactive proof systems | Interactive proof systems | Pseudo-random generators | Pseudo-random generators | randomness | randomness | Some circuit lower bounds--monotone and AC0. | Some circuit lower bounds--monotone and AC0. | oracles | oracles | relativization | relativization | randomized classes | randomized classes | RP | RP | BPP | BPP | RL | RL | PH | PH | circuit lower bonds | circuit lower bonds | monotone | monotone | AC0 | AC0 | basic time classes | basic time classes | basic space classes | basic space classes | 18.405 | 18.405 | 6.841 | 6.841

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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6.045J Automata, Computability, and Complexity (MIT)

Description

This course provides a challenging introduction to some of the central ideas of theoretical computer science. Beginning in antiquity, the course will progress through finite automata, circuits and decision trees, Turing machines and computability, efficient algorithms and reducibility, the P versus NP problem, NP-completeness, the power of randomness, cryptography and one-way functions, computational learning theory, and quantum computing. It examines the classes of problems that can and cannot be solved by various kinds of machines. It tries to explain the key differences between computational models that affect their power.

Subjects

finite automata | Turing machine | halting problem | computability | computational complexity | polynomial time | P | NP | NP complete | probabilistic algorithms | private-key cryptography | public-key cryptography | randomness

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Lecture 8: Strategy, Skill, and Chance, Part 1

Description

Description: Games contain various skill requirements, chance elements, and information availability, which guide strategy development. Changing the balance between these factors can create very different player experiences. Instructors/speakers: Philip Tan, Jason BegyKeywords: competition, strategy, game theory, roleplaying, vertigo, mimicry, ilinx, sports, alea, gameshows, randomness, games of skill, games of chance, luck, information theory, communication channel, noise, game state, card games, board games, determinism, probability, decision tree, utility, Nash equilibriumTranscript: PDFSubtitles: SRTAudio - download: Internet Archive (MP3)Audio - download: iTunes U (MP3)(CC BY-NC-SA)

Subjects

competition | strategy | game theory | roleplaying | vertigo | mimicry | ilinx | sports | alea | gameshows | randomness | games of skill | games of chance | luck | information theory | communication channel | noise | game state | card games | board games | determinism | probability | decision tree | utility | Nash equilibrium

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Lecture 9: Strategy, Skill, and Chance, Part 2

Description

Description: This lecture reviews the concepts of information flow and uncertainty, analyzing well-known games in these terms. Examples include Scrabble, Go Fish, Mario Kart, Monopoly, chess, poker, War, and Settlers of Catan. Next, students consider feedback loops. Instructors/speakers: Philip Tan, Jason BegyKeywords: complexity, determinism, randomness, uncertainty, strategy, games of skill, games of chance, playtesting, information theory, risk, game state, board games, probability, cybernetics, positive feedback loop, negative feedback loopTranscript: PDFSubtitles: SRTAudio - download: Internet Archive (MP3)Audio - download: iTunes U (MP3)(CC BY-NC-SA)

Subjects

complexity | determinism | randomness | uncertainty | strategy | games of skill | games of chance | playtesting | information theory | risk | game state | board games | probability | cybernetics | positive feedback loop | negative feedback loop

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Lecture 12: Knowing Your Players

Description

Description: Today's reading analyzes user motivation along two axes: interest in the world vs. fellow players, gaining knowledge vs. proficiency. Students discuss the utility of this taxonomy, how games encourage these interactions, and come up with their own frames. Instructors/speakers: Philip Tan, Jason BegyKeywords: strategy, competition, cooperation, feedback loop, playtesting, target audience, strategy, decision tree, randomness, roleplaying, achievements, worldbuilding, virtual economy, learning curve, determinism, griefing, game theoryTranscript: PDFSubtitles: SRTAudio - download: Internet Archive (MP3)Audio - download: iTunes U (MP3)(CC BY-NC-SA)

Subjects

strategy | competition | cooperation | feedback loop | playtesting | target audience | decision tree | randomness | roleplaying | achievements | worldbuilding | virtual economy | learning curve | determinism | griefing | game theory

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Lecture 32: Live Action Games

Description

Description: "Live action" describes a wide range of activities, from sports, to real-time roleplaying, to playground/party games. Careful choices about mechanics, abstraction, and communication help create an engaging experience without physical or emotional harm. Instructors/speakers: Philip Tan, Jason BegyKeywords: roleplaying, verisimilitude, storybuilding, persona, improvisation, sports, party games, live-action games, game mechanic, mimicry, acting, character, dissociation, abstraction, war games, game master, randomness, feasibility, information, competition, collaboration, storytelling, ethics, MIT Assassin's Guild, emergenceTranscript: PDFSubtitles: SRTAudio - download: Internet Archive (MP3)Audio - download: iTunes U (MP3)(CC BY-NC-SA)

Subjects

roleplaying | verisimilitude | storybuilding | persona | improvisation | sports | party games | live-action games | game mechanic | mimicry | acting | character | dissociation | abstraction | war games | game master | randomness | feasibility | information | competition | collaboration | storytelling | ethics | MIT Assassin's Guild | emergence

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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18.405J Advanced Complexity Theory (MIT)

Description

This graduate-level course focuses on current research topics in computational complexity theory. Topics include: Nondeterministic, alternating, probabilistic, and parallel computation models; Boolean circuits; Complexity classes and complete sets; The polynomial-time hierarchy; Interactive proof systems; Relativization; Definitions of randomness; Pseudo-randomness and derandomizations;Interactive proof systems and probabilistically checkable proofs.

Subjects

18.405 | 6.841 | Polynomial hierarchy | time-space lower bounds | approximate counting | ?s Theorem | Relativization | Baker-Gill-Solovay | switching lemma | Razborov-Smolensky | NEXP vs. ACC0 | Communication complexity | PCP theorem | Hadamard code | Gap amplification | Natural proofs

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Why is climate change so difficult to understand?

Description

The second lecture of a series entitled 'Climate Connections' was presented by Carl Wunsch, Cecil and Ida Green Professor of Physical Oceanography at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In this talk, Prof Wunsch considers the perhaps unique problems faced by scientists and the public in understanding climate change. The problems include the very long times over which climate can and does change--far longer than human working lifetimes; the intuitive belief that the world is deterministic with randomness unimportant; the corresponding tendency to see patterns where none exist; the insistence by governments that scientists must tell them what will happen in the future; the liking of many scientists for the media limelight; the widespread confusion between weather and climate; the ri Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

climate change | global warming | weather prediction | climate change | global warming | weather prediction

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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CMS.608 Game Design (MIT)

Description

This course provides practical instruction in the design and analysis of non-digital games. Students cover the texts, tools, references and historical context to analyze and compare game designs across a variety of genres, including sports, game shows, games of chance, card games, schoolyard games, board games, and role–playing games. In teams, students design, develop, and thoroughly test their original games to understand the interaction and evolution of game rules. Students taking the graduate version complete additional assignments.

Subjects

games | puzzles | narrative | playtestin | chance | competition | strategy | rules | gambling | emergence | progression | randomness | cooperation | iterative design | prototyping | game mechanics | aesthetics

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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CMS.608 Game Design (MIT)

Description

An historical examination and analysis of the evolution and development of games and game mechanics. Topics include a large breadth of genres and types of games, including sports, game shows, games of chance, schoolyard games, board games, roleplaying games, and digital games. Students submit essays documenting research and analysis of a variety of traditional and eclectic games. Project teams required to design, develop, and thoroughly test their original games.

Subjects

a | games | narrative | playtesting | student work | student notes | chance | competition | information | probability | strategy | theory | symbolism | rules | gambling | emergence | progression | randomness | cooperation

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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DeSTRESS Film 13: Sampling and Wastewater Treatment

Description

DeSTRESS films combine live-action explanation and interviews, filmed in a variety of locations, with narrated animations that take the viewer through a worked example. The City of Boulder's Wastewater Treatment Facility is used as an example of how random sampling is used to monitor quality. The film lasts 12'13".

Subjects

statistics | sampling | quality | randomness | Social studies | L000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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