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21H.968J Nature, Environment, and Empire (MIT) 21H.968J Nature, Environment, and Empire (MIT)

Description

This course is an exploration of the relationship between the study of natural history, both domestic and exotic, by Europeans and Americans, and concrete exploitation of the natural world, focusing on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. This course is an exploration of the relationship between the study of natural history, both domestic and exotic, by Europeans and Americans, and concrete exploitation of the natural world, focusing on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Subjects

History | History | empire | empire | environment | environment | nature | nature | natural history | natural history | domestic | domestic | exotic | exotic | Europeans | Europeans | Americans | Americans | eighteenth | eighteenth | nineteenth centuries | nineteenth centuries | animals | animals | 21H.968 | 21H.968 | STS.415 | STS.415

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Anecdotes of eminent painters in Spain: during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; with cursory remarks upon the present state of arts in that kingdom. By Richard Cumberland. In two volumes. ... [pt.2] Anecdotes of eminent painters in Spain: during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; with cursory remarks upon the present state of arts in that kingdom. By Richard Cumberland. In two volumes. ... [pt.2]

Description

ebook version of Anecdotes of eminent painters in Spain: during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; with cursory remarks upon the present state of arts in that kingdom. By Richard Cumberland. In two volumes. ... [pt.2] ebook version of Anecdotes of eminent painters in Spain: during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; with cursory remarks upon the present state of arts in that kingdom. By Richard Cumberland. In two volumes. ... [pt.2]

Subjects

kind | kind | ECCO | ECCO | text | text | CC BY-SA | CC BY-SA

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Anecdotes of eminent painters in Spain: during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; with cursory remarks upon the present state of arts in that kingdom. By Richard Cumberland. In two volumes. ... [pt.1] Anecdotes of eminent painters in Spain: during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; with cursory remarks upon the present state of arts in that kingdom. By Richard Cumberland. In two volumes. ... [pt.1]

Description

ebook version of Anecdotes of eminent painters in Spain: during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; with cursory remarks upon the present state of arts in that kingdom. By Richard Cumberland. In two volumes. ... [pt.1] ebook version of Anecdotes of eminent painters in Spain: during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; with cursory remarks upon the present state of arts in that kingdom. By Richard Cumberland. In two volumes. ... [pt.1]

Subjects

kind | kind | ECCO | ECCO | text | text | CC BY-SA | CC BY-SA

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A vindication of some passages in the fifteenth and sixteenth chapters of the History of the decline and fall of the Roman Empire: By the author. A vindication of some passages in the fifteenth and sixteenth chapters of the History of the decline and fall of the Roman Empire: By the author.

Description

ebook version of A vindication of some passages in the fifteenth and sixteenth chapters of the History of the decline and fall of the Roman Empire: By the author. ebook version of A vindication of some passages in the fifteenth and sixteenth chapters of the History of the decline and fall of the Roman Empire: By the author.

Subjects

kind | kind | ECCO | ECCO | text | text | CC BY-SA | CC BY-SA

License

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Seventeen hundred and ninety-one: a poem, in imitation of the thirteenth satire of Juvenal. By Arthur Murphy, Esq. Seventeen hundred and ninety-one: a poem, in imitation of the thirteenth satire of Juvenal. By Arthur Murphy, Esq.

Description

ebook version of Seventeen hundred and ninety-one: a poem, in imitation of the thirteenth satire of Juvenal. By Arthur Murphy, Esq. ebook version of Seventeen hundred and ninety-one: a poem, in imitation of the thirteenth satire of Juvenal. By Arthur Murphy, Esq.

Subjects

kind | kind | ECCO | ECCO | text | text | CC BY-SA | CC BY-SA

License

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21L.705 Major Authors: America's Literary Scientists (MIT) 21L.705 Major Authors: America's Literary Scientists (MIT)

Description

Global exploration in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries radically changed Western science, orienting philosophies of natural history to more focused fields like comparative anatomy, botany, and geology. In the United States, European scientific advances and home-grown ventures like the Wilkes Exploring Expedition to Antarctica and the Pacific inspired new endeavors in cartography, ethnography, zoology, and evolutionary theory, replacing rigid models of thought and classification with more fluid and active systems. They inspired literary authors as well. This class will examine some of the most remarkable of these authors—Herman Melville (Moby-Dick and "The Encantadas"), Henry David Thoreau (Walden), Sarah Orne Jewett (Country of the Pointed Firs), Edith Wharton (House Global exploration in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries radically changed Western science, orienting philosophies of natural history to more focused fields like comparative anatomy, botany, and geology. In the United States, European scientific advances and home-grown ventures like the Wilkes Exploring Expedition to Antarctica and the Pacific inspired new endeavors in cartography, ethnography, zoology, and evolutionary theory, replacing rigid models of thought and classification with more fluid and active systems. They inspired literary authors as well. This class will examine some of the most remarkable of these authors—Herman Melville (Moby-Dick and "The Encantadas"), Henry David Thoreau (Walden), Sarah Orne Jewett (Country of the Pointed Firs), Edith Wharton (House

Subjects

America's literary scientists | America's literary scientists | global exploration in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries | global exploration in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries | Wilkes exploring expedition to Antarctica and the Pacific | Wilkes exploring expedition to Antarctica and the Pacific | cartography | cartography | ethnography | ethnography | zoology | zoology | evolutionary theory | evolutionary theory | Herman Melville | Herman Melville | Henry David Thoreau | Henry David Thoreau | Sarah Orne Jewett | Sarah Orne Jewett | Toni Morrison | Toni Morrison

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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21L.704 Studies in Poetry: From the Sonneteers to the Metaphysicals (MIT) 21L.704 Studies in Poetry: From the Sonneteers to the Metaphysicals (MIT)

Description

This course introduces students to some of the most important practitioners of poetry in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England, locating them in their historical and social contexts. We will be emphasizing love poetry or amatory verse, by combining close reading of selected poems with an investigation of the contexts of English verse. This course introduces students to some of the most important practitioners of poetry in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England, locating them in their historical and social contexts. We will be emphasizing love poetry or amatory verse, by combining close reading of selected poems with an investigation of the contexts of English verse.

Subjects

sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England | sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England | love poetry or amatory verse | love poetry or amatory verse | English Renaissance | English Renaissance | sonnet | sonnet | Petrarch | Petrarch | Elizabethan England | Elizabethan England | metaphysical poets | metaphysical poets | Donne and Marvell | Donne and Marvell

License

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21L.704 Studies in Poetry - British Poetry and the Sciences of the Mind (MIT) 21L.704 Studies in Poetry - British Poetry and the Sciences of the Mind (MIT)

Description

Do poems think? Recurrent images of the poet as an inspired lunatic, and of poetry as a fundamentally irrational art, have often fostered an understanding of poets and their work as generally extraneous to the work of the sciences. Yet poets have long reflected upon and have sought to embody in their work the most elementary processes of mind, and have frequently drawn for these representations on the very sciences to which they are thought to stand - and sometimes do genuinely stand - in opposition. Far from representing a mere departure from reason, then, the poem offers an image of the mind at work, an account of how minds work, a tool for eliciting thought in the reader or auditor. Bringing together readings in British poetry of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries with writings fro Do poems think? Recurrent images of the poet as an inspired lunatic, and of poetry as a fundamentally irrational art, have often fostered an understanding of poets and their work as generally extraneous to the work of the sciences. Yet poets have long reflected upon and have sought to embody in their work the most elementary processes of mind, and have frequently drawn for these representations on the very sciences to which they are thought to stand - and sometimes do genuinely stand - in opposition. Far from representing a mere departure from reason, then, the poem offers an image of the mind at work, an account of how minds work, a tool for eliciting thought in the reader or auditor. Bringing together readings in British poetry of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries with writings fro

Subjects

poems | poems | think | think | images | images | poet | poet | lunatic | lunatic | irrational | irrational | art | art | sciences | sciences | processes of mind | processes of mind | reason | reason | mind | mind | thought | thought | British | British | eighteenth | eighteenth | nineteenth | nineteenth | centuries | centuries | psychology | psychology | physiology | physiology | brain | brain | interdisciplinary course | interdisciplinary course | lyric | lyric | didactic | didactic | cognition | cognition | medicine | medicine | literary study | literary study | humanistic research | humanistic research

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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21L.471 Major English Novels (MIT) 21L.471 Major English Novels (MIT)

Description

This course studies several important examples of the genre that between the early 18th century and the end of the 20th has come to seem the definitive literary form for representing and coming to terms with modernity. Syllabi vary, but the class usually attempts to convey a sense of the form's development over the past few centuries. Among topics likely to be considered are: developments in narrative technique, the novel's relation to history, national versus linguistic definitions of an "English" novel, social criticism in the novel, realism versus "romance," the novel's construction of subjectivities. Writers studied have included Daniel Defoe, Henry Fielding, Samuel Richardson, Lawrence Sterne, Mary Shelley, Jane Austen, Walter Scott, Emily and Charlotte Brontë, Charles Dic This course studies several important examples of the genre that between the early 18th century and the end of the 20th has come to seem the definitive literary form for representing and coming to terms with modernity. Syllabi vary, but the class usually attempts to convey a sense of the form's development over the past few centuries. Among topics likely to be considered are: developments in narrative technique, the novel's relation to history, national versus linguistic definitions of an "English" novel, social criticism in the novel, realism versus "romance," the novel's construction of subjectivities. Writers studied have included Daniel Defoe, Henry Fielding, Samuel Richardson, Lawrence Sterne, Mary Shelley, Jane Austen, Walter Scott, Emily and Charlotte Brontë, Charles Dic

Subjects

English literature | English literature | Novel | Novel | 18th century | 18th century | 19th century | 19th century | 20th century | 20th century | Eighteenth | Eighteenth | Nineteenth | Nineteenth | Twentieth | Twentieth | Modernity | Modernity | Narrative | Narrative | Social criticism | Social criticism | Realism | Realism | Romance | Romance | Romantic | Romantic | Subjectivity | Subjectivity | Jane Austen | Jane Austen | Emily Bront? | Emily Bront? | Charles Dickens | Charles Dickens | George Eliot | George Eliot | James Joyce | James Joyce | Salman Rushdie | Salman Rushdie | eighteenth century | eighteenth century | nineteenth century | nineteenth century | twentieth century | twentieth century

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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21H.311 The Renaissance, 1300-1600 (MIT) 21H.311 The Renaissance, 1300-1600 (MIT)

Description

The "Renaissance" as a phenomenon in European history is best understood as a series of social, political, and cultural responses to an intellectual trend which began in Italy in the fourteenth century. This intellectual tendency, known as humanism, or the studia humanitatis, was at the heart of developments in literature, the arts, the sciences, religion, and government for almost three hundred years. In this class, we will highlight the history of humanism, but we will also study religious reformations, high politics, the agrarian world, and European conquest and expansion abroad in the period. The "Renaissance" as a phenomenon in European history is best understood as a series of social, political, and cultural responses to an intellectual trend which began in Italy in the fourteenth century. This intellectual tendency, known as humanism, or the studia humanitatis, was at the heart of developments in literature, the arts, the sciences, religion, and government for almost three hundred years. In this class, we will highlight the history of humanism, but we will also study religious reformations, high politics, the agrarian world, and European conquest and expansion abroad in the period.

Subjects

Renaissance | Renaissance | fourteenth-century Italy | Geography | fourteenth-century Italy | Geography | Demography | Demography | Global Trade | Global Trade | Peasantry | Peasantry | The Black Death | Humanism | The Black Death | Humanism | Burgundy | Burgundy | Machiavelli | Machiavelli | Christian Humanism | Christian Humanism | Martin Luther | Martin Luther | fourteenth-century Italy | fourteenth-century Italy | Geography | Geography | The Black Death | The Black Death | Humanism | Humanism

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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21H.560 Smashing the Iron Rice Bowl: Chinese East Asia (MIT) 21H.560 Smashing the Iron Rice Bowl: Chinese East Asia (MIT)

Description

This subject examines the experiences of ordinary Chinese people as they lived through the tumultuous changes of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. We look at personal narratives, primary sources, films alongside a textbook to think about how individual and family lives connect with the broader processes of change in modern China. In the readings and discussions, you should focus on how major political events have an impact on the characters' daily lives, and how the decisions they make cause large-scale social transformation. This subject examines the experiences of ordinary Chinese people as they lived through the tumultuous changes of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. We look at personal narratives, primary sources, films alongside a textbook to think about how individual and family lives connect with the broader processes of change in modern China. In the readings and discussions, you should focus on how major political events have an impact on the characters' daily lives, and how the decisions they make cause large-scale social transformation.

Subjects

China; rice; bowl; Chinese; East Asia; ordinary people; nineteenth century; twentieth century; personal narratives; primary sources; films; textbook; individual; family; lives; change; modern; readings; discussions; political events; daily; decisions; large-scale; social; transformation. | China; rice; bowl; Chinese; East Asia; ordinary people; nineteenth century; twentieth century; personal narratives; primary sources; films; textbook; individual; family; lives; change; modern; readings; discussions; political events; daily; decisions; large-scale; social; transformation. | China | China | rice | rice | bowl | bowl | Chinese | Chinese | East Asia | East Asia | ordinary people | ordinary people | nineteenth century | nineteenth century | twentieth century | twentieth century | personal narratives | personal narratives | primary sources | primary sources | films | films | textbook | textbook | individual | individual | family | family | lives | lives | change | change | modern | modern | readings | readings | discussions | discussions | political events | political events | daily | daily | decisions | decisions | large-scale | large-scale | social | social | transformation | transformation | 21F.191 | 21F.191 | 21F.991 | 21F.991

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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21H.311 The Renaissance, 1300-1600 (MIT) 21H.311 The Renaissance, 1300-1600 (MIT)

Description

The "Renaissance" as a phenomenon in European history is best understood as a series of social, political, and cultural responses to an intellectual trend which began in Italy in the fourteenth century. This intellectual tendency, known as humanism, or the studia humanitatis, was at the heart of developments in literature, the arts, the sciences, religion, and government for almost three hundred years. In this class, we will highlight the history of humanism, but we will also study religious reformations, high politics, the agrarian world, and European conquest and expansion abroad in the period. The "Renaissance" as a phenomenon in European history is best understood as a series of social, political, and cultural responses to an intellectual trend which began in Italy in the fourteenth century. This intellectual tendency, known as humanism, or the studia humanitatis, was at the heart of developments in literature, the arts, the sciences, religion, and government for almost three hundred years. In this class, we will highlight the history of humanism, but we will also study religious reformations, high politics, the agrarian world, and European conquest and expansion abroad in the period.

Subjects

Renaissance | Renaissance | fourteenth-century Italy | Geography | fourteenth-century Italy | Geography | Demography | Demography | Global Trade | Global Trade | Peasantry | Peasantry | The Black Death | Humanism | The Black Death | Humanism | Burgundy | Burgundy | Machiavelli | Machiavelli | Christian Humanism | Christian Humanism | Martin Luther | Martin Luther | fourteenth-century Italy | fourteenth-century Italy | Geography | Geography | The Black Death | The Black Death | Humanism | Humanism

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Late nineteenth-century Britain and America: The people and the empire Late nineteenth-century Britain and America: The people and the empire

Description

Historians on both sides of the Atlantic have argued that the empire was not an issue of popular interest in late nineteenth-century Britain and the United States. In this free course, Late nineteenth-century Britain and America: The people and the empire, we shall look more closely at the evidence available to assess the truth of this argument. Were the working people, as opposed to the political leaders, interested in the issue of expansion? Was such interest evident only among certain sections of the community? Was it predominantly an enthusiasm for empire, or not? We shall also try to identify some of the reasons underlying the nature of the response. And we shall be interested in how far politicians found it worth their while to 'play to the gallery' and to manipulate popular opinio Historians on both sides of the Atlantic have argued that the empire was not an issue of popular interest in late nineteenth-century Britain and the United States. In this free course, Late nineteenth-century Britain and America: The people and the empire, we shall look more closely at the evidence available to assess the truth of this argument. Were the working people, as opposed to the political leaders, interested in the issue of expansion? Was such interest evident only among certain sections of the community? Was it predominantly an enthusiasm for empire, or not? We shall also try to identify some of the reasons underlying the nature of the response. And we shall be interested in how far politicians found it worth their while to 'play to the gallery' and to manipulate popular opinio

Subjects

Social & Economic History | Social & Economic History | British Empire | British Empire | spine | spine | polecats | polecats | politicians | politicians | Britain | Britain | roadkill | roadkill | empire | empire | AA303_1 | AA303_1

License

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence - see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ - Original copyright The Open University

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Smallpox in poetry

Description

Smallpox was rife in the eighteenth century, leaving its mark both on its sufferers, and on the literature of the period. This podcast explores its history in verse. Smallpox was common during the eighteenth-century, and its aftereffects much discussed and lamented in popular literature. This podcast explores its representation in eighteenth-century verse. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

popular culture | eighteenth-century | #greatwriters | disease | smallpox | popular culture | eighteenth-century | #greatwriters | disease | smallpox

License

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The poetry of war

Description

Explores the aesthetics and impact of war poetry in the early eighteenth century, focussing on Joseph Addison's poem, The Campaign. Blood, guts and gore all feature heavily in eighteenth century war poems. This podcast explores the popularity of the early eighteenth-century battle poem. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

eighteenth century | #greatwriters | war | poetry | eighteenth century | #greatwriters | war | poetry

License

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21L.448J Darwin and Design (MIT) 21L.448J Darwin and Design (MIT)

Description

In the Origin of Species (1859), Charles Darwin gave us a model for understanding how natural objects and systems can evidence design without positing a designer: how purpose and mechanism can exist without intelligent agency. Texts in this course deal with pre- and post-Darwinian treatment of this topic within literature and speculative thought since the eighteenth century. We will give some attention to the modern study of feedback mechanisms in artificial intelligence. Our reading will be in Hume, Voltaire, Malthus, Darwin, Butler, H. G. Wells, and Turing. In the Origin of Species (1859), Charles Darwin gave us a model for understanding how natural objects and systems can evidence design without positing a designer: how purpose and mechanism can exist without intelligent agency. Texts in this course deal with pre- and post-Darwinian treatment of this topic within literature and speculative thought since the eighteenth century. We will give some attention to the modern study of feedback mechanisms in artificial intelligence. Our reading will be in Hume, Voltaire, Malthus, Darwin, Butler, H. G. Wells, and Turing.

Subjects

Origin of Species | Origin of Species | Darwin | Darwin | intelligent agency | intelligent agency | literature | literature | speculative thought | speculative thought | eighteenth century | eighteenth century | feedback mechanism | feedback mechanism | artificial intelligence | artificial intelligence | Hume | Hume | Voltaire | Voltaire | Malthus | Malthus | Butler | Butler | Hardy | Hardy | H.G. Wells | H.G. Wells | Freud | Freud | Evolution | Evolution | Modern Western philosophy | Modern Western philosophy | Philosophy of science | Philosophy of science | Religion | Religion | Science | Science | Life Sciences | Life Sciences | Social Aspects | Social Aspects | History | History | Intelligent design | individual species | Intelligent design | individual species | complexity | complexity | development | development | God theory of evolution | God theory of evolution | science | science | theological explanation | theological explanation | universe | universe | creatures | creatures | faith | faith | and theology | and theology | purpose of evolution | purpose of evolution | Design | Design | models | models | adaptation | adaptation

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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STS.003 The Rise of Modern Science (MIT) STS.003 The Rise of Modern Science (MIT)

Description

This course studies the development of modern science from the seventeenth century to the present, focusing on Europe and the United States. Key questions include: What is science, and how is it done? How are discoveries made and accepted? What is the nature of scientific progress? What is the impact of science on society? What is the impact of society on science? Topics will be drawn from the histories of physics, chemistry, biology, psychology, and medicine.AcknowledgementThis class is based on the one originally designed and taught by Prof. David Jones. His Spring 2005 version can be viewed by following the link under Archived Courses on the right side of this page. This course studies the development of modern science from the seventeenth century to the present, focusing on Europe and the United States. Key questions include: What is science, and how is it done? How are discoveries made and accepted? What is the nature of scientific progress? What is the impact of science on society? What is the impact of society on science? Topics will be drawn from the histories of physics, chemistry, biology, psychology, and medicine.AcknowledgementThis class is based on the one originally designed and taught by Prof. David Jones. His Spring 2005 version can be viewed by following the link under Archived Courses on the right side of this page.

Subjects

technology; | technology; | technology | technology | society | society | modern | modern | seventeenth century | seventeenth century | present | present | discovery | discovery | progress | progress | history | history | physics | physics | chemistry | chemistry | biology | biology | genetics | genetics | geology | geology | medicine | medicine | psychology | psychology | computer science | computer science | race | race | ethics | ethics | scientific revolution | scientific revolution | warfare | warfare | evolution | evolution | Freud | Freud | Einstein | Einstein | Darwin | Darwin | experiment | experiment | eugenics | eugenics | technology and society | technology and society | policy | policy

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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21L.448 Darwin and Design (MIT) 21L.448 Darwin and Design (MIT)

Description

In the Origin of Species, Charles Darwin gave us a model for understanding how natural objects and systems can evidence design without positing a designer: how purpose and mechanism can exist without intelligent agency. Texts in this course deal with pre- and post-Darwinian treatment of this topic within literature and speculative thought since the eighteenth century. We will give some attention to the modern study of 'feedback mechanisms' in artificial intelligence. Our reading will be in Hume, Voltaire, Malthus, Darwin, Butler, Hardy, H. G. Wells, and Turing. There will be about 100 pages of weekly reading--sometimes fewer, sometimes more. Note: The title and content of this course, taught steadily at MIT since 1987, predate Michael Ruse's recent 2003 volume by the same titl In the Origin of Species, Charles Darwin gave us a model for understanding how natural objects and systems can evidence design without positing a designer: how purpose and mechanism can exist without intelligent agency. Texts in this course deal with pre- and post-Darwinian treatment of this topic within literature and speculative thought since the eighteenth century. We will give some attention to the modern study of 'feedback mechanisms' in artificial intelligence. Our reading will be in Hume, Voltaire, Malthus, Darwin, Butler, Hardy, H. G. Wells, and Turing. There will be about 100 pages of weekly reading--sometimes fewer, sometimes more. Note: The title and content of this course, taught steadily at MIT since 1987, predate Michael Ruse's recent 2003 volume by the same titl

Subjects

Origin of Species | Origin of Species | Darwin | Darwin | intelligent agency | intelligent agency | literature | literature | speculative thought | speculative thought | eighteenth century | eighteenth century | feedback mechanism | feedback mechanism | artificial intelligence | artificial intelligence | Hume | Hume | Voltaire | Voltaire | Malthus | Malthus | Butler | Butler | Hardy | Hardy | H.G. Wells | H.G. Wells | Freud | Freud | 21W.739 | 21W.739

License

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STS.003 The Rise of Modern Science (MIT) STS.003 The Rise of Modern Science (MIT)

Description

This course will study the development of modern science from the seventeenth century to the present, focusing on Europe and the United States. It will not focus on discoveries and their discoverers. Instead, it will examine: What is science? How has science been practiced, and by whom? How are discoveries made and accepted? What is the nature of scientific progress? What is the impact of science and society? What is the impact of society on science? Topics will be drawn from the histories of physics, chemistry, biology, geology, medicine, psychology, and computer science. This course will study the development of modern science from the seventeenth century to the present, focusing on Europe and the United States. It will not focus on discoveries and their discoverers. Instead, it will examine: What is science? How has science been practiced, and by whom? How are discoveries made and accepted? What is the nature of scientific progress? What is the impact of science and society? What is the impact of society on science? Topics will be drawn from the histories of physics, chemistry, biology, geology, medicine, psychology, and computer science.

Subjects

Science | Science | technology | technology | society | society | modern | modern | seventeenth century | seventeenth century | present | present | Europe | Europe | United States | United States | practice | practice | discoveries | discoveries | progress | progress | history | history | physics | physics | chemistry | chemistry | biology | biology | geology | geology | medicine | medicine | psychology | psychology | computer science | computer science

License

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21L.423 Introduction to Anglo-American Folkmusic (MIT) 21L.423 Introduction to Anglo-American Folkmusic (MIT)

Description

This subject will introduce students to scholarship about folk music of the British Isles and North America. We will define the qualities of "folk music" and "folk poetry," including the narrative qualities of ballads, and we will try to recreate the historical context in which such music was an essential part of everyday life. We will survey the history of collecting, beginning with Pepys' collection of broadsides, Percy's Reliques and the Gow collections of fiddle tunes. The urge to collect folk music will be placed in its larger historical, social and political contexts. We will trace the migrations of fiddle styles and of sung ballads to look at the broad outlines of the story of collecting folk music in the USA, especially in the nineteenth and twentieth centurie This subject will introduce students to scholarship about folk music of the British Isles and North America. We will define the qualities of "folk music" and "folk poetry," including the narrative qualities of ballads, and we will try to recreate the historical context in which such music was an essential part of everyday life. We will survey the history of collecting, beginning with Pepys' collection of broadsides, Percy's Reliques and the Gow collections of fiddle tunes. The urge to collect folk music will be placed in its larger historical, social and political contexts. We will trace the migrations of fiddle styles and of sung ballads to look at the broad outlines of the story of collecting folk music in the USA, especially in the nineteenth and twentieth centurie

Subjects

folk music | folk music | music production | music production | music transmission | music transmission | music preservation | music preservation | British Isles | British Isles | seventeenth century | seventeenth century | folk revival | folk revival | balladry | balladry | fiddle styles | fiddle styles | 21M.223 | 21M.223

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21H.311 The Renaissance, 1300-1600 (MIT) 21H.311 The Renaissance, 1300-1600 (MIT)

Description

The "Renaissance" as a phenomenon in European history is best understood as a series of social, political, and cultural responses to an intellectual trend which began in Italy in the fourteenth century. This intellectual tendency, known as humanism, or the studia humanitatis, was at the heart of developments in literature, the arts, the sciences, religion, and government for almost three hundred years. In this class, we will highlight the history of humanism, but we will also study religious reformations, high politics, the agrarian world, and European conquest and expansion abroad in the period. The "Renaissance" as a phenomenon in European history is best understood as a series of social, political, and cultural responses to an intellectual trend which began in Italy in the fourteenth century. This intellectual tendency, known as humanism, or the studia humanitatis, was at the heart of developments in literature, the arts, the sciences, religion, and government for almost three hundred years. In this class, we will highlight the history of humanism, but we will also study religious reformations, high politics, the agrarian world, and European conquest and expansion abroad in the period.

Subjects

Renaissance | Renaissance | fourteenth-century Italy | Geography | fourteenth-century Italy | Geography | Demography | Demography | Global Trade | Global Trade | Peasantry | Peasantry | The Black Death | Humanism | The Black Death | Humanism | Burgundy | Burgundy | Machiavelli | Machiavelli | Christian Humanism | Christian Humanism | Martin Luther | Martin Luther

License

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17.484 Comparative Grand Strategy and Military Doctrine (MIT) 17.484 Comparative Grand Strategy and Military Doctrine (MIT)

Description

This course will conduct a comparative study of the grand strategies of the great powers (Britain, France, Germany and Russia) competing for mastery of Europe from the late nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century. Grand strategy is the collection of political and military means and ends with which a state attempts to achieve security. We will examine strategic developments in the years preceding World Wars I and II, and how those developments played themselves out in these wars. The following questions will guide the inquiry: What is grand strategy and what are its critical aspects? What recurring factors have exerted the greatest influence on the strategies of the states selected for study? How may the quality of a grand strategy be judged? What consequences seem to follow from grand stra This course will conduct a comparative study of the grand strategies of the great powers (Britain, France, Germany and Russia) competing for mastery of Europe from the late nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century. Grand strategy is the collection of political and military means and ends with which a state attempts to achieve security. We will examine strategic developments in the years preceding World Wars I and II, and how those developments played themselves out in these wars. The following questions will guide the inquiry: What is grand strategy and what are its critical aspects? What recurring factors have exerted the greatest influence on the strategies of the states selected for study? How may the quality of a grand strategy be judged? What consequences seem to follow from grand stra

Subjects

Strategy | Strategy | grand | grand | comparative | comparative | United States | United States | Great Britian | Great Britian | France | France | Germany | Germany | Russia | Russia | Europe | Europe | nineteenth century | nineteenth century | twentieth century | twentieth century | political | political | military | military | security | security | doctrine | doctrine | organizations | organizations | nationalism | nationalism | international | international | World War I | World War I | World War II | World War II | land warfare | land warfare | methods | methods | history | history | case study | case study

License

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4.220 Urban Housing: Paris, London, New York (MIT) 4.220 Urban Housing: Paris, London, New York (MIT)

Description

This class presents an analysis of the development of housing models and their urban implications in Paris, London, and New York City from the seventeenth century to the present. The focus will be on three models: the French hotel, the London row house, and the New York City tenement and apartment building. Other topics covered will include twentieth-century housing reform movements and work by the London County Council, CIAM, and American public housing agencies. This class presents an analysis of the development of housing models and their urban implications in Paris, London, and New York City from the seventeenth century to the present. The focus will be on three models: the French hotel, the London row house, and the New York City tenement and apartment building. Other topics covered will include twentieth-century housing reform movements and work by the London County Council, CIAM, and American public housing agencies.

Subjects

housing | housing | urban planning | urban planning | city development | city development | urban history | urban history | seventeenth century to the present | seventeenth century to the present | New York City | New York City | London | London | Paris | Paris | tenements | tenements | slums | slums | row houses | row houses | court and garden | court and garden | country estate | country estate | urban development | urban development | modernism | modernism | city planning | city planning

License

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A sermon preached in the chapel of the Asylum for Female Orphans: at the anniversary meeting of the guardians, on Monday the sixteenth of May, 1768. ... By the Revd. Thomas Francklin, ... A sermon preached in the chapel of the Asylum for Female Orphans: at the anniversary meeting of the guardians, on Monday the sixteenth of May, 1768. ... By the Revd. Thomas Francklin, ...

Description

ebook version of A sermon preached in the chapel of the Asylum for Female Orphans: at the anniversary meeting of the guardians, on Monday the sixteenth of May, 1768. ... By the Revd. Thomas Francklin, ... ebook version of A sermon preached in the chapel of the Asylum for Female Orphans: at the anniversary meeting of the guardians, on Monday the sixteenth of May, 1768. ... By the Revd. Thomas Francklin, ...

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kind | kind | ECCO | ECCO | text | text | CC BY-SA | CC BY-SA

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The history of English poetry: from the close of the eleventh to the commencement of the eighteenth century. To which are prefixed, two dissertations. ... By Thomas Warton, ... [pt.4] The history of English poetry: from the close of the eleventh to the commencement of the eighteenth century. To which are prefixed, two dissertations. ... By Thomas Warton, ... [pt.4]

Description

ebook version of The history of English poetry: from the close of the eleventh to the commencement of the eighteenth century. To which are prefixed, two dissertations. ... By Thomas Warton, ... [pt.4] ebook version of The history of English poetry: from the close of the eleventh to the commencement of the eighteenth century. To which are prefixed, two dissertations. ... By Thomas Warton, ... [pt.4]

Subjects

kind | kind | ECCO | ECCO | text | text | CC BY-SA | CC BY-SA

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