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7.343 The Radical Consequences of Respiration: Reactive Oxygen Species in Aging and Disease (MIT) 7.343 The Radical Consequences of Respiration: Reactive Oxygen Species in Aging and Disease (MIT)

Description

This course will start with a survey of basic oxygen radical biochemistry followed by a discussion of the mechanisms of action of cellular as well as dietary antioxidants. After considering the normal physiological roles of oxidants, we will examine the effects of elevated ROS and a failure of cellular redox capacity on the rate of organismal and cellular aging as well as on the onset and progression of several major diseases that are often age-related. Topics will include ROS-induced effects on stem cell regeneration, insulin resistance, heart disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. The role of antioxidants in potential therapeutic strategies for modulating ROS levels will also be discussed. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology D This course will start with a survey of basic oxygen radical biochemistry followed by a discussion of the mechanisms of action of cellular as well as dietary antioxidants. After considering the normal physiological roles of oxidants, we will examine the effects of elevated ROS and a failure of cellular redox capacity on the rate of organismal and cellular aging as well as on the onset and progression of several major diseases that are often age-related. Topics will include ROS-induced effects on stem cell regeneration, insulin resistance, heart disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. The role of antioxidants in potential therapeutic strategies for modulating ROS levels will also be discussed. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology D

Subjects

reactive oxygen species | reactive oxygen species | oxygen | oxygen | ROS | ROS | energy | energy | mitochondria | mitochondria | cell signaling | cell signaling | anti-pathogen | anti-pathogen | oxidative damage | oxidative damage | oncogene | oncogene | antioxidant | antioxidant | insulin resistance | insulin resistance | diabetes | diabetes | stem cell | stem cell | neurodegenerative | neurodegenerative | ischemic | ischemic | ATP | ATP | pathways | pathways | NADPH | NADPH | nox | nox | psd | psd | programmed cell death | programmed cell death | apoptosis | apoptosis | hsc | hsc | hematopoietic | hematopoietic

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.343 Photosynthesis: Life from Light (MIT) 7.343 Photosynthesis: Life from Light (MIT)

Description

In this course, you will journey through the web of physical, chemical, and biological reactions that collectively constitute photosynthesis. We will begin with light harvesting and follow photons to the sites of primary photochemistry: the photoreaction centers. A molecular-scale view will show in atomic detail how these protein complexes capture and energize electrons. Then we will follow the multiple pathways electrons take as they carry out their work. Consequent reactions, such as the synthesis of ATP and the reduction of CO2 during the synthesis of carbohydrates, will also be discussed in structural detail. Lastly, we will delve into the evolution of these systems and also discuss other photosynthetic strategies, such as light-driven proton pumps and anoxygenic photosynthesis. The co In this course, you will journey through the web of physical, chemical, and biological reactions that collectively constitute photosynthesis. We will begin with light harvesting and follow photons to the sites of primary photochemistry: the photoreaction centers. A molecular-scale view will show in atomic detail how these protein complexes capture and energize electrons. Then we will follow the multiple pathways electrons take as they carry out their work. Consequent reactions, such as the synthesis of ATP and the reduction of CO2 during the synthesis of carbohydrates, will also be discussed in structural detail. Lastly, we will delve into the evolution of these systems and also discuss other photosynthetic strategies, such as light-driven proton pumps and anoxygenic photosynthesis. The co

Subjects

photosynthesis | photosynthesis | life from light | life from light | conversion | conversion | solar energy | solar energy | chemical energy | chemical energy | biogeochemical cycles | biogeochemical cycles | global warming | global warming | physical | physical | chemical and biological reactions | chemical and biological reactions | light harvesting | light harvesting | photochemistry | photochemistry | protein complexes | protein complexes | synthesis of ATP | synthesis of ATP | reduction of CO2 | reduction of CO2 | carbohydrates | carbohydrates | light-driven proton pumps | light-driven proton pumps | anoxygenic photosynthesis | anoxygenic photosynthesis

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.01SC Fundamentals of Biology (MIT) 7.01SC Fundamentals of Biology (MIT)

Description

Fundamentals of Biology focuses on the basic principles of biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, and recombinant DNA. These principles are necessary to understanding the basic mechanisms of life and anchor the biological knowledge that is required to understand many of the challenges in everyday life, from human health and disease to loss of biodiversity and environmental quality. Fundamentals of Biology focuses on the basic principles of biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, and recombinant DNA. These principles are necessary to understanding the basic mechanisms of life and anchor the biological knowledge that is required to understand many of the challenges in everyday life, from human health and disease to loss of biodiversity and environmental quality.

Subjects

amino acids | amino acids | carboxyl group | carboxyl group | amino group | amino group | side chains | side chains | polar | polar | hydrophobic | hydrophobic | primary structure | primary structure | secondary structure | secondary structure | tertiary structure | tertiary structure | quaternary structure | quaternary structure | x-ray crystallography | x-ray crystallography | alpha helix | alpha helix | beta sheet | beta sheet | ionic bond | ionic bond | non-polar bond | non-polar bond | van der Waals interactions | van der Waals interactions | proton gradient | proton gradient | cyclic photophosphorylation | cyclic photophosphorylation | sunlight | sunlight | ATP | ATP | chlorophyll | chlorophyll | chlorophyll a | chlorophyll a | electrons | electrons | hydrogen sulfide | hydrogen sulfide | biosynthesis | biosynthesis | non-cyclic photophosphorylation | non-cyclic photophosphorylation | photosystem II | photosystem II | photosystem I | photosystem I | cyanobacteria | cyanobacteria | chloroplast | chloroplast | stroma | stroma | thylakoid membrane | thylakoid membrane | Genetics | Genetics | Mendel | Mendel | Mendel's Laws | Mendel's Laws | cloning | cloning | restriction enzymes | restriction enzymes | vector | vector | insert DNA | insert DNA | ligase | ligase | library | library | E.Coli | E.Coli | phosphatase | phosphatase | yeast | yeast | transformation | transformation | ARG1 gene | ARG1 gene | ARG1 mutant yeast | ARG1 mutant yeast | yeast wild-type | yeast wild-type | cloning by complementation | cloning by complementation | Human Beta Globin gene | Human Beta Globin gene | protein tetramer | protein tetramer | vectors | vectors | antibodies | antibodies | human promoter | human promoter | splicing | splicing | mRNA | mRNA | cDNA | cDNA | reverse transcriptase | reverse transcriptase | plasmid | plasmid | electrophoresis | electrophoresis | DNA sequencing | DNA sequencing | primer | primer | template | template | capillary tube | capillary tube | laser detector | laser detector | human genome project | human genome project | recombinant DNA | recombinant DNA | clone | clone | primer walking | primer walking | subcloning | subcloning | computer assembly | computer assembly | shotgun sequencing | shotgun sequencing | open reading frame | open reading frame | databases | databases | polymerase chain reaction (PCR) | polymerase chain reaction (PCR) | polymerase | polymerase | nucleotides | nucleotides | Thermus aquaticus | Thermus aquaticus | Taq polymerase | Taq polymerase | thermocycler | thermocycler | resequencing | resequencing | in vitro fertilization | in vitro fertilization | pre-implantation diagnostics | pre-implantation diagnostics | forensics | forensics | genetic engineering | genetic engineering | DNA sequences | DNA sequences | therapeutic proteins | therapeutic proteins | E. coli | E. coli | disease-causing mutations | disease-causing mutations | cleavage of DNA | cleavage of DNA | bacterial transformation | bacterial transformation | recombinant DNA revolution | recombinant DNA revolution | biotechnology industry | biotechnology industry | Robert Swanson | Robert Swanson | toxin gene | toxin gene | pathogenic bacterium | pathogenic bacterium | biomedical research | biomedical research | S. Pyogenes | S. Pyogenes | origin of replication | origin of replication

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.342 Powerhouse Rules: The Role of Mitochondria in Human Diseases (MIT) 7.342 Powerhouse Rules: The Role of Mitochondria in Human Diseases (MIT)

Description

The primary role of mitochondria is to produce 90% of a cell's energy in the form of ATP through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. A variety of clinical disorders have been shown to include "mitochondrial dysfunction," which loosely refers to defective oxidative phosphorylation and usually coincides with the occurrence of excess Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production, placing cells under oxidative stress. A known cause and effect of oxidative stress is damage to and mutation of mitochondrial DNA. We will use this class to explore issues relating to mitochondrial DNA integrity and how it can be damaged, repaired, mutated, and compromised in human diseases. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These semi The primary role of mitochondria is to produce 90% of a cell's energy in the form of ATP through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. A variety of clinical disorders have been shown to include "mitochondrial dysfunction," which loosely refers to defective oxidative phosphorylation and usually coincides with the occurrence of excess Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production, placing cells under oxidative stress. A known cause and effect of oxidative stress is damage to and mutation of mitochondrial DNA. We will use this class to explore issues relating to mitochondrial DNA integrity and how it can be damaged, repaired, mutated, and compromised in human diseases. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These semi

Subjects

mitochondria | mitochondria | human disease | human disease | ATP | ATP | oxidative phosphorylation | oxidative phosphorylation | mitochondrial genome | mitochondrial genome | Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) | Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) | mitochondrial dysfunction | mitochondrial dysfunction | oxidative stress | 8-oxoguanine | oxidative stress | 8-oxoguanine | 8-oxoG | 8-oxoG | mtDNA | mtDNA | Ogg1 | Ogg1 | Oxoguanine glycosylase | Oxoguanine glycosylase | mitochondrial DNA polymerase | mitochondrial DNA polymerase | Alzheimer’s disease | Alzheimer’s disease | Parkinson’s disease | Parkinson’s disease | Y955C | Y955C | Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes | Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.01SC Fundamentals of Biology (MIT)

Description

Fundamentals of Biology focuses on the basic principles of biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, and recombinant DNA. These principles are necessary to understanding the basic mechanisms of life and anchor the biological knowledge that is required to understand many of the challenges in everyday life, from human health and disease to loss of biodiversity and environmental quality.

Subjects

amino acids | carboxyl group | amino group | side chains | polar | hydrophobic | primary structure | secondary structure | tertiary structure | quaternary structure | x-ray crystallography | alpha helix | beta sheet | ionic bond | non-polar bond | van der Waals interactions | proton gradient | cyclic photophosphorylation | sunlight | ATP | chlorophyll | chlorophyll a | electrons | hydrogen sulfide | biosynthesis | non-cyclic photophosphorylation | photosystem II | photosystem I | cyanobacteria | chloroplast | stroma | thylakoid membrane | Genetics | Mendel | Mendel's Laws | cloning | restriction enzymes | vector | insert DNA | ligase | library | E.Coli | phosphatase | yeast | transformation | ARG1 gene | ARG1 mutant yeast | yeast wild-type | cloning by complementation | Human Beta Globin gene | protein tetramer | vectors | antibodies | human promoter | splicing | mRNA | cDNA | reverse transcriptase | plasmid | electrophoresis | DNA sequencing | primer | template | capillary tube | laser detector | human genome project | recombinant DNA | clone | primer walking | subcloning | computer assembly | shotgun sequencing | open reading frame | databases | polymerase chain reaction (PCR) | polymerase | nucleotides | Thermus aquaticus | Taq polymerase | thermocycler | resequencing | in vitro fertilization | pre-implantation diagnostics | forensics | genetic engineering | DNA sequences | therapeutic proteins | E. coli | disease-causing mutations | cleavage of DNA | bacterial transformation | recombinant DNA revolution | biotechnology industry | Robert Swanson | toxin gene | pathogenic bacterium | biomedical research | S. Pyogenes | origin of replication

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.342 Powerhouse Rules: The Role of Mitochondria in Human Diseases (MIT)

Description

The primary role of mitochondria is to produce 90% of a cell's energy in the form of ATP through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. A variety of clinical disorders have been shown to include "mitochondrial dysfunction," which loosely refers to defective oxidative phosphorylation and usually coincides with the occurrence of excess Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production, placing cells under oxidative stress. A known cause and effect of oxidative stress is damage to and mutation of mitochondrial DNA. We will use this class to explore issues relating to mitochondrial DNA integrity and how it can be damaged, repaired, mutated, and compromised in human diseases. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These semi

Subjects

mitochondria | human disease | ATP | oxidative phosphorylation | mitochondrial genome | Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) | mitochondrial dysfunction | oxidative stress | 8-oxoguanine | 8-oxoG | mtDNA | Ogg1 | Oxoguanine glycosylase | mitochondrial DNA polymerase | ?s disease | Y955C | Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.343 The Radical Consequences of Respiration: Reactive Oxygen Species in Aging and Disease (MIT)

Description

This course will start with a survey of basic oxygen radical biochemistry followed by a discussion of the mechanisms of action of cellular as well as dietary antioxidants. After considering the normal physiological roles of oxidants, we will examine the effects of elevated ROS and a failure of cellular redox capacity on the rate of organismal and cellular aging as well as on the onset and progression of several major diseases that are often age-related. Topics will include ROS-induced effects on stem cell regeneration, insulin resistance, heart disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. The role of antioxidants in potential therapeutic strategies for modulating ROS levels will also be discussed. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology D

Subjects

reactive oxygen species | oxygen | ROS | energy | mitochondria | cell signaling | anti-pathogen | oxidative damage | oncogene | antioxidant | insulin resistance | diabetes | stem cell | neurodegenerative | ischemic | ATP | pathways | NADPH | nox | psd | programmed cell death | apoptosis | hsc | hematopoietic

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.343 Photosynthesis: Life from Light (MIT)

Description

In this course, you will journey through the web of physical, chemical, and biological reactions that collectively constitute photosynthesis. We will begin with light harvesting and follow photons to the sites of primary photochemistry: the photoreaction centers. A molecular-scale view will show in atomic detail how these protein complexes capture and energize electrons. Then we will follow the multiple pathways electrons take as they carry out their work. Consequent reactions, such as the synthesis of ATP and the reduction of CO2 during the synthesis of carbohydrates, will also be discussed in structural detail. Lastly, we will delve into the evolution of these systems and also discuss other photosynthetic strategies, such as light-driven proton pumps and anoxygenic photosynthesis. The co

Subjects

photosynthesis | life from light | conversion | solar energy | chemical energy | biogeochemical cycles | global warming | physical | chemical and biological reactions | light harvesting | photochemistry | protein complexes | synthesis of ATP | reduction of CO2 | carbohydrates | light-driven proton pumps | anoxygenic photosynthesis

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.343 Photosynthesis: Life from Light (MIT)

Description

In this course, you will journey through the web of physical, chemical, and biological reactions that collectively constitute photosynthesis. We will begin with light harvesting and follow photons to the sites of primary photochemistry: the photoreaction centers. A molecular-scale view will show in atomic detail how these protein complexes capture and energize electrons. Then we will follow the multiple pathways electrons take as they carry out their work. Consequent reactions, such as the synthesis of ATP and the reduction of CO2 during the synthesis of carbohydrates, will also be discussed in structural detail. Lastly, we will delve into the evolution of these systems and also discuss other photosynthetic strategies, such as light-driven proton pumps and anoxygenic photosynthesis. The co

Subjects

photosynthesis | life from light | conversion | solar energy | chemical energy | biogeochemical cycles | global warming | physical | chemical and biological reactions | light harvesting | photochemistry | protein complexes | synthesis of ATP | reduction of CO2 | carbohydrates | light-driven proton pumps | anoxygenic photosynthesis

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Human energy metabolism eBook

Description

This was designed using Articulate Storyline. The .story file is included so if you have access to Articulate Storyline you are able to edit this resource. If you do not have access to use Articulate Storyline you will able to use the zip file to host it yourself.

Subjects

Human energy metabolism | Temperature regulation | Muscle types | Oxidation phosphorylation | Inhibiting complexes | electron transport chain | ATP synthesis | dentistry | A000

License

Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

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