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1

Constitutionalism, ethnicity and minority rights in Africa: a legal appraisal from the Great Lakes region

Description

Public Seminar Series, Trinity term 2013. Seminar by Dr Jeremie Gilbert (University of East London) recorded on 22 May 2013 at the Oxford Department of International Development, University of Oxford. The last decade has witnessed a constitutional revival in Africa, with several countries adopting new constitutions. Several of these constitutions have been adopted following serious ethnic tensions, especially in the Great Lakes region. Because of the nature of the ethnic conflicts which were rooted in the repression of minority communities, the new constitutional frameworks regarding ethnicity and minority rights are going to be extremely significant for the peace and stability of the region. By analysing the recently adopted constitutions of Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic o Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

rights | anthropology | Rwanda | migration | burundi | drc | law | refugees | rights | anthropology | Rwanda | migration | burundi | drc | law | refugees

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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17.478 Great Power Military Intervention (MIT) 17.478 Great Power Military Intervention (MIT)

Description

This course examines systematically, and comparatively, great and middle power military interventions, and candidate military interventions, into civil wars from the 1990s to the present. These civil wars did not easily fit into the traditional category of vital interest. These interventions may therefore tell us something about broad trends in international politics including the nature of unipolarity, the erosion of sovereignty, the security implications of globalization, and the nature of modern western military power. This course examines systematically, and comparatively, great and middle power military interventions, and candidate military interventions, into civil wars from the 1990s to the present. These civil wars did not easily fit into the traditional category of vital interest. These interventions may therefore tell us something about broad trends in international politics including the nature of unipolarity, the erosion of sovereignty, the security implications of globalization, and the nature of modern western military power.

Subjects

military intervention | military intervention | post Cold War | post Cold War | internal conflict | internal conflict | Kurds | Kurds | Iraq | Iraq | Somalia | Somalia | Bosnia | Bosnia | Serbia | Serbia | Kosovo | Kosovo | Libya | Libya | Rwanda | Rwanda | Darfur | Darfur | Sudan | Sudan | United States | United States | civil war | civil war | political strategies | political strategies | failing states | failing states | foreign policy | foreign policy | NATO | NATO | genocide | genocide | refugee | refugee | sanctions | sanctions | political reconstruction | political reconstruction | peacekeeping | peacekeeping | humanitarian intervention | humanitarian intervention | the Balkans | the Balkans | Gaddafi | Gaddafi | preventive diplomacy | preventive diplomacy

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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EC.701J D-Lab I: Development (MIT) EC.701J D-Lab I: Development (MIT)

Description

D-Lab Development addresses issues of technological improvements at the micro level for developing countries—in particular, how the quality of life of low-income households can be improved by adaptation of low cost and sustainable technologies. Discussion of development issues as well as project implementation challenges are addressed through lectures, case studies, guest speakers and laboratory exercises. Students form project teams to partner with mostly local level organizations in developing countries, and formulate plans for an IAP site visit. (Previous field sites include Ghana, Brazil, Honduras and India.) Project team meetings focus on developing specific projects and include cultural, social, political, environmental and economic overviews of the countries and localities to D-Lab Development addresses issues of technological improvements at the micro level for developing countries—in particular, how the quality of life of low-income households can be improved by adaptation of low cost and sustainable technologies. Discussion of development issues as well as project implementation challenges are addressed through lectures, case studies, guest speakers and laboratory exercises. Students form project teams to partner with mostly local level organizations in developing countries, and formulate plans for an IAP site visit. (Previous field sites include Ghana, Brazil, Honduras and India.) Project team meetings focus on developing specific projects and include cultural, social, political, environmental and economic overviews of the countries and localities to

Subjects

EC.701 | EC.701 | 11.025 | 11.025 | 11.472 | 11.472 | development project | development project | appropriate technology | appropriate technology | sustainable development | sustainable development | intermediate technology | intermediate technology | stakeholder analysis | stakeholder analysis | China | China | India | India | Rwanda | Rwanda | Sierra Leone | Sierra Leone | Tanzania | Tanzania | Africa | Africa | developing country | developing country | international development | international development | third world | third world | poverty | poverty | bottom of the pyramid;cooking | bottom of the pyramid;cooking | latrine | latrine | grain mill | grain mill | solar energy | solar energy | stove | stove | energy | energy | charcoal | charcoal | wheelchair | wheelchair | water | water | water quality | water quality | safe water | safe water | water treatment | water treatment | health | health | sanitation | sanitation | World Bank | World Bank | NGO | NGO | United Nations | United Nations | ICT4D | ICT4D | ICT4C | ICT4C | microfinance | microfinance | micro-finance | micro-finance | AIDS | AIDS | HIV | HIV | wind power | wind power | solar power | solar power | biomass | biomass | biodiesel | biodiesel | biogas | biogas | agriculture | agriculture | farming | farming | food | food | green revolution | green revolution | millenium development goals | millenium development goals

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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21A.217 Anthropology of War and Peace (MIT) 21A.217 Anthropology of War and Peace (MIT)

Description

This class has been reorganized to focus primarily on the War in Iraq. As in previous years, the class still examines war in cross-cultural perspective, asking whether war is intrinsic to human nature, what causes war, how particular cultural experiences of war differ, and how war has affected American culture. This class has been reorganized to focus primarily on the War in Iraq. As in previous years, the class still examines war in cross-cultural perspective, asking whether war is intrinsic to human nature, what causes war, how particular cultural experiences of war differ, and how war has affected American culture.

Subjects

anthropology | anthropology | war | war | peace | peace | f humans are by nature warlike | f humans are by nature warlike | the evolution of war in cross-cultural perspective | the evolution of war in cross-cultural perspective | the socialization of warriors and the construction of enemies | the socialization of warriors and the construction of enemies | the recent emergence of anti-war movements | the recent emergence of anti-war movements | sociobiological and other theories of war | sociobiological and other theories of war | ethnic hatred and civil war in Rwanda | ethnic hatred and civil war in Rwanda | Bosnia | Bosnia | and Northern Ireland | and Northern Ireland | military culture in the U.S. and elsewhere | military culture in the U.S. and elsewhere | peace movements | peace movements | studies of military conversion | studies of military conversion | Northern Ireland | Northern Ireland | humans are by nature warlike | humans are by nature warlike

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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The Legitimation of Criminal Justice in Post-Genocide Rwanda: international, national and localised courts

Description

Dr Nikki Palmer (Oxford) gives a talk for the African Studies Centre seminar series on 8th February. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

justice | Africa | Rwanda | genocide | politics | law | justice | Africa | Rwanda | genocide | politics | law

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Politics and Genocide: Rwanda (African Studies Seminar)

Description

Dr Omar McDoom (London School of Economics) looks at a single community in southern Rwanda, using spatial mapping, in order to understand why some people chose to kill during the violence and others did not. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

Africa | methodology | Rwanda | genocide | spatial mapping | Africa | methodology | Rwanda | genocide | spatial mapping | 2011-02-17

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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17.952 Great Power Military Intervention (MIT) 17.952 Great Power Military Intervention (MIT)

Description

The purpose of this seminar is to examine systematically, and comparatively, great and middle power military interventions into civil wars during the 1990's. These civil wars were high on the policy agenda of western states during the 1990's. Yet, these interventions were usually not motivated by obvious classical vital interests. Given the extraordinary security enjoyed by the great and middle powers of the west in the Cold War's aftermath, these activities are puzzling. The purpose of this seminar is to examine systematically, and comparatively, great and middle power military interventions into civil wars during the 1990's. These civil wars were high on the policy agenda of western states during the 1990's. Yet, these interventions were usually not motivated by obvious classical vital interests. Given the extraordinary security enjoyed by the great and middle powers of the west in the Cold War's aftermath, these activities are puzzling.

Subjects

Power | Power | military | military | intervention | intervention | civil | civil | war | war | policy | policy | security | security | cold war | cold war | United States | United States | combat | combat | peace enforcement | peace enforcement | Kurds | Kurds | Iraq | Iraq | Somalia | Somalia | Aristide | Aristide | Haiti | Haiti | Bosnia | Bosnia | Herzegovina | Herzegovina | NATO | NATO | Serbia | Serbia | Kosovo | Kosovo | Croatia | Croatia | genocide | genocide | Rwanda | Rwanda | strategy | strategy | United Nations | United Nations | Europe | Europe | Media | Media | Journalism | Journalism | Non Government Organizations | Non Government Organizations | NGOs | NGOs | sanctions | sanctions | political theory | political theory

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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21A.442J Violence, Human Rights, and Justice (MIT) 21A.442J Violence, Human Rights, and Justice (MIT)

Description

This course examines the problem of mass violence and oppression in the contemporary world, and the concept of human rights as a defense against such abuse. It explores questions of cultural relativism, race, gender and ethnicity. It examines case studies from war crimes tribunals, truth commissions, anti-terrorist policies and other judicial attempts to redress state-sponsored wrongs. It also considers whether the human rights framework effectively promotes the rule of law in modern societies. Students debate moral positions and address ideas of moral relativism. This course examines the problem of mass violence and oppression in the contemporary world, and the concept of human rights as a defense against such abuse. It explores questions of cultural relativism, race, gender and ethnicity. It examines case studies from war crimes tribunals, truth commissions, anti-terrorist policies and other judicial attempts to redress state-sponsored wrongs. It also considers whether the human rights framework effectively promotes the rule of law in modern societies. Students debate moral positions and address ideas of moral relativism.

Subjects

21A.442 | 21A.442 | WGS.270 | WGS.270 | political violence | political violence | human rights | human rights | justice | justice | freedom | freedom | peace | peace | cultural relativism | cultural relativism | war crimes tribunals | war crimes tribunals | truth commissions | truth commissions | historical traumas | historical traumas | gender | gender | religion | religion | the Holocaust | the Holocaust | United Nations | United Nations | universalism | universalism | Argentina | Argentina | Ireland | Ireland | Amnesty International | Amnesty International | Rwanda | Rwanda | Palestine | Palestine | South Africa | South Africa | Haiti | Haiti

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Fullbright Lecture 2012: When can international intervention be justified and effective?

Description

The doctrine of the international community's responsibility to protect the citizens of a country whose government has failed them has strengthened the presumption in favour of international intervention for humanitarian reasons. Sir John Holmes asks: 'When can international intervention be justified and effective?'Since the Rwandan genocide, the development of the doctrine of the international community's 'responsibility to protect' the citizens of a country whose government has failed them has strengthened the presumption in favour of international intervention for humanitarian reasons. At the same time the problems and failures in Iraq and Afghanistan have strengthened the arguments against such intervention. Both sides have seen in the case of Libya, while Syria has left everyone Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

humanitarian | politics | Rwanda | international intervention | international law | humanitarian | politics | Rwanda | international intervention | international law

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fullbright Lecture 2012: When can international intervention be justified and effective?

Description

The doctrine of the international community's responsibility to protect the citizens of a country whose government has failed them has strengthened the presumption in favour of international intervention for humanitarian reasons. Sir John Holmes asks: 'When can international intervention be justified and effective?'Since the Rwandan genocide, the development of the doctrine of the international community's 'responsibility to protect' the citizens of a country whose government has failed them has strengthened the presumption in favour of international intervention for humanitarian reasons. At the same time the problems and failures in Iraq and Afghanistan have strengthened the arguments against such intervention. Both sides have seen in the case of Libya, while Syria has left everyone Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

humanitarian | politics | Rwanda | international intervention | international law | humanitarian | politics | Rwanda | international intervention | international law

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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SP.721 D-Lab I: Development (MIT)

Description

D-Lab Development addresses issues of technological improvements at the micro level for developing countries—in particular, how the quality of life of low-income households can be improved by adaptation of low cost and sustainable technologies. Discussion of development issues as well as project implementation challenges are addressed through lectures, case studies, guest speakers and laboratory exercises. Students form project teams to partner with mostly local level organizations in developing countries, and formulate plans for an IAP site visit. (Previous field sites include Ghana, Brazil, Honduras and India.) Project team meetings focus on developing specific projects and include cultural, social, political, environmental and economic overviews of the countries and localities to

Subjects

development project | appropriate technology | sustainable development | intermediate technology | stakeholder analysis | China | India | Rwanda | Sierra Leone | Tanzania | Africa | developing country | international development | third world | poverty | bottom of the pyramid;cooking | latrine | grain mill | solar energy | stove | energy | charcoal | wheelchair | water | water quality | safe water | water treatment | health | sanitation | World Bank | NGO | United Nations | ICT4D | ICT4C | microfinance | micro-finance | AIDS | HIV | wind power | solar power | biomass | biodiesel | biogas | agriculture | farming | food | green revolution | millenium development goals

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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17.952 Great Power Military Intervention (MIT)

Description

The purpose of this seminar is to examine systematically, and comparatively, great and middle power military interventions into civil wars during the 1990's. These civil wars were high on the policy agenda of western states during the 1990's. Yet, these interventions were usually not motivated by obvious classical vital interests. Given the extraordinary security enjoyed by the great and middle powers of the west in the Cold War's aftermath, these activities are puzzling.

Subjects

Power | military | intervention | civil | war | policy | security | cold war | United States | combat | peace enforcement | Kurds | Iraq | Somalia | Aristide | Haiti | Bosnia | Herzegovina | NATO | Serbia | Kosovo | Croatia | genocide | Rwanda | strategy | United Nations | Europe | Media | Journalism | Non Government Organizations | NGOs | sanctions | political theory

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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17.478 Great Power Military Intervention (MIT)

Description

This course examines systematically, and comparatively, great and middle power military interventions, and candidate military interventions, into civil wars from the 1990s to the present. These civil wars did not easily fit into the traditional category of vital interest. These interventions may therefore tell us something about broad trends in international politics including the nature of unipolarity, the erosion of sovereignty, the security implications of globalization, and the nature of modern western military power.

Subjects

military intervention | post Cold War | internal conflict | Kurds | Iraq | Somalia | Bosnia | Serbia | Kosovo | Libya | Rwanda | Darfur | Sudan | United States | civil war | political strategies | failing states | foreign policy | NATO | genocide | refugee | sanctions | political reconstruction | peacekeeping | humanitarian intervention | the Balkans | Gaddafi | preventive diplomacy

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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EC.701J D-Lab I: Development (MIT)

Description

D-Lab Development addresses issues of technological improvements at the micro level for developing countries—in particular, how the quality of life of low-income households can be improved by adaptation of low cost and sustainable technologies. Discussion of development issues as well as project implementation challenges are addressed through lectures, case studies, guest speakers and laboratory exercises. Students form project teams to partner with mostly local level organizations in developing countries, and formulate plans for an IAP site visit. (Previous field sites include Ghana, Brazil, Honduras and India.) Project team meetings focus on developing specific projects and include cultural, social, political, environmental and economic overviews of the countries and localities to

Subjects

EC.701 | 11.025 | 11.472 | development project | appropriate technology | sustainable development | intermediate technology | stakeholder analysis | China | India | Rwanda | Sierra Leone | Tanzania | Africa | developing country | international development | third world | poverty | bottom of the pyramid;cooking | latrine | grain mill | solar energy | stove | energy | charcoal | wheelchair | water | water quality | safe water | water treatment | health | sanitation | World Bank | NGO | United Nations | ICT4D | ICT4C | microfinance | micro-finance | AIDS | HIV | wind power | solar power | biomass | biodiesel | biogas | agriculture | farming | food | green revolution | millenium development goals

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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…: Rwandan refugees and the latest bilateral politicking in the Great Lakes

Description

The year 2002 marked the initiation of discussions concerning the suitability of invoking Article 1C(5) of the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees to deal with the protracted Rwandan refugee caseload. This Article permits a declaration by countries and UNHCR that ‘the circumstances in connexion with which he [the refugee] has been recognised as a refugee have ceased to exist’, and therefore ‘he can no longer…continue to refuse to avail himself of the protection of the country of his nationality.’ In short, the ‘ceased circumstances’ Cessation Clause constitutes an international validation of positive change in post-conflict governance and the meaningful re-establishment of the citizen-state bond, as well as providing a legal normative framework for the repatria

Subjects

Africa | Fragile and Post Conflict States | International Relations | Violence and the State in Central Africa | Central Africa | Refugees | Repatriation | Rwanda | Uganda | UNHCR

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

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17.952 Great Power Military Intervention (MIT)

Description

The purpose of this seminar is to examine systematically, and comparatively, great and middle power military interventions into civil wars during the 1990's. These civil wars were high on the policy agenda of western states during the 1990's. Yet, these interventions were usually not motivated by obvious classical vital interests. Given the extraordinary security enjoyed by the great and middle powers of the west in the Cold War's aftermath, these activities are puzzling.

Subjects

Power | military | intervention | civil | war | policy | security | cold war | United States | combat | peace enforcement | Kurds | Iraq | Somalia | Aristide | Haiti | Bosnia | Herzegovina | NATO | Serbia | Kosovo | Croatia | genocide | Rwanda | strategy | United Nations | Europe | Media | Journalism | Non Government Organizations | NGOs | sanctions | political theory

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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21A.442J Violence, Human Rights, and Justice (MIT)

Description

This course examines the problem of mass violence and oppression in the contemporary world, and the concept of human rights as a defense against such abuse. It explores questions of cultural relativism, race, gender and ethnicity. It examines case studies from war crimes tribunals, truth commissions, anti-terrorist policies and other judicial attempts to redress state-sponsored wrongs. It also considers whether the human rights framework effectively promotes the rule of law in modern societies. Students debate moral positions and address ideas of moral relativism.

Subjects

21A.442 | WGS.270 | political violence | human rights | justice | freedom | peace | cultural relativism | war crimes tribunals | truth commissions | historical traumas | gender | religion | the Holocaust | United Nations | universalism | Argentina | Ireland | Amnesty International | Rwanda | Palestine | South Africa | Haiti

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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21A.217 Anthropology of War and Peace (MIT)

Description

This class has been reorganized to focus primarily on the War in Iraq. As in previous years, the class still examines war in cross-cultural perspective, asking whether war is intrinsic to human nature, what causes war, how particular cultural experiences of war differ, and how war has affected American culture.

Subjects

anthropology | war | peace | f humans are by nature warlike | the evolution of war in cross-cultural perspective | the socialization of warriors and the construction of enemies | the recent emergence of anti-war movements | sociobiological and other theories of war | ethnic hatred and civil war in Rwanda | Bosnia | and Northern Ireland | military culture in the U.S. and elsewhere | peace movements | studies of military conversion | Northern Ireland | humans are by nature warlike

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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17.952 Great Power Military Intervention (MIT)

Description

The purpose of this seminar is to examine systematically, and comparatively, great and middle power military interventions into civil wars during the 1990's. These civil wars were high on the policy agenda of western states during the 1990's. Yet, these interventions were usually not motivated by obvious classical vital interests. Given the extraordinary security enjoyed by the great and middle powers of the west in the Cold War's aftermath, these activities are puzzling.

Subjects

Power | military | intervention | civil | war | policy | security | cold war | United States | combat | peace enforcement | Kurds | Iraq | Somalia | Aristide | Haiti | Bosnia | Herzegovina | NATO | Serbia | Kosovo | Croatia | genocide | Rwanda | strategy | United Nations | Europe | Media | Journalism | Non Government Organizations | NGOs | sanctions | political theory

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Paying your soldiers and building the state in post-genocide Rwanda

Description

Ensuring soldiers have legal access to financial resources is crucial for the state to fulfil its primary mission: retain the monopoly of violence. As seen in the Democratic Republic of Congo, difficulties providing soldiers with adequate resources may result in deteriorating discipline, corruption, defection, and human rights abuses. Rwanda after the genocide faced the difficult task of paying its soldiers. The post-1994 situation made this challenge inescapable. The Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) took power in a ruined country. The economy was entirely destroyed, and fleeing officials of the previous regime had emptied state coffers. The resources to pay soldiers were virtually non-existent. In addition, following the RPF victory, many families returned from exile to Rwanda. Consequently,

Subjects

Africa | Economic Development | Fragile and Post Conflict States | Political Economy | Violence and the State in Central Africa | Central Africa | Military | Post-Conflict | Rwanda | Security and Insecurity | State Building | War

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

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