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Aristotle on Singular Thought

Description

Mika Perala gives a talk on Aristotle's philosophy Aristotle states in the De Memoria et Reminiscentia that we have memories of individuals such as Koriscus. In line with this, he assumes in many contexts (e.g. logical and ethical) that we can make singular propositions on the basis of such perceptual states. However, commentators have been puzzled about whether singular propositions (and thoughts) can be given an adequate account in Aristotle?s psychological theory. The purpose of this paper is to argue that Aristotle?s account of thought admits of two kinds of singular thought: thought about an individual as an instance of a kind (?This F is G?) and thought simply about an individual ?a?, without the sortal concept F (?a is G?). The difference between the two is that whe Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

philosophy | aristotle | philosophy | aristotle

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The Causal Power of Structure and the Role of Intellect

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Howard Robinson gives a talk on philosophy and the role of the intellect Abstract: First, I will consider Jaworski?s interesting recent attempt to defend hylomorphism, understood as the irreducible and the causal efficacy of structure. I shall reject this as unsuccessful, then try to see where this leaves us. I shall develop what I?ll dub the ?radically dualist? option, according to which the fundamental physical level and the mind are the only fundamental levels. This will involve looking at different interpretations of the question ?are there any Fs?? ? roughly, the realist and conceptualist interpretations. I shall then look at how this relates to the Aristotelian/Wigginsian treatment of our common-sense ontology, especially the reality of biological entities Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

philosophy | aristotle | philosophy | aristotle

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Aristotle on the Problem of Common Sensibles

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Anna Marmodoro gives a talk on Aristotle and his philosophy Aristotle draws a distinction between qualities that are perceptible via a single sense only, the special sensibles, and qualities that are perceptible by more than one sense at once, the common sensibles. What are the ontology and the epistemology of the common sensibles, in light of Aristotle?s assumption that each sense organ is sensitive to only its own special sensibles? Does the problem of common sensibles give us reasons for giving up a ?separatist? view of sense experiences? Or rather can it be solved by postulating extra perceptual powers for the senses? Are more ?parsimonious? options viable? In this paper I engage with these and related questions, which have attracted the interest of Aristotelian scholars (Gre Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

philosophy | aristotle | power structuralism | ontologies | philosophy | aristotle | power structuralism | ontologies

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1.2 The Background of Early Modern Philosophy

Description

Part 1.2. Gives a very brief history of philosophy from the 'birth of philosophy' in Ancient Greece through the rise of Christianity in Europe in the Middle Ages through to the Renaissance, the Reformation and the birth of the Modern Period. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

epicureans | stoics | plato | philosophy | christianity | renaissance | aquinas | aristotle | middle ages | epicureans | stoics | plato | philosophy | christianity | renaissance | aquinas | aristotle | middle ages

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1.3 Science from Aristotle to Galileo

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Part 1.3. Describes briefly the Aristotelian view of the universe; the basis for natural science in Europe until the 15th century and its conflict Galileo's theories. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

science | philosophy | religion | aristotle | galileo | astronomy | science | philosophy | religion | aristotle | galileo | astronomy

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1.4 From Galileo to Descartes

Description

Part 1.4. Outlines Galileo's revolutionary theories of astronomy and mechanical science and introduces Descartes' (the father of modern philosophy) ideas of philosophical scepticism. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

scepticism | descartes | meditations | philosophy | religion | aristotle | galileo | skepticism | astronomy | scepticism | descartes | meditations | philosophy | religion | aristotle | galileo | skepticism | astronomy

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2.1 Recap of General Philosophy Lecture 1

Description

Part 2.1. A brief recap on the first lecture describing how Aristotle's view of the universe, dominant throughout the middle ages in Europe, came to be gradually phased out by a modern, mechanistic view of the universe. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

christianity | descartes | society | science | philosophy | religion | renaissance | aristotle | mathematics | astronomy | christianity | descartes | society | science | philosophy | religion | renaissance | aristotle | mathematics | astronomy

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21W.747-3 Classical Rhetoric and Modern Politics (MIT) 21W.747-3 Classical Rhetoric and Modern Politics (MIT)

Description

This course is an introduction to the history, theory, practice, and implications of rhetoric, the art and craft of persuasion. The course is designed to let you practice your own rhetorical prowess. This combination of reading, speaking, and writing will help you succeed in: Learning to read and think critically. Learning techniques of rhetorical analysis. Learning techniques of argument. Learning and practicing some basics about oral presentation. This course is an introduction to the history, theory, practice, and implications of rhetoric, the art and craft of persuasion. The course is designed to let you practice your own rhetorical prowess. This combination of reading, speaking, and writing will help you succeed in: Learning to read and think critically. Learning techniques of rhetorical analysis. Learning techniques of argument. Learning and practicing some basics about oral presentation.

Subjects

classical rhetoric | classical rhetoric | modern politics | modern politics | aristotle | aristotle | rhetoric | rhetoric | cicero | cicero | plato | plato | gorgias | gorgias | rhetorica ad alexandrum | rhetorica ad alexandrum | persuasion | persuasion | oral presentation | oral presentation | CI-intensive | CI-intensive | Brown vs. Board of Education | Brown vs. Board of Education | Roe vs. Wade | Roe vs. Wade | politics | politics | argument | argument

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Is Tragedy still Alive? (Transcript)

Description

Discussion on whether tragedy still exists in modern culture, whether in films, modern theatre or and other creative arts.

Subjects

history of ideas | literature | modern tragedy | Hardy | Pinter | philosophy | theory of tragedy | greek | #greatwriters | shakespeare | aristotle | society | the novel | comedy | Beckett | history of ideas | literature | modern tragedy | Hardy | Pinter | philosophy | theory of tragedy | greek | #greatwriters | shakespeare | aristotle | society | the novel | comedy | Beckett

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What does Tragedy do for People? (Transcript)

Description

A discussion of what the use of tragedy is, and whether the emotional experience of tragic theatre is simply a passing thrill or a vital part of life.

Subjects

literature | theory of emotion | theatre | cognition | history of ideas | drama | greek | #greatwriters | shakespeare | aristotle | theory of tragedy | catharsis | literature | theory of emotion | theatre | cognition | history of ideas | drama | greek | #greatwriters | shakespeare | aristotle | theory of tragedy | catharsis

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Defining Tragedy (Transcript)

Description

First dialogue between Oliver Taplin and Joshua Billings on tragedy: they discuss what 'tragedy' means, from its origins in Greek culture to philosophical notions of what tragedy and tragic drama are.

Subjects

aesthetics | Euripides | theatre | philosophy | Sophocles | drama | #greatwriters | shakespeare | aristotle | tragedy | greek literature | aesthetics | Euripides | theatre | philosophy | Sophocles | drama | #greatwriters | shakespeare | aristotle | tragedy | greek literature

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2.1 Recap of General Philosophy Lecture 1

Description

Part 2.1. A brief recap on the first lecture describing how Aristotle's view of the universe, dominant throughout the middle ages in Europe, came to be gradually phased out by a modern, mechanistic view of the universe.

Subjects

christianity | descartes | society | science | philosophy | religion | renaissance | aristotle | mathematics | astronomy | christianity | descartes | society | science | philosophy | religion | renaissance | aristotle | mathematics | astronomy

License

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Moral Development and Self-Knowledge in Aristotle

Description

Steve Makin, (Sheffield) gives a talk for the Power Structualism in Ancient Ontologies podcast series Abstract: Aristotle emphasises the role of habituation in our acquiring moral virtues, as well as other abilities. I discuss an independently engaging problem concerning the acquisition of abilities through practice, formulated in the context of Aristotle?s account of virtue development. The problem consists in a tension between two plausible claims, one [A] concerning what is required for an agent to be acting on a decision, the other [B] concerning the view a novice should have of whether they could ever possible be making the decisions required for moral development. I recommend a solution: the self-blind novice response. That solution implies that self-blindness should be pervasive a Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

philosophy | aristotle | ethics | morality | philosophy | aristotle | ethics | morality

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21W.747-2 Rhetoric: Rhetoric of Science (MIT) 21W.747-2 Rhetoric: Rhetoric of Science (MIT)

Description

This course is an introduction to the history, theory, practice, and implications of rhetoric, the art and craft of persuasion. This course specifically focuses on the ways that scientists use various methods of persuasion in the construction of scientific knowledge. This course is an introduction to the history, theory, practice, and implications of rhetoric, the art and craft of persuasion. This course specifically focuses on the ways that scientists use various methods of persuasion in the construction of scientific knowledge.

Subjects

Rhetoric | Rhetoric | science | science | rhetorical view | rhetorical view | art | art | persuasion | persuasion | analysis | analysis | learning | learning | rhetorical analysis | rhetorical analysis | aristotle | aristotle | research | research | laboratory | laboratory | engineering | engineering

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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s Dynamics in Physics VII 5: the Importance of Being Conditional

Description

Henry Mendell (California State) gives a talk for the Power Structualism in Ancient Ontologies series Abstract: Historians in the twentieth century argued about whether Aristotle presents a general theory of dynamics in Physics VII 5 or merely presents examples from ordinary experience, which he then applies abstractly to arguments about the unmoved mover and general issues about the balance of elements in the sublunary realm. Recently the pendulum of opinion has swayed towards taking Aristotle's account more robustly as a general theory of dynamics, but more can be said. I shall argue that one reason why the debate arose was because both sides have seen the examples in the context of Greek style mathematics, where we expect generalized principles and theorems, often couched in a modern, Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

philosophy | aristotle | Physics | metaphysics | philosophy | aristotle | Physics | metaphysics

License

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Aristotle on the Happiness of the City

Description

Don Morison (Rice) gives a talk for the Power Structualism in Ancient Ontology series. Abstract: 'The happiness of the city (the eudaimonia of the polis) is a central concept in Aristotle?s political philosophy. For example, in NE I, 2, Aristotle says that the ultimate end of human action is the good of the city. At the beginning of his discussion of the ideal regime in Politics VII, 1, he says that the happy city is the one that is best and acts nobly?. Chapter 2 of book VII is devoted to the question whether the happiness of the individual and the happiness of the city are the same or different. The aim of this paper will be to argue that Aristotle uses the term ?the happiness of the city?, he means it not metaphorically, but literally: he intends to predicate a genuine property Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

philosophy | metaphysics | realism | aristotle | philosophy | metaphysics | realism | aristotle

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Is Tragedy still Alive?

Description

Discussion on whether tragedy still exists in modern culture, whether in films, modern theatre or and other creative arts. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

history of ideas | literature | modern tragedy | Hardy | Pinter | philosophy | theory of tragedy | greek | #greatwriters | shakespeare | aristotle | society | the novel | comedy | Beckett | history of ideas | literature | modern tragedy | Hardy | Pinter | philosophy | theory of tragedy | greek | #greatwriters | shakespeare | aristotle | society | the novel | comedy | Beckett

License

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What does Tragedy do for People?

Description

A discussion of what the use of tragedy is, and whether the emotional experience of tragic theatre is simply a passing thrill or a vital part of life. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

literature | theory of emotion | theatre | cognition | history of ideas | drama | greek | #greatwriters | shakespeare | aristotle | theory of tragedy | catharsis | literature | theory of emotion | theatre | cognition | history of ideas | drama | greek | #greatwriters | shakespeare | aristotle | theory of tragedy | catharsis

License

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Defining Tragedy

Description

First dialogue between Oliver Taplin and Joshua Billings on tragedy: they discuss what 'tragedy' means, from its origins in Greek culture to philosophical notions of what tragedy and tragic drama are. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

aesthetics | Euripides | theatre | philosophy | Sophocles | drama | #greatwriters | shakespeare | aristotle | tragedy | greek literature | aesthetics | Euripides | theatre | philosophy | Sophocles | drama | #greatwriters | shakespeare | aristotle | tragedy | greek literature

License

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21L.450 Literature and Ethical Values (MIT) 21L.450 Literature and Ethical Values (MIT)

Description

The aim of this subject is to acquaint the student with some important works of systematic ethical philosophy and to bring to bear the viewpoint of those works on the study of classic works of literature. This subject will trace the history of ethical speculation in systematic philosophy by identifying four major positions: two from the ancient world and the two most important traditions of ethical philosophy since the renaissance. The two ancient positions will be represented by Plato and Aristotle, the two modern positions by Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill. We will try to understand these four positions as engaged in a rivalry with one another, and we will also engage with the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes, which offers a bridge between ancient and modern conceptions and provides The aim of this subject is to acquaint the student with some important works of systematic ethical philosophy and to bring to bear the viewpoint of those works on the study of classic works of literature. This subject will trace the history of ethical speculation in systematic philosophy by identifying four major positions: two from the ancient world and the two most important traditions of ethical philosophy since the renaissance. The two ancient positions will be represented by Plato and Aristotle, the two modern positions by Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill. We will try to understand these four positions as engaged in a rivalry with one another, and we will also engage with the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes, which offers a bridge between ancient and modern conceptions and provides

Subjects

ethics | ethics | values | values | literature | literature | morality | morality | justice | justice | virtue | virtue | literary theory | literary theory | responsibility | responsibility | politics | politics | plato | plato | aristotle | aristotle | machiavelli | machiavelli | hobbes | hobbes | sophocles | sophocles | euripides | euripides | shapkespeare | shapkespeare | swift | swift | ibsen | ibsen | shaw | shaw | dostoyevsky | dostoyevsky | conrad | conrad | bible | bible

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Virtue Ethics: virtue, values and character

Description

Part 3 of 7 in Marianne Talbot's "A Romp Through Ethics for Complete Beginners". In this episode we will reflect on Aristotle's account of morality and the centrality of the virtues in this account. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

ethical | moral law | morals | philosophy | aristotle | ethics | reasoning | morality | ethical | moral law | morals | philosophy | aristotle | ethics | reasoning | morality | 2011-02-14

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Virtue Ethics: virtue, values and character (Slides)

Description

Part 3 of 7 in Marianne Talbot's "A Romp Through Ethics for Complete Beginners". In this episode we will reflect on Aristotle's account of morality and the centrality of the virtues in this account. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

ethical | moral law | morals | philosophy | aristotle | ethics | reasoning | morality | ethical | moral law | morals | philosophy | aristotle | ethics | reasoning | morality | 2011-02-14

License

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s Poetics

Description

James Grant, lecturer in philosophy, University of Oxford gives his second lecture in the Aesthetics series on Aristotle's Poetics. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

aesthetics | philosophy | art | aristotle | aesthetics | philosophy | art | aristotle

License

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Making Up Your Mind

Description

Part 7 of 7 in Marianne Talbot's "A Romp Through Ethics for Complete Beginners". This final episode is a time to take stock and bring together all the strands we've considered. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

ethical | moral law | morals | kant | philosophy | aristotle | ethics | reasoning | morality | ethical | moral law | morals | kant | philosophy | aristotle | ethics | reasoning | morality | 2011-03-14

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Making Up Your Mind (Slides)

Description

Part 7 of 7 in Marianne Talbot's "A Romp Through Ethics for Complete Beginners". This final episode is a time to take stock and bring together all the strands we've considered. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

ethical | moral law | morals | kant | philosophy | aristotle | ethics | reasoning | morality | ethical | moral law | morals | kant | philosophy | aristotle | ethics | reasoning | morality | 2011-03-14

License

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