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12.003 Physics of Atmospheres and Oceans (MIT) 12.003 Physics of Atmospheres and Oceans (MIT)

Description

The laws of classical mechanics and thermodynamics are used to explore how the properties of fluids on a rotating Earth manifest themselves in, and help shape, the global patterns of atmospheric winds, ocean currents, and the climate of the Earth. Theoretical discussion focuses on the physical processes involved. Underlying mechanisms are illustrated through laboratory demonstrations, using a rotating table, and through analysis of atmospheric and oceanic data. The laws of classical mechanics and thermodynamics are used to explore how the properties of fluids on a rotating Earth manifest themselves in, and help shape, the global patterns of atmospheric winds, ocean currents, and the climate of the Earth. Theoretical discussion focuses on the physical processes involved. Underlying mechanisms are illustrated through laboratory demonstrations, using a rotating table, and through analysis of atmospheric and oceanic data.

Subjects

1. Characteristics of the atmosphere | 1. Characteristics of the atmosphere | Characteristics of the atmosphere | Characteristics of the atmosphere | global energy balance | global energy balance | greenhouse effect | greenhouse effect | greenhouse gases | greenhouse gases | Atmospheric layers | Atmospheric layers | pressure and density | pressure and density | Convection | Convection | adiabatic lapse rate | adiabatic lapse rate | Humidity | Humidity | Convective clouds | Convective clouds | Temperature | Temperature | Pressure and geopotential height | Pressure and geopotential height | Winds | Winds | Fluids in motion | Fluids in motion | Hydrostatic balance | Hydrostatic balance | Incompressible flow | Incompressible flow | compressible flow | compressible flow | radial inflow | radial inflow | Geostrophic motion | Geostrophic motion | Taylor-Proudman Theorem | Taylor-Proudman Theorem | Ekman layer | Ekman layer | Coriolis force | Coriolis force | Rossby number | Rossby number | Hadley circulation | Hadley circulation | ocean | ocean | seawater | seawater | salinity | salinity | geostrophic and hydrostatic balance | geostrophic and hydrostatic balance | inhomogeneity | inhomogeneity | Abyssal circulation | Abyssal circulation | thermohaline circulation | thermohaline circulation

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12.003 Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics (MIT) 12.003 Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics (MIT)

Description

Includes audio/video content: AV special element video. This undergraduate class is designed to introduce students to the physics that govern the circulation of the ocean and atmosphere. The focus of the course is on the processes that control the climate of the planet.AcknowledgmentsProf. Ferrari wishes to acknowledge that this course was originally designed and taught by Prof. John Marshall. Includes audio/video content: AV special element video. This undergraduate class is designed to introduce students to the physics that govern the circulation of the ocean and atmosphere. The focus of the course is on the processes that control the climate of the planet.AcknowledgmentsProf. Ferrari wishes to acknowledge that this course was originally designed and taught by Prof. John Marshall.

Subjects

1. Characteristics of the atmosphere | 1. Characteristics of the atmosphere | Characteristics of the atmosphere | Characteristics of the atmosphere | global energy balance | global energy balance | greenhouse effect | greenhouse effect | greenhouse gases | greenhouse gases | Atmospheric layers | Atmospheric layers | pressure and density | pressure and density | Convection | Convection | adiabatic lapse rate | adiabatic lapse rate | Humidity | Humidity | Convective clouds | Convective clouds | Temperature | Temperature | Pressure and geopotential height | Pressure and geopotential height | Winds | Winds | Fluids in motion | Fluids in motion | Hydrostatic balance | Hydrostatic balance | Incompressible flow | Incompressible flow | compressible flow | compressible flow | radial inflow | radial inflow | Geostrophic motion | Geostrophic motion | Taylor-Proudman Theorem | Taylor-Proudman Theorem | Ekman layer | Ekman layer | Coriolis force | Coriolis force | Rossby number | Rossby number | Hadley circulation | Hadley circulation | ocean | ocean | seawater | seawater | salinity | salinity | geostrophic and hydrostatic balance | geostrophic and hydrostatic balance | inhomogeneity | inhomogeneity | Abyssal circulation | Abyssal circulation | thermohaline circulation | thermohaline circulation

License

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10.571J Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry (MIT) 10.571J Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry (MIT)

Description

This course provides an introduction to the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere, including experience with computer codes. It is intended for undergraduates and first year graduate students. This course provides an introduction to the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere, including experience with computer codes. It is intended for undergraduates and first year graduate students.

Subjects

physics of the atmosphere | physics of the atmosphere | chemistry of the atmosphere | chemistry of the atmosphere | computer codes | computer codes | Aerosols | Aerosols | Gas | Gas | aerosol transport | aerosol transport | radiation | radiation | emissions | emissions | Emissions control technology | Emissions control technology | air pollution and climate | air pollution and climate

License

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12.950 Atmospheric and Oceanic Modeling (MIT) 12.950 Atmospheric and Oceanic Modeling (MIT)

Description

The numerical methods, formulation and parameterizations used in models of the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean will be described in detail. Widely used numerical methods will be the focus but we will also review emerging concepts and new methods. The numerics underlying a hierarchy of models will be discussed, ranging from simple GFD models to the high-end GCMs. In the context of ocean GCMs, we will describe parameterization of geostrophic eddies, mixing and the surface and bottom boundary layers. In the atmosphere, we will review parameterizations of convection and large scale condensation, the planetary boundary layer and radiative transfer. The numerical methods, formulation and parameterizations used in models of the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean will be described in detail. Widely used numerical methods will be the focus but we will also review emerging concepts and new methods. The numerics underlying a hierarchy of models will be discussed, ranging from simple GFD models to the high-end GCMs. In the context of ocean GCMs, we will describe parameterization of geostrophic eddies, mixing and the surface and bottom boundary layers. In the atmosphere, we will review parameterizations of convection and large scale condensation, the planetary boundary layer and radiative transfer.

Subjects

numerical methods | numerical methods | formulation | formulation | parameterizations | parameterizations | models of the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean | models of the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean | numerics underlying a hierarchy of models | numerics underlying a hierarchy of models | simple GFD models | simple GFD models | high-end GCMs | high-end GCMs | ocean GCMs | ocean GCMs | parameterization of geostrophic eddies | parameterization of geostrophic eddies | mixing | mixing | surface and bottom boundary layers | surface and bottom boundary layers | atmosphere | atmosphere | parameterizations of convection | parameterizations of convection | large scale condensation | large scale condensation | planetary boundary layer | planetary boundary layer | radiative transfer | radiative transfer | finite difference method | finite difference method | Spatial discretization | Spatial discretization | numerical dispersion | numerical dispersion | Series expansion | Series expansion | Time-stepping | Time-stepping | Space-time discretization | Space-time discretization | Shallow water dynamics | Shallow water dynamics | Barotropic models | Barotropic models | Quasi-geostrophic equations | Quasi-geostrophic equations | Quasi-geostrophic models | Quasi-geostrophic models | Eddy parameterization | Eddy parameterization | Vertical coordinates | Vertical coordinates | primitive equations | primitive equations | Boundary layer parameterizations | Boundary layer parameterizations

License

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12.990 Prediction and Predictability in the Atmosphere and Oceans (MIT) 12.990 Prediction and Predictability in the Atmosphere and Oceans (MIT)

Description

Forecasting is the ultimate form of model validation. But even if a perfect model is in hand, imperfect forecasts are likely. This course will cover the factors that limit our ability to produce good forecasts, will show how the quality of forecasts can be gauged a priori (predicting our ability to predict!), and will cover the state of the art in operational atmosphere and ocean forecasting systems. Forecasting is the ultimate form of model validation. But even if a perfect model is in hand, imperfect forecasts are likely. This course will cover the factors that limit our ability to produce good forecasts, will show how the quality of forecasts can be gauged a priori (predicting our ability to predict!), and will cover the state of the art in operational atmosphere and ocean forecasting systems.

Subjects

Forecasting | Forecasting | model validation | model validation | prediction quality | prediction quality | operational atmosphere and ocean forecasting systems | operational atmosphere and ocean forecasting systems | limiting factors | limiting factors | prediction | prediction | operational atmosphere forecasting systems | operational atmosphere forecasting systems | ocean forecasting systems | ocean forecasting systems | chaos | chaos | probabilistic forecasting | probabilistic forecasting | data assimilation | data assimilation | adaptive observations | adaptive observations | model error | model error | attractors | attractors | dimensions | dimensions | sensitive dependence | sensitive dependence | initial conditions | initial conditions

License

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12.811 Tropical Meteorology (MIT) 12.811 Tropical Meteorology (MIT)

Description

This course describes the behavior and dynamics of the tropical troposphere, from the large-scale energy balance down to cumulus convection and tropical cyclones. Topics include: Radiative-convective equilibrium; the Hadley and walker circulation; monsoons; tropical boundary layers; theory of the response of the tropical atmosphere to localized sea-surface temperature anomalies; intraseasonal oscillations; equatorial waves; El Niño/Southern Oscillation; easterly waves; and tropical cyclones. This course describes the behavior and dynamics of the tropical troposphere, from the large-scale energy balance down to cumulus convection and tropical cyclones. Topics include: Radiative-convective equilibrium; the Hadley and walker circulation; monsoons; tropical boundary layers; theory of the response of the tropical atmosphere to localized sea-surface temperature anomalies; intraseasonal oscillations; equatorial waves; El Niño/Southern Oscillation; easterly waves; and tropical cyclones.

Subjects

Radiative-convective equilibrium | Radiative-convective equilibrium | the Hadley and walker circulation | the Hadley and walker circulation | monsoons | monsoons | tropical boundary layers | tropical boundary layers | theory of the response of the tropical atmosphere to localized sea-surface temperature anomalies | theory of the response of the tropical atmosphere to localized sea-surface temperature anomalies | intraseasonal oscillations | intraseasonal oscillations | equatorial waves | equatorial waves | El Ni?o/Southern Oscillation | El Ni?o/Southern Oscillation | easterly waves | easterly waves | tropical cyclones. | tropical cyclones. | tropical cyclones | tropical cyclones

License

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12.301 Climate Physics and Chemistry (MIT) 12.301 Climate Physics and Chemistry (MIT)

Description

This course introduces students to climate studies, including beginnings of the solar system, time scales, and climate in human history; methods for detecting climate change, including proxies, ice cores, instrumental records, and time series analysis; physical and chemical processes in climate, including primordial atmosphere, ozone chemistry, carbon and oxygen cycles, and heat and water budgets; internal feedback mechanisms, including ice, aerosols, water vapor, clouds, and ocean circulation; climate forcing, including orbital variations, volcanism, plate tectonics, and solar variability; climate models and mechanisms of variability, including energy balance, coupled models, and global ocean and atmosphere models; and outstanding problems. This course introduces students to climate studies, including beginnings of the solar system, time scales, and climate in human history; methods for detecting climate change, including proxies, ice cores, instrumental records, and time series analysis; physical and chemical processes in climate, including primordial atmosphere, ozone chemistry, carbon and oxygen cycles, and heat and water budgets; internal feedback mechanisms, including ice, aerosols, water vapor, clouds, and ocean circulation; climate forcing, including orbital variations, volcanism, plate tectonics, and solar variability; climate models and mechanisms of variability, including energy balance, coupled models, and global ocean and atmosphere models; and outstanding problems.

Subjects

climate | climate | climate change | climate change | proxies | proxies | ice cores | ice cores | primordial atmosphere | primordial atmosphere | ozone chemistry | ozone chemistry | carbon and oxygen cycles | carbon and oxygen cycles | heat and water budgets | heat and water budgets | aerosols | aerosols | water vapor | water vapor | clouds | clouds | ocean circulation | ocean circulation | orbital variations | orbital variations | volcanism | volcanism | plate tectonics | plate tectonics | solar system | solar system | solar variability | solar variability | climate model | climate model | energy balance | energy balance

License

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12.007 Geobiology (MIT) 12.007 Geobiology (MIT)

Description

The interactive Earth system: biology in geologic, environmental and climate change throughout Earth history. Since life began it has continually shaped and re-shaped the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and the solid earth. This course introduces the concept of 'life as a geological agent' and examines the interaction between biology and the earth system during the roughly 4 billion years since life first appeared. The interactive Earth system: biology in geologic, environmental and climate change throughout Earth history. Since life began it has continually shaped and re-shaped the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and the solid earth. This course introduces the concept of 'life as a geological agent' and examines the interaction between biology and the earth system during the roughly 4 billion years since life first appeared.

Subjects

interactive Earth system;biology | interactive Earth system;biology | geologic | geologic | environmental and climate change | environmental and climate change | atmosphere | atmosphere | hydrosphere | hydrosphere | cryosphere | cryosphere | solar system | solar system | evolution;global warming | evolution;global warming | global carbon cycle | global carbon cycle | Astrobiology. | Astrobiology. | evolution | evolution | global warming | global warming | Interactive earth system | Interactive earth system | biology | biology | geologic change | geologic change | environmental change | environmental change | climate change | climate change | Earth history | Earth history | life | life | solid earth | solid earth | geological agent | geological agent | astrobiology | astrobiology | biogeomorphology | biogeomorphology | long-term climate cycles | long-term climate cycles | mass extinctions | mass extinctions | biogeochemical tracers | biogeochemical tracers | origin of life | origin of life | antiquity | antiquity | habitable zone | habitable zone | deep biosphere | deep biosphere | geological time | geological time

License

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12.820 Turbulence in Geophysical Systems (MIT) 12.820 Turbulence in Geophysical Systems (MIT)

Description

This course presents the phenomena, theory, and modeling of turbulence in the Earth's oceans and atmosphere. The scope ranges from the fine structure to planetary scale motions. The regimes of turbulence include homogeneous flows in two and three dimensions, geostrophic motions, shear flows, convection, boundary layers, stably stratified flows, and internal waves. This course presents the phenomena, theory, and modeling of turbulence in the Earth's oceans and atmosphere. The scope ranges from the fine structure to planetary scale motions. The regimes of turbulence include homogeneous flows in two and three dimensions, geostrophic motions, shear flows, convection, boundary layers, stably stratified flows, and internal waves.

Subjects

phenomena | theory | and modeling of turbulence | phenomena | theory | and modeling of turbulence | oceans | oceans | atmosphere | atmosphere | fine structure | fine structure | planetary scale motions | planetary scale motions | homogeneous flows | homogeneous flows | geostrophic motions | geostrophic motions | shear flows | shear flows | convection | convection | boundary layers | boundary layers | stably stratified flows | stably stratified flows | internal waves | internal waves

License

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12.301 Past and Present Climate (12.301) / Climate Physics and Chemistry (12.842) (MIT) 12.301 Past and Present Climate (12.301) / Climate Physics and Chemistry (12.842) (MIT)

Description

This course introduces students to climate studies, including beginnings of the solar system, time scales, and climate in human history. This course introduces students to climate studies, including beginnings of the solar system, time scales, and climate in human history.

Subjects

climate | climate | climate change | climate change | proxies | proxies | ice cores | ice cores | primordial atmosphere | primordial atmosphere | ozone chemistry | ozone chemistry | carbon and oxygen cycles | carbon and oxygen cycles | heat and water budgets | heat and water budgets | aerosols | aerosols | water vapor | water vapor | clouds | clouds | ocean circulation | ocean circulation | orbital variations | orbital variations | volcanism | volcanism | plate tectonics | plate tectonics | solar system | solar system | solar variability | solar variability | climate model | climate model | energy balance | energy balance

License

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12.820 Turbulence in Geophysical Systems (MIT) 12.820 Turbulence in Geophysical Systems (MIT)

Description

This course presents the phenomena, theory, and modeling of turbulence in the Earth's oceans and atmosphere. The scope ranges from the fine structure to planetary scale motions. The regimes of turbulence include homogeneous flows in two and three dimensions, geostrophic motions, shear flows, convection, boundary layers, stably stratified flows, and internal waves. This course presents the phenomena, theory, and modeling of turbulence in the Earth's oceans and atmosphere. The scope ranges from the fine structure to planetary scale motions. The regimes of turbulence include homogeneous flows in two and three dimensions, geostrophic motions, shear flows, convection, boundary layers, stably stratified flows, and internal waves.

Subjects

phenomena | theory | and modeling of turbulence | phenomena | theory | and modeling of turbulence | oceans | oceans | atmosphere | atmosphere | fine structure | fine structure | planetary scale motions | planetary scale motions | homogeneous flows | homogeneous flows | geostrophic motions | geostrophic motions | shear flows | shear flows | convection | convection | boundary layers | boundary layers | stably stratified flows | stably stratified flows | internal waves | internal waves

License

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12.820 Turbulence in Geophysical Systems (MIT) 12.820 Turbulence in Geophysical Systems (MIT)

Description

This course presents the phenomena, theory, and modeling of turbulence in the Earth's oceans and atmosphere. The scope ranges from the fine structure to planetary scale motions. The regimes of turbulence include homogeneous flows in two and three dimensions, geostrophic motions, shear flows, convection, boundary layers, stably stratified flows, and internal waves. This course presents the phenomena, theory, and modeling of turbulence in the Earth's oceans and atmosphere. The scope ranges from the fine structure to planetary scale motions. The regimes of turbulence include homogeneous flows in two and three dimensions, geostrophic motions, shear flows, convection, boundary layers, stably stratified flows, and internal waves.

Subjects

Phenomena | theory | and modeling of turbulence | Phenomena | theory | and modeling of turbulence | oceans | oceans | atmosphere | atmosphere | fine structure | fine structure | planetary scale motions | planetary scale motions | homogeneous flows | homogeneous flows | geostrophic motions | geostrophic motions | shear flows | shear flows | convection | convection | boundary layers | boundary layers | stably stratified flows | stably stratified flows | internal waves | internal waves | turbulence flows | turbulence flows | earth | earth | energetics | energetics | isotropic homogeneous 2D turbulence | isotropic homogeneous 2D turbulence | isotropic homogeneous 3d flows | isotropic homogeneous 3d flows | quasi-geostrophic turbulence | quasi-geostrophic turbulence | parameterizing turbulence | parameterizing turbulence | wave dynamics | wave dynamics | turbulent dispersion | turbulent dispersion | coherent structures | coherent structures

License

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Stormy Weather: Exploring Atmospheres in the Outer Solar System

Description

Leigh Fletcher (Dept. of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, University of Oxford) talks about current research on the weather of other planets. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

atmosphere | weather | storms | climate | atmosphere | weather | storms | climate | 2013-02-26

License

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22.091 Nuclear Reactor Safety (MIT) 22.091 Nuclear Reactor Safety (MIT)

Description

Problems in nuclear engineering often involve applying knowledge from many disciplines simultaneously in achieving satisfactory solutions. The course will focus on understanding the complete nuclear reactor system including the balance of plant, support systems and resulting interdependencies affecting the overall safety of the plant and regulatory oversight. Both the Seabrook and Pilgrim nuclear plant simulators will be used as part of the educational experience to provide as realistic as possible understanding of nuclear power systems short of being at the reactor. Problems in nuclear engineering often involve applying knowledge from many disciplines simultaneously in achieving satisfactory solutions. The course will focus on understanding the complete nuclear reactor system including the balance of plant, support systems and resulting interdependencies affecting the overall safety of the plant and regulatory oversight. Both the Seabrook and Pilgrim nuclear plant simulators will be used as part of the educational experience to provide as realistic as possible understanding of nuclear power systems short of being at the reactor.

Subjects

nuclear | nuclear | reactor | reactor | safety | safety | dryout heat flux | dryout heat flux | preexisting hydrogen | preexisting hydrogen | blowdown gases | blowdown gases | downward propagation limit | downward propagation limit | debris dispersal | debris dispersal | direct containment heating | direct containment heating | gas blowthrough | gas blowthrough | seal table room | seal table room | subcompartment structures | subcompartment structures | compartmentalized geometries | compartmentalized geometries | overlying liquid layer | overlying liquid layer | preexisting atmosphere | preexisting atmosphere | blowdown time | blowdown time | melt generator | melt generator | detonation adiabatic | detonation adiabatic | thermohydraulic codes | thermohydraulic codes | hydrodynamic fragmentation | hydrodynamic fragmentation | vent clearing | vent clearing | combustion completeness | combustion completeness | containment pressurization | containment pressurization | melt retention | melt retention | containment loads | containment loads | melt ejection | melt ejection | containment geometry | containment geometry | hole ablation | hole ablation | Sandia National Laboratories | Sandia National Laboratories | Heat Transfer Conf | Heat Transfer Conf | Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report | Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report | Heat Mass Transfer | Heat Mass Transfer | The Combustion Institute | The Combustion Institute | Combustion Symposium International | Combustion Symposium International | New York | New York | Santa Barbara | Santa Barbara | Argonne National Laboratory | Argonne National Laboratory | Fluid Mech | Fluid Mech | Zion Probabilistic Safety Study | Zion Probabilistic Safety Study | Los Angeles | Los Angeles | Impact of Hydrogen | Impact of Hydrogen | Topical Meeting | Topical Meeting | Water Reactor Safety | Water Reactor Safety | Water Trans | Water Trans | Academic Press All | Academic Press All | American Society of Mechanical Engineers | American Society of Mechanical Engineers | Specialists Meeting | Specialists Meeting | University of California | University of California | Brookhaven National Laboratory | Brookhaven National Laboratory | Calvert Cliffs | Calvert Cliffs | Fourth Int | Fourth Int | International Conference | International Conference | New Trends. | New Trends.

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1.018J Ecology I: The Earth System (MIT) 1.018J Ecology I: The Earth System (MIT)

Description

We will cover fundamentals of ecology, considering Earth as an integrated dynamic system. Topics include coevolution of the biosphere, geosphere, atmosphere and oceans; photosynthesis and respiration; the hydrologic, carbon and nitrogen cycles. We will examine the flow of energy and materials through ecosystems; regulation of the distribution and abundance of organisms; structure and function of ecosystems, including evolution and natural selection; metabolic diversity; productivity; trophic dynamics; models of population growth, competition, mutualism and predation. This course is designated as Communication-Intensive; instruction and practice in oral and written communication provided. Biology is a recommended prerequisite. We will cover fundamentals of ecology, considering Earth as an integrated dynamic system. Topics include coevolution of the biosphere, geosphere, atmosphere and oceans; photosynthesis and respiration; the hydrologic, carbon and nitrogen cycles. We will examine the flow of energy and materials through ecosystems; regulation of the distribution and abundance of organisms; structure and function of ecosystems, including evolution and natural selection; metabolic diversity; productivity; trophic dynamics; models of population growth, competition, mutualism and predation. This course is designated as Communication-Intensive; instruction and practice in oral and written communication provided. Biology is a recommended prerequisite.

Subjects

biosphere | biosphere | geosphere | geosphere | atmosphere | atmosphere | photosynthesis | photosynthesis | respiration | respiration | hydrologic cycle | hydrologic cycle | carbon cycle | carbon cycle | nitrogen cycles | nitrogen cycles | ecosystems | ecosystems | regulation and abundance of organisms | regulation and abundance of organisms | evolution | evolution | natural selection | natural selection | metabolic diversity | metabolic diversity | productivity | productivity | trophic dynamics | trophic dynamics | models of population growth | models of population growth | competition | competition | mutualism | mutualism | predation. | predation.

License

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5.68J Kinetics of Chemical Reactions (MIT) 5.68J Kinetics of Chemical Reactions (MIT)

Description

This course deals with the experimental and theoretical aspects of chemical reaction kinetics, including transition-state theories, molecular beam scattering, classical techniques, quantum and statistical mechanical estimation of rate constants, pressure-dependence and chemical activation, modeling complex reacting mixtures, and uncertainty/sensitivity analyses. Reactions in the gas phase, liquid phase, and on surfaces are discussed with examples drawn from atmospheric, combustion, industrial, catalytic, and biological chemistry. This course deals with the experimental and theoretical aspects of chemical reaction kinetics, including transition-state theories, molecular beam scattering, classical techniques, quantum and statistical mechanical estimation of rate constants, pressure-dependence and chemical activation, modeling complex reacting mixtures, and uncertainty/sensitivity analyses. Reactions in the gas phase, liquid phase, and on surfaces are discussed with examples drawn from atmospheric, combustion, industrial, catalytic, and biological chemistry.

Subjects

quantum mechanics | quantum mechanics | statistical mechanics | statistical mechanics | chemical reaction kinetics | chemical reaction kinetics | transition-state theories | transition-state theories | molecular beam scattering | molecular beam scattering | classical techniques | classical techniques | rate constants | rate constants | pressure-dependence | pressure-dependence | chemical activation | chemical activation | atmosphere | atmosphere | combustion | combustion | catalytic | catalytic | biological chemistry | biological chemistry | elementary kinetics | elementary kinetics | experimental kinetics | experimental kinetics | reaction rate theory | reaction rate theory | thermodynamics | thermodynamics | practical prediction methods | practical prediction methods | handling large kinetic models | handling large kinetic models | reactions in solution | reactions in solution | catalysis | catalysis | 5.68 | 5.68 | 10.652 | 10.652

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12.803 Quasi-Balanced Circulations in Oceans and Atmospheres (MIT) 12.803 Quasi-Balanced Circulations in Oceans and Atmospheres (MIT)

Description

This course introduces the students to dynamics of large-scale circulations in oceans and atmospheres. Basic concepts include mass and momentum conservation, hydrostatic and geostrophic balance, and pressure and other vertical coordinates. It covers the topics of fundamental conservation and balance principles for large-scale flow, generation and dissipation of quasi-balanced eddies, as well as equilibrated quasi-balanced systems. Examples of oceanic and atmospheric quasi-balanced flows, computational models, and rotating tank experiments can be found in the accompaniment laboratory course 12.804, Large-scale Flow Dynamics Lab. This course introduces the students to dynamics of large-scale circulations in oceans and atmospheres. Basic concepts include mass and momentum conservation, hydrostatic and geostrophic balance, and pressure and other vertical coordinates. It covers the topics of fundamental conservation and balance principles for large-scale flow, generation and dissipation of quasi-balanced eddies, as well as equilibrated quasi-balanced systems. Examples of oceanic and atmospheric quasi-balanced flows, computational models, and rotating tank experiments can be found in the accompaniment laboratory course 12.804, Large-scale Flow Dynamics Lab.

Subjects

hydrostatic balance | hydrostatic balance | geostrophic balance | geostrophic balance | barotropic vorticity equation | barotropic vorticity equation | shallow water equations | shallow water equations | geostrophic adjustment | geostrophic adjustment | stratified atmospheres and oceans | stratified atmospheres and oceans | thermodynamics | thermodynamics | quasi-geostrophic equations | quasi-geostrophic equations | pseudo potential vorticity | pseudo potential vorticity | Rayleigh | Rayleigh | Fjortoft and Chanrey-Stern theorems | Fjortoft and Chanrey-Stern theorems | frontogenesis | frontogenesis | semigeostrophy. | semigeostrophy.

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12.842 Climate Physics and Chemistry (MIT) 12.842 Climate Physics and Chemistry (MIT)

Description

This course introduces students to climate studies, including beginnings of the solar system, time scales, and climate in human history. It is offered to both undergraduate and graduate students with different requirements. This course introduces students to climate studies, including beginnings of the solar system, time scales, and climate in human history. It is offered to both undergraduate and graduate students with different requirements.

Subjects

climate | climate | climate change | climate change | proxies | proxies | ice cores | ice cores | primordial atmosphere | primordial atmosphere | ozone chemistry | ozone chemistry | carbon and oxygen cycles | carbon and oxygen cycles | heat and water budgets | heat and water budgets | aerosols | aerosols | water vapor | water vapor | clouds | clouds | ocean circulation | ocean circulation | orbital variations | orbital variations | volcanism | volcanism | plate tectonics | plate tectonics | solar system | solar system | solar variability | solar variability | climate model | climate model | energy balance | energy balance

License

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12.802 Wave Motion in the Ocean and the Atmosphere (MIT) 12.802 Wave Motion in the Ocean and the Atmosphere (MIT)

Description

This course is an introduction to basic ideas of geophysical wave motion in rotating, stratified, and rotating-stratified fluids. Subject begins with general wave concepts of phase and group velocity. It also covers the dynamics and kinematics of gravity waves with a focus on dispersion, energy flux, initial value problems, etc. This course is an introduction to basic ideas of geophysical wave motion in rotating, stratified, and rotating-stratified fluids. Subject begins with general wave concepts of phase and group velocity. It also covers the dynamics and kinematics of gravity waves with a focus on dispersion, energy flux, initial value problems, etc.

Subjects

ocean | ocean | atmosphere | atmosphere | wave motion | wave motion | wave kinematics | wave kinematics | gravity waves | gravity waves | Kelvin waves | Kelvin waves | Rossby waves | Rossby waves | wave equation | wave equation | Laplace?s tidal equations | Laplace?s tidal equations | wave-mean flow interactions | wave-mean flow interactions

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12.810 Dynamics of the Atmosphere (MIT) 12.810 Dynamics of the Atmosphere (MIT)

Description

This course begins with a study of the role of dynamics in the general physics of the atmosphere, the consideration of the differences between modeling and approximation, and the observed large-scale phenomenology of the atmosphere. Only then are the basic equations derived in rigorous manner. The equations are then applied to important problems and methodologies in meteorology and climate, with discussions of the history of the topics where appropriate. Problems include the Hadley circulation and its role in the general circulation, atmospheric waves including gravity and Rossby waves and their interaction with the mean flow, with specific applications to the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation, tides, the super-rotation of Venus' atmosphere, the generation of atmospheric turbulence This course begins with a study of the role of dynamics in the general physics of the atmosphere, the consideration of the differences between modeling and approximation, and the observed large-scale phenomenology of the atmosphere. Only then are the basic equations derived in rigorous manner. The equations are then applied to important problems and methodologies in meteorology and climate, with discussions of the history of the topics where appropriate. Problems include the Hadley circulation and its role in the general circulation, atmospheric waves including gravity and Rossby waves and their interaction with the mean flow, with specific applications to the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation, tides, the super-rotation of Venus' atmosphere, the generation of atmospheric turbulence

Subjects

atmosphere | atmosphere | meteorology | meteorology | climate | climate | Hadley circulation | Hadley circulation | general circulation | general circulation | atmospheric waves | atmospheric waves | Rossby waves | Rossby waves | stationary waves | stationary waves | atmospheric turbulence | atmospheric turbulence

License

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12.425 Extrasolar Planets: Physics and Detection Techniques (MIT) 12.425 Extrasolar Planets: Physics and Detection Techniques (MIT)

Description

This course covers the basic principles of planet atmospheres and interiors applied to the study of extrasolar planets (exoplanets). We focus on fundamental physical processes related to observable exoplanet properties. We also provide a quantitative overview of detection techniques and an introduction to the feasibility of the search for Earth-like planets, biosignatures and habitable conditions on exoplanets. This course covers the basic principles of planet atmospheres and interiors applied to the study of extrasolar planets (exoplanets). We focus on fundamental physical processes related to observable exoplanet properties. We also provide a quantitative overview of detection techniques and an introduction to the feasibility of the search for Earth-like planets, biosignatures and habitable conditions on exoplanets.

Subjects

extrasolar planets | extrasolar planets | planet atmospheres | planet atmospheres | planet interiors | planet interiors | transiting planets | transiting planets | planet albedos | planet albedos | astrometry | astrometry | gravitational lensing | gravitational lensing | habitable planets | habitable planets

License

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12.753 Geodynamics Seminar (MIT) 12.753 Geodynamics Seminar (MIT)

Description

In this year's seminar, we will embark on a scientific journey through some of the most controversial topics about the origin and formation of our home planet. This journey will take us to other planetary bodies - even to other solar systems - as we immerse ourselves in observations and theories from the microscopic to the universe scale. The seminar will be organized around three broad questions: How was the Earth formed? What did early Earth look like? When did living organisms first appear on Earth? Experts in meteorites, geology of other planets, thermodynamics and tracers of living organisms, and theories of formation and evolution of planets, including early atmosphere and oceans, will come to WHOI and help us address these questions. In this year's seminar, we will embark on a scientific journey through some of the most controversial topics about the origin and formation of our home planet. This journey will take us to other planetary bodies - even to other solar systems - as we immerse ourselves in observations and theories from the microscopic to the universe scale. The seminar will be organized around three broad questions: How was the Earth formed? What did early Earth look like? When did living organisms first appear on Earth? Experts in meteorites, geology of other planets, thermodynamics and tracers of living organisms, and theories of formation and evolution of planets, including early atmosphere and oceans, will come to WHOI and help us address these questions.

Subjects

meteorites | meteorites | geology of other planets | geology of other planets | thermodynamics and tracers of living organisms | thermodynamics and tracers of living organisms | and theories of formation and evolution of planets | and theories of formation and evolution of planets | including early atmosphere and oceans | including early atmosphere and oceans | Ontario | Ontario | geodynamics | geodynamics

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12.820 Turbulence in the Ocean and Atmosphere (MIT) 12.820 Turbulence in the Ocean and Atmosphere (MIT)

Description

This course presents the phenomena, theory, and modeling of turbulence in the Earth's oceans and atmosphere. The scope ranges from centimeter to planetary scale motions. The regimes of turbulence include homogeneous isotropic three dimensional turbulence, convection, boundary layer turbulence, internal waves, two dimensional turbulence, quasi-geostrophic turbulence, and macrotrubulence in the ocean and atmosphere. This course presents the phenomena, theory, and modeling of turbulence in the Earth's oceans and atmosphere. The scope ranges from centimeter to planetary scale motions. The regimes of turbulence include homogeneous isotropic three dimensional turbulence, convection, boundary layer turbulence, internal waves, two dimensional turbulence, quasi-geostrophic turbulence, and macrotrubulence in the ocean and atmosphere.

Subjects

phenomena | theory | and modeling of turbulence | phenomena | theory | and modeling of turbulence | oceans | oceans | atmosphere | atmosphere | fine structure | fine structure | planetary scale motions | planetary scale motions | homogeneous flows | homogeneous flows | geostrophic motions | geostrophic motions | shear flows | shear flows | convection | convection | boundary layers | boundary layers | stably stratified flows | stably stratified flows | internal waves | internal waves

License

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12.820 Turbulence in the Ocean and Atmosphere (MIT) 12.820 Turbulence in the Ocean and Atmosphere (MIT)

Description

This course presents the phenomena, theory, and modeling of turbulence in the Earth's oceans and atmosphere. The scope ranges from centimeter to planetary scale motions. The regimes of turbulence include homogeneous isotropic three dimensional turbulence, convection, quasi-geostrophic turbulence, shallow water turbulence, baroclinic turbulence, macroturbulence in the ocean and atmosphere. This course presents the phenomena, theory, and modeling of turbulence in the Earth's oceans and atmosphere. The scope ranges from centimeter to planetary scale motions. The regimes of turbulence include homogeneous isotropic three dimensional turbulence, convection, quasi-geostrophic turbulence, shallow water turbulence, baroclinic turbulence, macroturbulence in the ocean and atmosphere.

Subjects

phenomena | phenomena | theory | theory | and modeling of turbulence | and modeling of turbulence | oceans | oceans | atmosphere | atmosphere | fine structure | fine structure | planetary scale motions | planetary scale motions | homogeneous flows | homogeneous flows | geostrophic motions | geostrophic motions | shear flows | shear flows | convection | convection | boundary layers | boundary layers | stably stratified flows | stably stratified flows | internal waves | internal waves

License

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12.400 The Solar System (MIT) 12.400 The Solar System (MIT)

Description

This is an introduction to the study of the solar system with emphasis on the latest spacecraft results. The subject covers basic principles rather than detailed mathematical and physical models. Topics include: an overview of the solar system, planetary orbits, rings, planetary formation, meteorites, asteroids, comets, planetary surfaces and cratering, planetary interiors, planetary atmospheres, and life in the solar system. This is an introduction to the study of the solar system with emphasis on the latest spacecraft results. The subject covers basic principles rather than detailed mathematical and physical models. Topics include: an overview of the solar system, planetary orbits, rings, planetary formation, meteorites, asteroids, comets, planetary surfaces and cratering, planetary interiors, planetary atmospheres, and life in the solar system.

Subjects

solar system | solar system | astronomy | astronomy | planets | planets | sun | sun | planetary orbits | planetary orbits | rings | rings | planetary formation | planetary formation | meteorites | meteorites | asteroids | asteroids | comets | comets | planetary surfaces | planetary surfaces | cratering | cratering | planetary interiors | planetary interiors | planetary atmospheres | planetary atmospheres | life in the solar system | life in the solar system | formation of the solar system | formation of the solar system | Mars | Mars | Pluto | Pluto

License

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