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TRIP steel annealed at 775°C for 5 mins and then hold at 400°C for 150s for austenite stabilization

Description

The steel microstructure reveals clearly the retained austenite as white, martensite as straw-coloured constituents, bainite can be identified with needle-shaped austenites (there is no carbide present due to the addition of Si). Many martensite-austenite constituents can be found in the microstructure which is revealed because of the tint etching. This is not possible with any other reported ethants/etching techniques for TRIP steels. The microstructure does not show presence of any carbides.

Subjects

alloy | bainite | metal | retained austenite | trip steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

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TRIP steel annealed at 775°C for 5 mins and then hold at 400°C for 40s for austenite stabilization

Description

The microstructure shows martensite (straw-coloured), retained austenite (white) and some M-A constituents. Martensite volume fraction is higher than the steel which was hold for 150s at 400°C and cooled. Since the austenite is low in C-content for such a low holding time at 400°C, most of the austenite is transformed to martensite during cooling from 400°C to room temperature.

Subjects

alloy | bainite | metal | retained austenite | trip steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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A medium carbon low alloyed structural steel

Description

The steel sample was etched in 4% picral solution first and revealed the presence of pearlite and carbides distinctly. Further tint etching in SMB resulted in the straw coloured martensite to appear as a band. Retained austenite is appearing as very fine white particles. The bainite is appearing as bluish-black background between the martensite constituents. Coarse dark grains are pearlite. Microhardness measurements and SEM studies further proved the constituents identity. Conventional nital etching is not successful in delineating all the micro-constituents so distinctly.

Subjects

steel | retained austenite | low alloyed steel | structural steel | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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A medium carbon low alloyed structural steel

Description

The steel sample was etched in 4% picral solution first and revealed the presence of pearlite and carbides distinctly. Further tint etching in SMB resulted in the straw coloured martensite to appear as a band. Retained austenite is appearing as very fine white particles. The bainite is appearing as bluish-black background between the martensite constituents. Coarse dark grains are pearlite. Microhardness measurements and SEM studies further proved the constituents identity. Conventional nital etching is not successful in delineating all the micro-constituents so distinctly.

Subjects

steel | retained austenite | low alloyed steel | structural steel | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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A medium carbon low alloyed structural steel

Description

The steel sample was etched in 4% picral solution first and revealed the presence of pearlite and carbides distinctly. Further tint etching in SMB resulted in the straw coloured martensite to appear as a band. Retained austenite is appearing as very fine white particles. The bainite is appearing as bluish-black background between the martensite constituents. Coarse dark grains are pearlite. Microhardness measurements and SEM studies further proved the constituents identity. Conventional nital etching is not successful in delineating all the micro-constituents so distinctly.

Subjects

steel | retained austenite | low alloyed steel | structural steel | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Techniques for Studying Materials: Microstructural Examination

Description

This set of animations consists of interactive phase diagrams of Fe-C, grey cast iron, white cast iron, alpha brass and alpha-beta brass. From TLP: Microstructural Examination

Subjects

micrograph | microstructure | metallography | metallographic | phase diagram | phase transformation | eutectic | eutectoid | peritectic | steel | martensite | ferrite | cementite | austenite | pearlite | cast iron | spheroidal cast iron | grey cast iron | white cast iron | brass | alpha brass | alpha beta brass | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | animation | corematerials | ukoer

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Hypoeutectic white cast iron

Description

With a carbon equivalent less than the eutectic composition a hypoeutectic white cast iron is formed. Primary austenite dendrites (dark) are first to form from the liquid. At the eutectic the remaining liquid transforms to a mixture of austenite and cementite (light) with further transformation of the austenite to ferrite and pearlite.

Subjects

alloy | austenite | cast iron | cementite | dendrite | ferrite | hypoeutectic | iron | metal | pearlite | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Hypoeutectic white cast iron

Description

With a carbon equivalent less than the eutectic composition a hypoeutectic white cast iron is formed. Primary austenite dendrites (dark) are first to form from the liquid. At the eutectic the remaining liquid transforms to a mixture of austenite and cementite (light) with further transformation of the austenite to ferrite and pearlite.

Subjects

alloy | austenite | cast iron | cementite | dendrite | ferrite | hypoeutectic | iron | metal | pearlite | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Austenitic stainless steel

Description

Shows the grain structure of an austenitic stainless steel NF709, observed using light microscopy on a specimen polished and etched electrolytically using 10% oxalic acid solution in water. Many of the grains contain annealing twins. NF709 is a creep-resistant austenitic stainless steel used in the construction of highly sophisticated power generation units. Source: http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/abstracts/annealing.twin.html.

Subjects

alloy | annealing twins | austenite | grain | metal | stainless steel | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Austenitic stainless steel

Description

This is a transmission electron micrograph taken at 200 kV, from a thin foil sample of "302AA" austenitic stainless steel. The sample was cold-deformed by rolling and then annealed at 704 °C for one hour. The image shows a recrystallised grain which is relatively free of dislocations, surrounded by a deformed matrix which has a high dislocation density. The recrystallised grain contains annealing twins (parallel bands with different contrast). Source: http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/abstracts/annealing.twin.html.

Subjects

alloy | annealing twins | austenite | dislocation | grain | metal | recrystallisation | stainless steel | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Austenitic stainless steel

Description

This is a transmission electron micrograph taken at 200 kV, from a thin foil sample of "302AA" austenitic stainless steel. The sample was cold-deformed by rolling and then annealed at 704 °C for one hour. The image shows recrystallised grains which which show uniform contrast because they are relatively free of dislocations, surrounded by a deformed matrix which has a high dislocation density. The recrystallised grain contains annealing twins (parallel bands with different contrast. The steps at the top left-hand corner are simply steps in annealing twin boundaries.Source: http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/abstracts/annealing.twin.html.

Subjects

alloy | annealing twins | austenite | carbon | dislocation | grain | iron | metal | recrystallisation | stainless steel | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Austenitic stainless steel

Description

This is a transmission electron micrograph taken at 200 kV, from a thin foil sample of "302AA" austenitic stainless steel. The sample was cold-deformed by rolling and then annealed at 704 °C for one hour. The image shows a beautiful picture of annealing twins. Notice how the ends of annealing twins are flat, the shape being determined by a minimisation of interfacial energy. Mechanical twins, by contrast, are lenticular (lens like) with sharply pointed ends to minimise the strain energy due to the twinning shear. Annealing twins do not cause any deformation so strain energy minimisation is not an issue. This is also the reason why there is no strain field contrast visible at the tips of the annealing twins. Source: http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/abstracts/annealing.twin.html.

Subjects

alloy | annealing twins | austenite | carbon | dislocation | grain | iron | metal | recrystallisation | stainless steel | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Austenitic stainless steel

Description

This is a transmission electron micrograph taken at 200 kV, from a thin foil sample of "302AA" austenitic stainless steel. The sample was cold-deformed by rolling and then annealed at 704 °C for one hour. The image shows a mixture of deformed and recrystallised grains. Source: http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/abstracts/recryst.html.

Subjects

alloy | annealing twins | austenite | carbon | dislocation | grain | iron | metal | recrystallisation | stainless steel | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Austenitic stainless steel

Description

This is a transmission electron micrograph taken at 200 kV, from a thin foil sample of "302AA" austenitic stainless steel. The sample was cold-deformed by rolling and then annealed at 704 °C for one hour. The image shows a mixture of recrystallised and deformed grains. There are some stacking faults (ribbon like contrast) in the recrystallised grains; austenitic stainless steels have a relatively low stacking fault energy. Source: http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/abstracts/recryst.html.

Subjects

alloy | annealing twins | austenite | carbon | dislocation | grain | iron | metal | recrystallisation | stainless steel | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe-0.4C-30Ni (wt%)

Description

The micrograph shows the surface displacements produced when austenite in steel is transformed to martensite. The different colours represent a variety of inclinations.

Subjects

austenite | martensite | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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C for 5 mins and then hold at 400C for 150s for austenite stabilization

Description

The steel microstructure reveals clearly the retained austenite as white, martensite as straw-coloured constituents, bainite can be identified with needle-shaped austenites (there is no carbide present due to the addition of Si). Many martensite-austenite constituents can be found in the microstructure which is revealed because of the tint etching. This is not possible with any other reported ethants/etching techniques for TRIP steels. The microstructure does not show presence of any carbides.

Subjects

alloy | bainite | metal | retained austenite | TRIP steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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C for 5 mins and then hold at 400C for 40s for austenite stabilization

Description

The microstructure shows martensite (straw-coloured), retained austenite (white) and some M-A constituents. Martensite volume fraction is higher than the steel which was hold for 150s at 400C and cooled. Since the austenite is low in C-content for such a low holding time at 400C, most of the austenite is transformed to martensite during cooling from 400C to room temperature.

Subjects

alloy | bainite | metal | retained austenite | TRIP steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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A medium carbon low alloyed structural steel

Description

The steel sample was etched in 4% picral solution first and revealed the presence of pearlite and carbides distinctly. Further tint etching in SMB resulted in the straw coloured martensite to appear as a band. Retained austenite is appearing as very fine white particles. The bainite is appearing as bluish-black background between the martensite constituents. Coarse dark grains are pearlite. Microhardness measurements and SEM studies further proved the constituents identity. Conventional nital etching is not successful in delineating all the micro-constituents so distinctly.

Subjects

steel | retained austenite | low alloyed steel | structural steel | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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A medium carbon low alloyed structural steel

Description

The steel sample was etched in 4% picral solution first and revealed the presence of pearlite and carbides distinctly. Further tint etching in SMB resulted in the straw coloured martensite to appear as a band. Retained austenite is appearing as very fine white particles. The bainite is appearing as bluish-black background between the martensite constituents. Coarse dark grains are pearlite. Microhardness measurements and SEM studies further proved the constituents identity. Conventional nital etching is not successful in delineating all the micro-constituents so distinctly.

Subjects

steel | retained austenite | low alloyed steel | structural steel | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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A medium carbon low alloyed structural steel

Description

The steel sample was etched in 4% picral solution first and revealed the presence of pearlite and carbides distinctly. Further tint etching in SMB resulted in the straw coloured martensite to appear as a band. Retained austenite is appearing as very fine white particles. The bainite is appearing as bluish-black background between the martensite constituents. Coarse dark grains are pearlite. Microhardness measurements and SEM studies further proved the constituents identity. Conventional nital etching is not successful in delineating all the micro-constituents so distinctly.

Subjects

steel | retained austenite | low alloyed steel | structural steel | corematerials | ukoer

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Fe, C 0.8 (wt%), eutectoid transformation - pearlite (coarse)

Description

This steel is of the eutectoid composition. Once the temperature is lowered below the eutectoid temperature the steel becomes simultaneously supersaturated with both ferrite and cementite. A eutectoid transformation results (γ to α + Fe3C). The resultant microstructure, known as pearlite, comprises lamellae of cementite (dark) embedded in ferrite (white). The platelets are parallel to each other and do not follow a specific crystallographic direction.Each pearlite colony is made up of a number of subgrains. Thus each pearlite colony consists of two interpenetrating single crystals having an orientation relationship with respect to each other and with respect to the austenite grain they grow from, but not with respect to the austenite grain they have grown into. Changes in the apparent in

Subjects

alloy | austenite | carbon | cementite | eutectoid reaction | ferrite | iron | lamella | metal | pearlite | steel | supercooling | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Austenitic stainless steel

Description

Shows the grain structure of an austenitic stainless steel NF709, observed using light microscopy on a specimen polished and etched electrolytically using 10% oxalic acid solution in water. Many of the grains contain annealing twins. NF709 is a creep-resistant austenitic stainless steel used in the construction of highly sophisticated power generation units. Source: http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/abstracts/annealing.twin.html.

Subjects

alloy | annealing twins | austenite | grain | metal | stainless steel | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Fe, C 0.8 (wt%), eutectoid transformation - pearlite (coarse)

Description

This steel is of the eutectoid composition. Once the temperature is lowered below the eutectoid temperature the steel becomes simultaneously supersaturated with both ferrite and cementite. A eutectoid transformation results (γ to α + Fe3C). The resultant microstructure, known as pearlite, comprises lamellae of cementite (dark) embedded in ferrite (white). The platelets are parallel to each other and do not follow a specific crystallographic direction.Each pearlite colony is made up of a number of subgrains. Thus each pearlite colony consists of two interpenetrating single crystals having an orientation relationship with respect to each other and with respect to the austenite grain they grow from, but not with respect to the austenite grain they have grown into. Changes in the apparent in

Subjects

alloy | austenite | carbon | cementite | eutectoid reaction | ferrite | iron | lamella | metal | pearlite | steel | supercooling | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Austenitic stainless steel

Description

This is a transmission electron micrograph taken at 200 kV, from a thin foil sample of "302AA" austenitic stainless steel. The sample was cold-deformed by rolling and then annealed at 704 C for one hour. The image shows a recrystallised grain which is relatively free of dislocations, surrounded by a deformed matrix which has a high dislocation density. The recrystallised grain contains annealing twins (parallel bands with different contrast). Source: http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/abstracts/annealing.twin.html.

Subjects

alloy | annealing twins | austenite | dislocation | grain | metal | recrystallisation | stainless steel | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Fe, C 0.8 (wt%), eutectoid transformation - pearlite (coarse)

Description

This steel is of the eutectoid composition. Once the temperature is lowered below the eutectoid temperature the steel becomes simultaneously supersaturated with both ferrite and cementite. A eutectoid transformation results (γ to α + Fe3C). The resultant microstructure, known as pearlite, comprises lamellae of cementite (dark) embedded in ferrite (white). The platelets are parallel to each other and do not follow a specific crystallographic direction. Each pearlite colony is made up of a number of subgrains. Thus each pearlite colony consists of two interpenetrating single crystals having an orientation relationship with respect to each other and with respect to the austenite grain they grow from, but not with respect to the austenite grain they have grown into. Changes in the apparent i

Subjects

alloy | austenite | carbon | cementite | eutectoid reaction | ferrite | iron | lamella | metal | pearlite | steel | supercooling | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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