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7.344 The Fountain of Life: From Dolly to Customized Embryonic Stem Cells (MIT) 7.344 The Fountain of Life: From Dolly to Customized Embryonic Stem Cells (MIT)

Description

During development, the genetic content of each cell remains, with a few exceptions, identical to that of the zygote. Most differentiated cells therefore retain all of the genetic information necessary to generate an entire organism. It was through pioneering technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) that this concept was experimentally proven. Only 10 years ago the sheep Dolly was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult organism, demonstrating that the differentiated state of a mammalian cell can be fully reversible to a pluripotent embryonic state. A key conclusion from these experiments was that the difference between pluripotent cells such as embryonic stem (ES) cells and unipotent differentiated cells is solely a consequence of reversible changes. These changes, which hav During development, the genetic content of each cell remains, with a few exceptions, identical to that of the zygote. Most differentiated cells therefore retain all of the genetic information necessary to generate an entire organism. It was through pioneering technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) that this concept was experimentally proven. Only 10 years ago the sheep Dolly was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult organism, demonstrating that the differentiated state of a mammalian cell can be fully reversible to a pluripotent embryonic state. A key conclusion from these experiments was that the difference between pluripotent cells such as embryonic stem (ES) cells and unipotent differentiated cells is solely a consequence of reversible changes. These changes, which hav

Subjects

embryonic stem cells | embryonic stem cells | stem cells | stem cells | cells | cells | genetics | genetics | genome | genome | Dolly | Dolly | clone | clone | regenerative therapy | regenerative therapy | somatic | somatic | SCNT | SCNT | pluripotent | pluripotent | scientific literature | scientific literature | nuclear | nuclear | embryonic | embryonic | adult | adult | epigenetics | epigenetics | methylation | methylation | DNA | DNA | histone | histone | biomedical | biomedical | differentiation | differentiation | epigenome | epigenome | nuclear transfer | nuclear transfer | customized | customized | zygote | zygote | RNA | RNA | cancer | cancer | medicine | medicine

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7.340 Immune Evasion: How Sneaky Pathogens Avoid Host Surveillance (MIT) 7.340 Immune Evasion: How Sneaky Pathogens Avoid Host Surveillance (MIT)

Description

Every infection consists of a battle between the invading pathogen and the resisting host. To be successful, a pathogen must escape the many defenses of the host immune system until it can replicate and spread to another host. A pathogen must prevent one of three stages of immune function: detection, activation, or effector function. Examples of disease-specific immune evasion and the mechanisms used by pathogens to prevail over their hosts' immune systems are discussed. Also considered is what these host-pathogen interactions reveal about the normal function of the immune system and basic cell biological processes, such as protein maturation and degradation. Every infection consists of a battle between the invading pathogen and the resisting host. To be successful, a pathogen must escape the many defenses of the host immune system until it can replicate and spread to another host. A pathogen must prevent one of three stages of immune function: detection, activation, or effector function. Examples of disease-specific immune evasion and the mechanisms used by pathogens to prevail over their hosts' immune systems are discussed. Also considered is what these host-pathogen interactions reveal about the normal function of the immune system and basic cell biological processes, such as protein maturation and degradation.

Subjects

immunology | immunology | immune system | immune system | immune evasion | immune evasion | pathogen | pathogen | effector function | effector function | infections | infections | Human cytomegalovirus | Human cytomegalovirus | Human Immunodeficiency Virus | Human Immunodeficiency Virus | CD4 cells | CD4 cells | CD8 cells | CD8 cells | T cells | T cells | surace receptors | surace receptors | cell lysis | cell lysis | host-pathogen interactions | host-pathogen interactions | host surveillance | host surveillance | antibodies | antibodies | MHC class I | MHC class I | blood-borne pathogens | blood-borne pathogens | macrophages | macrophages | phagocytosis | phagocytosis | endocytosis | endocytosis | degradation | degradation | antigen | antigen | apoptosis | apoptosis | cytokines | cytokines | immune response | immune response

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7.342 Pluripotent Stem Cells and Genome Engineering for Modeling Human Diseases (MIT) 7.342 Pluripotent Stem Cells and Genome Engineering for Modeling Human Diseases (MIT)

Description

One of the major priorities in biomedical research is understanding the molecular events that establish the complex processes involved in human development and the relationships of these processes to human disease and disease progression. In this class, we will explore stem cell biology and the way in which it has developed and shaped our ability to study complex human disease. We will introduce the field of stem cell biology and genome engineering through critical reading of both the classical and newest primary research literature. In addition, this course will discuss specific disease model systems and their benefits / limitations for understanding the disease and treating human patients. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT One of the major priorities in biomedical research is understanding the molecular events that establish the complex processes involved in human development and the relationships of these processes to human disease and disease progression. In this class, we will explore stem cell biology and the way in which it has developed and shaped our ability to study complex human disease. We will introduce the field of stem cell biology and genome engineering through critical reading of both the classical and newest primary research literature. In addition, this course will discuss specific disease model systems and their benefits / limitations for understanding the disease and treating human patients. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT

Subjects

stem cells | stem cells | genome engineering | genome engineering | pluripotency | pluripotency | disease progression | disease progression | embryonic stem cells | embryonic stem cells | induced pluripotent stem cells | induced pluripotent stem cells | transgenic animals | transgenic animals | regenerative medicine | regenerative medicine | CRISPR/cas9 | CRISPR/cas9 | Nuclear Transfer | Nuclear Transfer | Cellular Reprogramming | Cellular Reprogramming

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9.01 Introduction to Neuroscience (MIT) 9.01 Introduction to Neuroscience (MIT)

Description

This course begins with the study of nerve cells which includes their structure, the propagation of nerve impulses and transfer of information between nerve cells, the effect of drugs on this process, and the development of nerve cells into the brain and spinal cord. Next, sensory systems such as hearing, vision and touch are covered as well as a discussion on how physical energy such as light is converted into neural signals, where these signals travel in the brain and how they are processed. Other topics include the control of voluntary movement, the neurochemical bases of brain diseases, and those systems which control sleep and consciousness, learning and memory. This course begins with the study of nerve cells which includes their structure, the propagation of nerve impulses and transfer of information between nerve cells, the effect of drugs on this process, and the development of nerve cells into the brain and spinal cord. Next, sensory systems such as hearing, vision and touch are covered as well as a discussion on how physical energy such as light is converted into neural signals, where these signals travel in the brain and how they are processed. Other topics include the control of voluntary movement, the neurochemical bases of brain diseases, and those systems which control sleep and consciousness, learning and memory.

Subjects

neuroscience | neuroscience | vision | vision | hearing | hearing | neuroanatomy | neuroanatomy | color vision | color vision | blind spot | blind spot | retinal phototransduction | retinal phototransduction | center-surround receptive fields | center-surround receptive fields | corticalmaps | corticalmaps | primary visual cortex | primary visual cortex | simple cells | simple cells | complex cells | complex cells | extrastriate cortex | extrastriate cortex | ear | ear | cochlea | cochlea | basilar membrane | basilar membrane | auditory transduction | auditory transduction | hair cells | hair cells | phase-locking | phase-locking | tonotopy | tonotopy | sound localization | sound localization | auditory cortex | auditory cortex | somatosensory system | somatosensory system | motor system | motor system | synaptic transmission | synaptic transmission | action potential | action potential | sympathetic neurons | sympathetic neurons | parasympathetic neurons | parasympathetic neurons | cellual neurophysiology | cellual neurophysiology | learning | learning | memory | memory

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7.346 Synaptic Plasticity and Memory, from Molecules to Behavior (MIT) 7.346 Synaptic Plasticity and Memory, from Molecules to Behavior (MIT)

Description

In this course we will discover how innovative technologies combined with profound hypotheses have given rise to our current understanding of neuroscience. We will study both new and classical primary research papers with a focus on the plasticity between synapses in a brain structure called the hippocampus, which is believed to underlie the ability to create and retrieve certain classes of memories. We will discuss the basic electrical properties of neurons and how they fire. We will see how firing properties can change with experience, and we will study the biochemical basis of these changes. We will learn how molecular biology can be used to specifically change the biochemical properties of brain circuits, and we will see how these circuits form a representation of space giving rise to In this course we will discover how innovative technologies combined with profound hypotheses have given rise to our current understanding of neuroscience. We will study both new and classical primary research papers with a focus on the plasticity between synapses in a brain structure called the hippocampus, which is believed to underlie the ability to create and retrieve certain classes of memories. We will discuss the basic electrical properties of neurons and how they fire. We will see how firing properties can change with experience, and we will study the biochemical basis of these changes. We will learn how molecular biology can be used to specifically change the biochemical properties of brain circuits, and we will see how these circuits form a representation of space giving rise to

Subjects

synapse | synapse | memory | memory | neuroscience | neuroscience | plasticity | plasticity | hippocampus | hippocampus | LTP | LTP | molecular mechanism | molecular mechanism | Morris water maze | Morris water maze | place cells | place cells | NMDA | NMDA | synaptic tagging | synaptic tagging | long term depression | long term depression | cortex | cortex | synaptic plasticity | synaptic plasticity | neuronal circuits | neuronal circuits | specificity | specificity | CA1 | CA1 | grid cells | grid cells | schema | schema | fear memory | fear memory | biochemistry | biochemistry

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22.55J Principles of Radiation Interactions (MIT) 22.55J Principles of Radiation Interactions (MIT)

Description

The central theme of this course is the interaction of radiation with biological material. The course is intended to provide a broad understanding of how different types of radiation deposit energy, including the creation and behavior of secondary radiations; of how radiation affects cells and why the different types of radiation have very different biological effects. Topics will include: the effects of radiation on biological systems including DNA damage; in vitro cell survival models; and in vivo mammalian systems. The course covers radiation therapy, radiation syndromes in humans and carcinogenesis. Environmental radiation sources on earth and in space, and aspects of radiation protection are also discussed. Examples from the current literature will be used to supplement lecture materi The central theme of this course is the interaction of radiation with biological material. The course is intended to provide a broad understanding of how different types of radiation deposit energy, including the creation and behavior of secondary radiations; of how radiation affects cells and why the different types of radiation have very different biological effects. Topics will include: the effects of radiation on biological systems including DNA damage; in vitro cell survival models; and in vivo mammalian systems. The course covers radiation therapy, radiation syndromes in humans and carcinogenesis. Environmental radiation sources on earth and in space, and aspects of radiation protection are also discussed. Examples from the current literature will be used to supplement lecture materi

Subjects

Interaction of radiation with biological material | Interaction of radiation with biological material | how different types of radiation deposit energy | how different types of radiation deposit energy | secondary radiations | secondary radiations | how radiation affects cells | how radiation affects cells | biological effects | biological effects | effects of radiation on biological systems | effects of radiation on biological systems | DNA damage | DNA damage | in vitro cell survival models | in vitro cell survival models | in vivo mammalian systems | in vivo mammalian systems | radiation therapy | radiation therapy | radiation syndromes in humans | radiation syndromes in humans | carcinogenesis | carcinogenesis | Environmental radiation sources | Environmental radiation sources | radiation protection | radiation protection | cells | cells | tissues | tissues | radiation interactions | radiation interactions | radiation chemistry | radiation chemistry | LET | LET | tracks | tracks | chromosome damags | chromosome damags | in vivo | in vivo | in vitro | in vitro | cell survival curves | cell survival curves | dose response | dose response | RBE | RBE | clustered damage | clustered damage | radiation response | radiation response | tumor kinetics | tumor kinetics | tumor radiobiology | tumor radiobiology | fractionation | fractionation | protons | protons | alpha particles | alpha particles | whole body exposure | whole body exposure | chronic exposure | chronic exposure | space | space | microbeams | microbeams | radon | radon | background radiation | background radiation | 22.55 | 22.55 | HST.560 | HST.560

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10.626 Electrochemical Energy Systems (MIT) 10.626 Electrochemical Energy Systems (MIT)

Description

This course introduces principles and mathematical models of electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Students study equivalent circuits, thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, transport phenomena, electrostatics, porous media, and phase transformations. In addition, this course includes applications to batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, and electrokinetics. This course introduces principles and mathematical models of electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Students study equivalent circuits, thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, transport phenomena, electrostatics, porous media, and phase transformations. In addition, this course includes applications to batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, and electrokinetics.

Subjects

energy | energy | electrochemical energy conversion | electrochemical energy conversion | electrochemical energy storage | electrochemical energy storage | transport phenomena | transport phenomena | diffuse charge | diffuse charge | Faradaic reactions | Faradaic reactions | statistical thermodynamics | statistical thermodynamics | phase transformations | phase transformations | rechargeable batteries | rechargeable batteries | fuel cells | fuel cells | supercapacitors | supercapacitors | solar cells | solar cells | desalination | desalination | electrokinetic energy conversion | electrokinetic energy conversion

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9.01 Introduction to Neuroscience (MIT) 9.01 Introduction to Neuroscience (MIT)

Description

This course is an introduction to the mammalian nervous system, with emphasis on the structure and function of the human brain. Topics include the function of nerve cells, sensory systems, control of movement, learning and memory, and diseases of the brain. This course is an introduction to the mammalian nervous system, with emphasis on the structure and function of the human brain. Topics include the function of nerve cells, sensory systems, control of movement, learning and memory, and diseases of the brain.

Subjects

neuroscience | neuroscience | vision | vision | hearing | hearing | neuroanatomy | neuroanatomy | color vision | color vision | blind spot | blind spot | retinal phototransduction | retinal phototransduction | cortical maps | cortical maps | primary visual cortex | primary visual cortex | complex cells | complex cells | extrastriate cortex | extrastriate cortex | ear | ear | cochlea | cochlea | basilar membrane | basilar membrane | auditory transduction | auditory transduction | hair cells | hair cells | phase-locking | phase-locking | sound localization | sound localization | auditory cortex | auditory cortex | somatosensory system | somatosensory system | motor system | motor system | synaptic transmission | synaptic transmission | action potential | action potential | sympathetic neurons | sympathetic neurons | parasympathetic neurons | parasympathetic neurons | cellual neurophysiology | cellual neurophysiology | learning | learning | memory | memory

License

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3.051J Materials for Biomedical Applications (MIT) 3.051J Materials for Biomedical Applications (MIT)

Description

This course gives an introduction to the interactions between proteins, cells and surfaces of biomaterials. It includes surface chemistry and physics of selected metals, polymers and ceramics, modification of biomaterials surfaces, and surface characterization methodology; quantitative assays of cell behavior in culture and methods of statistical analysis; organ replacement therapies and acute and chronic response to implanted biomaterials. The course includes topics in biosensors, drug delivery and tissue engineering. This course gives an introduction to the interactions between proteins, cells and surfaces of biomaterials. It includes surface chemistry and physics of selected metals, polymers and ceramics, modification of biomaterials surfaces, and surface characterization methodology; quantitative assays of cell behavior in culture and methods of statistical analysis; organ replacement therapies and acute and chronic response to implanted biomaterials. The course includes topics in biosensors, drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Subjects

Interactions between proteins | Interactions between proteins | cells | cells | Surface chemistry and physics of metals | Surface chemistry and physics of metals | polymers and ceramics | polymers and ceramics | Surface characterization methodology | Surface characterization methodology | Quantitative assays of cell behavior | Quantitative assays of cell behavior | Organ replacement therapies | Organ replacement therapies | Acute and chronic response to implanted biomaterials | Acute and chronic response to implanted biomaterials | Biosensors | Biosensors | drug delivery and tissue engineering | drug delivery and tissue engineering | Interactions between proteins | cells | Interactions between proteins | cells | Surface chemistry and physics of metals | polymers and ceramics | Surface chemistry and physics of metals | polymers and ceramics | Biosensors | drug delivery and tissue engineering | Biosensors | drug delivery and tissue engineering | BE.340J | BE.340J | 3.051 | 3.051 | BE.340 | BE.340 | 20.340 | 20.340

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10.626 Electrochemical Energy Systems (MIT) 10.626 Electrochemical Energy Systems (MIT)

Description

10.626 introduces principles and mathematical models of electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Students study equivalent circuits, thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, transport phenomena, electrostatics, porous media, and phase transformations. In addition, this course includes applications to batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, and electrokinetics. 10.626 introduces principles and mathematical models of electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Students study equivalent circuits, thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, transport phenomena, electrostatics, porous media, and phase transformations. In addition, this course includes applications to batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, and electrokinetics.

Subjects

energy | energy | electrochemical energy conversion | electrochemical energy conversion | electrochemical energy storage | electrochemical energy storage | transport phenomena | transport phenomena | diffuse charge | diffuse charge | Faradaic reactions | Faradaic reactions | statistical thermodynamics | statistical thermodynamics | phase transformations | phase transformations | rechargeable batteries | rechargeable batteries | fuel cells | fuel cells | supercapacitors | supercapacitors | solar cells | solar cells | desalination | desalination | electrokinetic energy conversion | electrokinetic energy conversion

License

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HST.721 The Peripheral Auditory System (MIT) HST.721 The Peripheral Auditory System (MIT)

Description

In this course, experimental approaches to the study of hearing and deafness are presented through lectures, laboratory exercises and discussions of the primary literature on the auditory periphery. Topics include inner-ear development, functional anatomy of the inner ear, cochlear mechanics and micromechanics, mechano-electric transduction by hair cells, outer hair cells' electromotility and the cochlear amplifier, otoacoustic emissions, synaptic transmission, stimulus coding in auditory nerve responses, efferent control of cochlear function, damage and repair of hair-cell organs, and sensorineural hearing loss. In this course, experimental approaches to the study of hearing and deafness are presented through lectures, laboratory exercises and discussions of the primary literature on the auditory periphery. Topics include inner-ear development, functional anatomy of the inner ear, cochlear mechanics and micromechanics, mechano-electric transduction by hair cells, outer hair cells' electromotility and the cochlear amplifier, otoacoustic emissions, synaptic transmission, stimulus coding in auditory nerve responses, efferent control of cochlear function, damage and repair of hair-cell organs, and sensorineural hearing loss.

Subjects

peripheral auditory system | peripheral auditory system | hair cells | hair cells | frequency tuning | frequency tuning | cochlear mechanics | cochlear mechanics | mechano-electric transduction | mechano-electric transduction | outer hair cells | outer hair cells | electromotility | electromotility | cochlear amplifier | cochlear amplifier | endocochlear potential | endocochlear potential | inner ear | inner ear | ear | ear | afferent synaptic transmission | afferent synaptic transmission | auditory nerve response | auditory nerve response | auditory pathway | auditory pathway | middle ear | middle ear

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7.341 DNA Damage Checkpoints: The Emergency Brake on the Road to Cancer (MIT) 7.341 DNA Damage Checkpoints: The Emergency Brake on the Road to Cancer (MIT)

Description

The DNA contained in human cells is under constant attack by both exogenous and endogenous agents that can damage one of its three billion base pairs. To cope with this permanent exposure to DNA-damaging agents, such as the sun's radiation or by-products of our normal metabolism, powerful DNA damage checkpoints have evolved that allow organisms to survive this constant assault on their genomes. In this class we will analyze classical and recent papers from the primary research literature to gain a profound understanding of checkpoints that act as powerful emergency brakes to prevent cancer. We will consider basic principles of cell proliferation and molecular details of the DNA damage response. We will discuss the methods and model organisms typically used in this field as well as how an The DNA contained in human cells is under constant attack by both exogenous and endogenous agents that can damage one of its three billion base pairs. To cope with this permanent exposure to DNA-damaging agents, such as the sun's radiation or by-products of our normal metabolism, powerful DNA damage checkpoints have evolved that allow organisms to survive this constant assault on their genomes. In this class we will analyze classical and recent papers from the primary research literature to gain a profound understanding of checkpoints that act as powerful emergency brakes to prevent cancer. We will consider basic principles of cell proliferation and molecular details of the DNA damage response. We will discuss the methods and model organisms typically used in this field as well as how an

Subjects

DNA | DNA | damage checkpoints | damage checkpoints | cancer | cancer | cells | cells | human cells | human cells | exogenous | exogenous | endogenous | endogenous | checkpoints | checkpoints | gene | gene | signaling | signaling | cancer biology | cancer biology | cancer prevention | cancer prevention | primary sources | primary sources | discussion | discussion | DNA damage | DNA damage | molecular | molecular | enzyme | enzyme | cell cycle | cell cycle | extracellular cues | extracellular cues | growth factors | growth factors | Cdk regulation | Cdk regulation | cyclin-dependent kinase | cyclin-dependent kinase | p53 | p53 | tumor suppressor | tumor suppressor | apoptosis | apoptosis | MDC1 | MDC1 | H2AX | H2AX | Rad50 | Rad50 | Fluorescence activated cell sorter | Fluorescence activated cell sorter | Chk1 | Chk1 | mutant | mutant

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Informers Corridor, Kilmainham Jail. Informers Corridor, Kilmainham Jail.

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dublin | dublin | screws | screws | wing | wing | prison | prison | jail | jail | cells | cells | kilmainham | kilmainham | gaol | gaol | informer | informer | kilmainhamgaol | kilmainhamgaol | thomasmayne | thomasmayne | kilmainhamjail | kilmainhamjail | prisoncells | prisoncells | jailer | jailer | lanternslides | lanternslides | nationallibraryofireland | nationallibraryofireland | jamescarey | jamescarey | prisonwarder | prisonwarder | thomasholmesmason | thomasholmesmason | thomashmasonsonslimited | thomashmasonsonslimited | messrsjrobinsonsons | messrsjrobinsonsons | informerscorridor | informerscorridor | kilmainhammemories | kilmainhammemories

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No known copyright restrictions

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6.973 Organic Optoelectronics (MIT) 6.973 Organic Optoelectronics (MIT)

Description

The course examines optical and electronic processes in organic molecules and polymers that govern the behavior of practical organic optoelectronic devices. Electronic structure of a single organic molecule is used as a guide to the electronic behavior of organic aggregate structures. Emphasis is placed on the use of organic thin films in active organic devices including organic LEDs, solar cells, photodetectors, transistors, chemical sensors, memory cells, electrochromic devices, as well as xerography and organic non-linear optics. How to reach the ultimate miniaturization limit of molecular electronics and related nanoscale patterning techniques of organic materials will also be discussed. The class encompasses three laboratory sessions during which the students will practice the use of The course examines optical and electronic processes in organic molecules and polymers that govern the behavior of practical organic optoelectronic devices. Electronic structure of a single organic molecule is used as a guide to the electronic behavior of organic aggregate structures. Emphasis is placed on the use of organic thin films in active organic devices including organic LEDs, solar cells, photodetectors, transistors, chemical sensors, memory cells, electrochromic devices, as well as xerography and organic non-linear optics. How to reach the ultimate miniaturization limit of molecular electronics and related nanoscale patterning techniques of organic materials will also be discussed. The class encompasses three laboratory sessions during which the students will practice the use of

Subjects

organic optoelectronics | organic optoelectronics | optical | optical | electronic | electronic | polymers | polymers | organic thin films | organic thin films | organic LEDs | organic LEDs | solar cells | solar cells | photodetectors | photodetectors | transistors | transistors | chemical sensors | chemical sensors | memory cells | memory cells | electrochromic devices | electrochromic devices | xerography | xerography | organic non-linear optics | organic non-linear optics | miniaturization limit | miniaturization limit | molecular electronics | molecular electronics | nanoscale patterning | nanoscale patterning | vacuum organic deposition | vacuum organic deposition | non-vacuum organic deposition | non-vacuum organic deposition

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10.626 Electrochemical Energy Systems (MIT) 10.626 Electrochemical Energy Systems (MIT)

Description

10.626 introduces principles and mathematical models of electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Students study equivalent circuits, thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, transport phenomena, electrostatics, porous media, and phase transformations. In addition, this course includes applications to batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, and electrokinetics. 10.626 introduces principles and mathematical models of electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Students study equivalent circuits, thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, transport phenomena, electrostatics, porous media, and phase transformations. In addition, this course includes applications to batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, and electrokinetics.

Subjects

energy | energy | electrochemical energy conversion | electrochemical energy conversion | electrochemical energy storage | electrochemical energy storage | transport phenomena | transport phenomena | diffuse charge | diffuse charge | Faradaic reactions | Faradaic reactions | statistical thermodynamics | statistical thermodynamics | phase transformations | phase transformations | rechargeable batteries | rechargeable batteries | fuel cells | fuel cells | supercapacitors | supercapacitors | solar cells | solar cells | desalination | desalination | electrokinetic energy conversion | electrokinetic energy conversion

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7.341 Bench to Bedside: Molecularly Targeted Therapies in Blood Disorders and Malignancy (MIT) 7.341 Bench to Bedside: Molecularly Targeted Therapies in Blood Disorders and Malignancy (MIT)

Description

Where do new drugs and treatments come from? This class will take you from the test tubes and mice of the laboratory to the treatment of patients with deadly blood disorders. Students will learn how to think as a scientist through discussion of primary research papers describing the discoveries of several novel treatments. Topics such as gene therapy, the potential of drugs based on RNA interference and the reprogramming of somatic cells into stem cells for regenerative medicine will be discussed. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instruct Where do new drugs and treatments come from? This class will take you from the test tubes and mice of the laboratory to the treatment of patients with deadly blood disorders. Students will learn how to think as a scientist through discussion of primary research papers describing the discoveries of several novel treatments. Topics such as gene therapy, the potential of drugs based on RNA interference and the reprogramming of somatic cells into stem cells for regenerative medicine will be discussed. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instruct

Subjects

molecularly targeted therapy | molecularly targeted therapy | blood disorders | blood disorders | chronic myelogenous leukemia | chronic myelogenous leukemia | CML | CML | Gleevec | Gleevec | chromosomal translocation | chromosomal translocation | stem cells | stem cells | blood cells | blood cells | hematopoiesis | hematopoiesis | hematopoieteic stem cell | hematopoieteic stem cell | genetic disorder | genetic disorder | Leukemia | Leukemia

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7.341 The DNA Damage Response as a Target for Anti-Cancer Therapy (MIT) 7.341 The DNA Damage Response as a Target for Anti-Cancer Therapy (MIT)

Description

Cellular responses to DNA damage constitute one of the most important fields in cancer biology. In this class we will analyze classical and recent papers from the primary research literature to gain a profound understand of cell cycle regulation and DNA damage checkpoints that act as powerful emergency brakes to prevent cancer. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Advanced Undergraduate Seminars are postdoctoral scientists with a strong interest in teaching. Cellular responses to DNA damage constitute one of the most important fields in cancer biology. In this class we will analyze classical and recent papers from the primary research literature to gain a profound understand of cell cycle regulation and DNA damage checkpoints that act as powerful emergency brakes to prevent cancer. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Advanced Undergraduate Seminars are postdoctoral scientists with a strong interest in teaching.

Subjects

DNA | DNA | damage checkpoints | damage checkpoints | cancer | cancer | cells | cells | human cells | human cells | exogenous | exogenous | endogenous | endogenous | checkpoints | checkpoints | gene | gene | signaling | signaling | cancer biology | cancer biology | cancer prevention | cancer prevention | primary sources | primary sources | discussion | discussion | DNA damage | DNA damage | molecular | molecular | enzyme | enzyme | cell cycle | cell cycle | extracellular cues | extracellular cues | growth factors | growth factors | Cdk regulation | Cdk regulation | cyclin-dependent kinase | cyclin-dependent kinase | p53 | p53 | tumor suppressor | tumor suppressor | apoptosis | apoptosis | MDC1 | MDC1 | H2AX | H2AX | Rad50 | Rad50 | Fluorescence activated cell sorter | Fluorescence activated cell sorter | Chk1 | Chk1 | mutant | mutant

License

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9.01 Introduction to Neuroscience (MIT)

Description

This course begins with the study of nerve cells which includes their structure, the propagation of nerve impulses and transfer of information between nerve cells, the effect of drugs on this process, and the development of nerve cells into the brain and spinal cord. Next, sensory systems such as hearing, vision and touch are covered as well as a discussion on how physical energy such as light is converted into neural signals, where these signals travel in the brain and how they are processed. Other topics include the control of voluntary movement, the neurochemical bases of brain diseases, and those systems which control sleep and consciousness, learning and memory.

Subjects

neuroscience | vision | hearing | neuroanatomy | color vision | blind spot | retinal phototransduction | center-surround receptive fields | corticalmaps | primary visual cortex | simple cells | complex cells | extrastriate cortex | ear | cochlea | basilar membrane | auditory transduction | hair cells | phase-locking | tonotopy | sound localization | auditory cortex | somatosensory system | motor system | synaptic transmission | action potential | sympathetic neurons | parasympathetic neurons | cellual neurophysiology | learning | memory

License

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7.342 Pluripotent Stem Cells and Genome Engineering for Modeling Human Diseases (MIT)

Description

One of the major priorities in biomedical research is understanding the molecular events that establish the complex processes involved in human development and the relationships of these processes to human disease and disease progression. In this class, we will explore stem cell biology and the way in which it has developed and shaped our ability to study complex human disease. We will introduce the field of stem cell biology and genome engineering through critical reading of both the classical and newest primary research literature. In addition, this course will discuss specific disease model systems and their benefits / limitations for understanding the disease and treating human patients. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT

Subjects

stem cells | genome engineering | pluripotency | disease progression | embryonic stem cells | induced pluripotent stem cells | transgenic animals | regenerative medicine | CRISPR/cas9 | Nuclear Transfer | Cellular Reprogramming

License

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7.344 The Fountain of Life: From Dolly to Customized Embryonic Stem Cells (MIT)

Description

During development, the genetic content of each cell remains, with a few exceptions, identical to that of the zygote. Most differentiated cells therefore retain all of the genetic information necessary to generate an entire organism. It was through pioneering technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) that this concept was experimentally proven. Only 10 years ago the sheep Dolly was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult organism, demonstrating that the differentiated state of a mammalian cell can be fully reversible to a pluripotent embryonic state. A key conclusion from these experiments was that the difference between pluripotent cells such as embryonic stem (ES) cells and unipotent differentiated cells is solely a consequence of reversible changes. These changes, which hav

Subjects

embryonic stem cells | stem cells | cells | genetics | genome | Dolly | clone | regenerative therapy | somatic | SCNT | pluripotent | scientific literature | nuclear | embryonic | adult | epigenetics | methylation | DNA | histone | biomedical | differentiation | epigenome | nuclear transfer | customized | zygote | RNA | cancer | medicine

License

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7.340 Immune Evasion: How Sneaky Pathogens Avoid Host Surveillance (MIT)

Description

Every infection consists of a battle between the invading pathogen and the resisting host. To be successful, a pathogen must escape the many defenses of the host immune system until it can replicate and spread to another host. A pathogen must prevent one of three stages of immune function: detection, activation, or effector function. Examples of disease-specific immune evasion and the mechanisms used by pathogens to prevail over their hosts' immune systems are discussed. Also considered is what these host-pathogen interactions reveal about the normal function of the immune system and basic cell biological processes, such as protein maturation and degradation.

Subjects

immunology | immune system | immune evasion | pathogen | effector function | infections | Human cytomegalovirus | Human Immunodeficiency Virus | CD4 cells | CD8 cells | T cells | surace receptors | cell lysis | host-pathogen interactions | host surveillance | antibodies | MHC class I | blood-borne pathogens | macrophages | phagocytosis | endocytosis | degradation | antigen | apoptosis | cytokines | immune response

License

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7.342 Developmental and Molecular Biology of Regeneration (MIT) 7.342 Developmental and Molecular Biology of Regeneration (MIT)

Description

How does a regenerating animal "know" what's missing? How are stem cells or differentiated cells used to create new tissues during regeneration? In this class we will take a comparative approach to explore this fascinating problem by critically examining classic and modern scientific literature about the developmental and molecular biology of regeneration. We will learn about conserved developmental pathways that are necessary for regeneration, and we will discuss the relevance of these findings for regenerative medicine. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highl How does a regenerating animal "know" what's missing? How are stem cells or differentiated cells used to create new tissues during regeneration? In this class we will take a comparative approach to explore this fascinating problem by critically examining classic and modern scientific literature about the developmental and molecular biology of regeneration. We will learn about conserved developmental pathways that are necessary for regeneration, and we will discuss the relevance of these findings for regenerative medicine. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highl

Subjects

Regeneration | Regeneration | blastema | blastema | embryo | embryo | progenitor | progenitor | stem cells | stem cells | differentiation | differentiation | dedifferentiation | dedifferentiation | hydra | hydra | morphallaxis | morphallaxis | limb | limb | organ | organ | zebrafish | zebrafish | homeostasis | homeostasis | self-renewal | self-renewal | regenerative medicine | regenerative medicine | differentitate | differentitate | regulate | regulate | salamander | salamander | catenin | catenin | newt | newt | liver | liver | pluriptent | pluriptent | fibroblast | fibroblast

License

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HIV and children in Africa

Description

Professor Sarah Rowland-Jones tells us about her work on HIV with children in Africa. Prof. Sarah Rowland-Jones' work mainly focuses on anti-viral immunity, and in particular how immune responses modify the outcome of HIV infection. Her research aims to contribute to the design of vaccines and immunotherapies against HIV infection, including HIV-2 infection, in developing countries where an effective vaccine is desperately needed. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

Africa | T cells | HIV-2 | HIV-1 | infant immunology | immunity | Africa | T cells | HIV-2 | HIV-1 | infant immunology | immunity

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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How can we live with HIV?

Description

Dr Lucy Dorrell tells us how our immune system controls HIV and how we can live with this virus. The aim of Dr Lucy Dorrells' research is to develop immunotherapy to reduce the dependence of those infected with HIV-1 on their current treatment - antiretroviral therapy (ART). This is because 9 million of the estimated 33 million people living with HIV/AIDS today are not able to access the ARTs which they are in immediate need of. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

hiv | antiretroviral | T cells | clinical trial | viral vector | vaccine | hiv | antiretroviral | T cells | clinical trial | viral vector | vaccine

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Viruses, how to be the perfect host

Description

Professor Paul Klenerman talks about our relationship with persistent viruses, such as Hepatitis C. Prof. Paul Klenerman studies the evolutionary relationships between persistent viruses and their human hosts. He aims to understand the role of our immune responses in determining the outcome of Hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatitis C virus infects around 200 million people worldwide and is a major cause of liver disease. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

Hepatitis C virus | T cells | virus | hiv | liver and flow cytometry | Hepatitis C virus | T cells | virus | hiv | liver and flow cytometry

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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