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Group of delegates to the IIIrd International at Pavlovsk Palace, Petrograd (July 1920)

Description

Boris Souvarine Papers - Soviet Russia Photos graduateinstitute.ch/home/research/library/archives/boris... Notes: The back of the document holds the mention (in Russian and French): "The delegates to the IInd Congress of the IIIrd International, at Pavlovsk. In the middle of the group, Comrade Lilina. On her left, Mutzenberg". Zlata (or Zinaida) Ionova Lilina (1881-1929) was Grigori Zinoviev's wife. Involved in children care and education, she was People's Commissar for Social Planning to the Northern Commun (organ of the Petrograd Soviet). Victor Serge (1890-1947) described her as "a small crop-haired, grey-eyed woman (...) sprightly and tough". She stands in the middle of the group, with German delegate Willi Münzenberg (1889-1940) on her left. The man with a hat and a pipe may be Karl Radek (1885-1939). The man on the left, behind the woman in a white dress, may be Manabendra Nath Roy (1887-1954), delegate to Mexico, commissioned by Lenin to write the theses on national and colonial questions during the IInd Congress. Unknown photographer. Description: 1 photograph. Black and white ; 13 x 17.5 cm. Sources and further reading: Fayet, Jean-François. 2004. Karl Radek (1885-1939): biographie politique. Bern: P. Lang. Lazic, Branko M., and Milorad M. Drachkovitch. 1973. Biographical dictionary of the Comintern. Stanford, Calif: Hoover Institution Press. Serge, Victor. 1963. Memoirs of a Revolutionary. London, New York: Oxford University Press. Re-ed. 2012. (Chapter 3, "Anguish and enthusiasm, 1919-1920"). Wood, Elizabeth A. 1997. The Baba and the Comrade. Gender and Politics in the Revolutionary Russia. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Subjects

july1920 | 1920 | petrograd | saintpetersburg | pavlovskpalace | iindcongress | thirdinternational | delegates | komintern | willimünzenberg | zlatalilina | zinoviev | women | activism | russia | borissouvarine | sovietunion | 20thcentury | karlradek | communistinternational | comintern | iiirdinternational

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"On the Field of Mars", Petrograd [17th July 1920]

Description

Boris Souvarine Papers - Soviet Russia Photos graduateinstitute.ch/home/research/library/archives/boris... Notes: The back of this photograph holds the hand-written mention "Champ de Mars à Petrograd ("On the Field of Mars, Petrograd"). It may have been the procession which took place at the beginning of the IInd Congress of the IIIrd Communist International, organized to pay a tribute to the victims of the February Revolution, buried in this area. One recognizes Nikolaï Bukharin (1888-1938) on the left. To know more about the Field of Mars, please see the photo entitled "« Place des victimes de la Révolution» at Petrograd [17th July 1920]". Other photos of this commemoration are displayed and tagged with "field of mars". Unknown photographer. Description: 1 photograph. Black and white ; 13 x 18 cm. Sources and further reading: Rosmer, Alfred. 1920. Moscou sous Lénine. Extract available online, "XIII: Smolny - Séance solennelle d'ouverture du IIe Congrès": www.marxists.org/francais/rosmer/works/msl/msl2013.htm

Subjects

20thcentury | sovietunion | borissouvarine | demonstration | russia | fieldofmars | petrograd | saintpetersburg | februaryrevolution | commemoration | 1920 | communistinternational | thirdinternational | iindcongress | komintern | comintern | bukharin | july1920 | iiirdinternational

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Portrait of Grigori Zinoviev by Yury Annenkov [s.d.]

Description

Boris Souvarine Papers - Soviet Russia Photos graduateinstitute.ch/home/research/library/archives/boris... Notes: This picture is a reproduction of a portrait made by Yury Annenkov of Grigori Zinoviev (1883-1936). Grigori Zinoviev was a Soviet Communist politician. A close friend of Lenin, with whom he shared exile in Switzerland (1903; 1908-1910; 1914-1917), he came back to Russia with Lenin in the aftermath of the February Revolution. He became head of the Communist International (1919-1926) and played a major role in the failed attempts to install communism in Germany in the early 1920s. Appointed a full member of the Politburo in 1921, he was one of the main Bolshevik leaders during Lenin?s illness and joined the troïka with Stalin and Lev Kamenev. The struggle for power led to the crumbling of the triumvirate: an opponent of Stalin?s bolshevization of sections of the Comintern, he was dismissed from the Politburo in 1926, and lost the presidency of the Comintern the same year. Following a public self-criticism, he was reinstated in the Party under Stalin?s control. He was expelled from the Party a second time in 1932, then again in 1934. He disappeared in August 1936, to reappear with Lev Kamenev at the first major public trial of the ?old Bolsheviks?. His execution marked the beginning of the Great Purge. He was married to Zlata (or Zinaida) Ionova Lilina (1881-1929), a Bolshevik involved in child care and education (see the photo entitled ?Group of delegates to the IIIrd International at Pavlovsk Palace??). To find out more about Yury Annenkov, please see the photo entitled "Portrait of Lenin by Yuri Annenkov, Moscow (1921)". To find out more about Lev Kamenev, please see the photo entitled "Portrait of Lev Kamenev by Yuri Annenkov [s.d.]". Description: 1 reproduction of picture. Black and white ; 27 x 15.5 cm. Sources and further reading: Lazic, Branko M., and Milorad M. Drachkovitch. 1973. Biographical dictionary of the Comintern. Stanford, Calif: Hoover Institution Press, pp. 454-457.

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annenkov | painter | 20thcentury | sovietunion | borissouvarine | komintern | yuryannenkov | georgesannenkov | portrait | zinoviev | russia | bolshevikleaders | comintern | zlatalilina | kamenev | communistinternational

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Front door of Smolny Institute, Petrograd [July 1920]

Description

Boris Souvarine Papers - Soviet Russia Photos graduateinstitute.ch/home/research/library/archives/boris... Notes: The back of the document holds the mention (in French): "L'entrée de Smolny". The central inscription reads: "Greetings to the IIIrd Communist International". Another view of this monumental door is visible on photo entitled "Near Smolny", Petrograd [17th July 1920]". Description: 1 photograph. Black and white ; 11 x 15.5 cm.

Subjects

20thcentury | sovietunion | borissouvarine | russia | smolny | thirdinternational | petrograd | saintpetersburg | 1920 | communistinternational | comintern | iiirdinternational

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Speech of Grigori Zinoviev on May 1st 1918, Petrograd

Description

Boris Souvarine Papers - Soviet Russia Photos graduateinstitute.ch/home/research/library/archives/boris... Notes: The picture holds the mention "1st of May, 1918. Speech of G. Zinoviev, Chairman of the Soviet of Petrograd. Commissioner of the Workers of the Commune, Champ-de-Mars". Unknown photographer. Description: 1 photograph. Black and white ; 8 x 11.5 cm.

Subjects

1918 | 20thcentury | sovietunion | borissouvarine | komintern | may1st | saintpetersburg | petrograd | workers | demonstration | fieldofmars | russia | labourday | comintern | may1918

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"A la Gare Nicolas" - Grigori Zinoviev [s.d.]

Description

Boris Souvarine Papers - Soviet Russia Photos graduateinstitute.ch/home/research/library/archives/boris... Notes: The back of this picture holds the mention (both in Russian and French) "russe?/A la Gare Nicolas" ("At the Nicholas rail station"). It also shows this photographic company stamp:"???????? ?.?. ?????. ???????? ?????i? ??. 54". The "Nicolas train station" may designate the Vitebsky Station, the first rail station built in the Russian Empire, inaugurated by Tsar Nicholas I on October 1837. Between 1921 and 1924, Boris Souvarine was a member to the Secretariat of the Communist International. A close colleague of the Bolshevik leaders, he told about his work: "Le Bureau politique russe se réunit chaque jeudi, je m'en souviens bien, car le samedi, Zinoviev rentrait de Petrograd, par le fameux wagon du Tsar, que j'ai utilisé plusieurs fois avec lui". ("The Russian Politburo used to meet every Thursday, I remember it well, as on Saturdays Zinoviev used to go back from Petrograd by the famous Tsar's train, with which I have myself travelled several times with him" (our translation). This allusion may explain why Boris Souvarine kept this photo in his collection. Description: 1 photograph. Black and white ; 11 X 15.5 cm. Sources and further reading: Souvarine, Boris, Branko Lazitch, Michel Heller, and Regis Gayraud. 1990. Sur Lenine, Trotski et Staline = O Lenine, Trockom i Staline. Paris: Ed. Allia. Quotation p. 15.

Subjects

20thcentury | sovietunion | borissouvarine | komintern | zinoviev | russia | petrograd | saintpetersburg | vibetskystation | comintern

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Exiting the Uritsky Palace (Tauride Palace) at Petrograd [17th July 1920]

Description

Boris Souvarine Papers - Soviet Russia Photos graduateinstitute.ch/home/research/library/archives/boris... Notes: The back of this picture holds the mention (both in Russian and French) "Exiting the Uritsky Palace". Uritsky Palace was the name given by the Bolsheviks to the Tauride Palace. After the February Revolution, the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet were housed in this palace. On July 17th, 1920, the delegates to the IIIrd International gathered first at Smolny, then came to the Field of Mars, and to the Tauride Palace, where Lenin made a speech (cf. Alfred Rosmer's memoirs). Description: 1 photograph. Black and white ; 11 x 15.5 cm. Sources and further reading: Rosmer, Alfred. 1920. Moscou sous Lénine. Extract available online, "XIII: Smolny - Séance solennelle d'ouverture du IIe Congrès": www.marxists.org/francais/rosmer/works/msl/msl2013.htm

Subjects

20thcentury | sovietunion | borissouvarine | petrograd | saintpetersburg | russia | uritsky | tauridepalace | demonstration | comintern | thirdinternational | iindcongress | delegates | komintern | communistinternational | july1920 | iiirdinternational

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The IIIrd Communist International at Smolny Institute, Petrograd (July 1920)

Description

Boris Souvarine Papers - Soviet Russia Photos graduateinstitute.ch/home/research/library/archives/boris... Notes: The back of this picture holds the mention (both in Russian and French) "Smolny". The left banner reads "FSSRR" and the right banner reads (in French): "Fraternal greetings to the IInd Congress of the IIIrd Communist International". Unknown photographer. Description: 1 photograph. Black and white ; 11 x 16 cm.

Subjects

1920 | 20thcentury | sovietunion | borissouvarine | petrograd | saintpetersburg | smolny | communistinternational | iindcongress | russia | comintern | july1920 | iiirdinternational | thirdinternational

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"Near Smolny", Petrograd [17th July 1920]

Description

Boris Souvarine Papers - Soviet Russia Photos graduateinstitute.ch/home/research/library/archives/boris... Notes : The back of the document holds the mention (in French): "Near Smolny". Another photograph from the collection, entitled "Smolny", shows the same parade door, with the RSFSR and the Russian revolutionary symbols. One presumes that this photo was taken during the IInd congress of the IIIrd International, on the 17th July 1920. Unknown photographer. Description : 1 photograph. Black and white ; 10.5 x 15.5 cm. Sources and further reading: Rosmer, Alfred. 1920. Moscou sous Lénine. Extract available online, "XIII: Smolny - Séance solennelle d'ouverture du IIe Congrès": www.marxists.org/francais/rosmer/works/msl/msl2013.htm

Subjects

20thcentury | sovietunion | borissouvarine | thirdinternational | smolny | russia | petrograd | saintpetersburg | 1920 | iindcongress | ussr | urss | communistinternational | comintern | delegates | july1920 | iiirdinternational

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« Place des victimes de la Révolution» at Petrograd [17th July 1920]

Description

Boris Souvarine Papers - Soviet Russia Photos graduateinstitute.ch/home/research/library/archives/boris... Notes: The « Square of the Victims of the Revolution » designates the Field of Mars, in Saint-Petersburg/Petrograd. After the February Revolution in 1917, this area of the city became a memorial place, where participants killed during the Revolution were buried. This picture probably shows a commemoration, which took place at the opening of the IInd Congress of the IIIrd International (17th July 1920). On this occasion, the delegates of the International came in procession to the Field of Mars, to pay a tribute to the victims. The procession may be carrying a symbolical coffin. Unknown photographer. Description: 1 photograph. Black and white ; 10 x 14 cm. Sources and further reading: Rosmer, Alfred. 1920. Moscou sous Lénine. Extract available online, "XIII: Smolny - Séance solennelle d'ouverture du IIe Congrès": www.marxists.org/francais/rosmer/works/msl/msl2013.htm

Subjects

20thcentury | sovietunion | borissouvarine | russia | commemoration | demonstration | petrograd | saintpetersburg | fieldofmars | februaryrevolution | iindcongress | thirdinternational | communistinternational | comintern | july1920 | iiirdinternational

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Procession on the Field of Mars, Petrograd [17th July 1920]

Description

Boris Souvarine Papers - Soviet Russia Photos graduateinstitute.ch/home/research/library/archives/boris... Notes: The document is a photo taken from a different angle of the procession which appears to be identified as a commemoration on the occasion of the opening of the IInd Congress of the IIIrd International (17th July 1920). To read more about it, please see the photos tagged with "Field of Mars". One reads on the banner (left): "Long live the proletarian revolution". Unknown photographer. Description: 1 photograph. Black and white ; 11 x 15.5 cm. Sources and further reading: Rosmer, Alfred. 1920. Moscou sous Lénine. Extract available online, "XIII: Smolny - Séance solennelle d'ouverture du IIe Congrès": www.marxists.org/francais/rosmer/works/msl/msl2013.htm

Subjects

20thcentury | sovietunion | borissouvarine | russia | demonstration | commemoration | fieldofmars | petrograd | saintpetersburg | februaryrevolution | communistinternational | komintern | thirdinternational | iindcongress | comintern | july1920 | iiirdinternational

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Spartakiad [Petrograd, Summer 1920]

Description

Boris Souvarine Papers - Soviet Russia Photos graduateinstitute.ch/home/research/library/archives/boris... Notes: The back of this picture holds the mention (in Russian): "Honour to the Second Congress of the Communist International. Olympiada"). This sporting event was organized to celebrate the IInd Congress of the IIIrd International and took place in Petrograd in Summer 1920. On this occasion, a military expert in charge of the organisation of training in the Red Army, Nikolaï Podvoisky (1880-1948), promoted the idea of an international sports organisation. The objectives were to develop a working class sport federation as an alternative to the Olympic Games. In 1921, the Red Sport International was born. Originally independent, it passed into the hands of the Comintern in 1924-1925 and lasted until 1937. Several Spartakiads were organised in the 1920sand-1930s, in Eastern countries and Norway. This document is a reproduction of a photo. Unknown photographer. Description: 1 photograph. Black and white ; 17.5 x 13 cm. Sources and further reading: Wikipédia [online]. Article "Red Sport International". Available at : en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Sport_International [consulted 6th of August 2014].

Subjects

20thcentury | sovietunion | borissouvarine | russia | olympiada | thirdinternational | komintern | iindcongress | spartakiad | communistinternational | sport | 1920 | redsportinternational | olympicgames | internationalpolitics | comintern | iiirdinternational

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Tribune on Uritsky Square, Petrograd [17th July 1920]

Description

Boris Souvarine Papers - Soviet Russia Photos graduateinstitute.ch/home/research/library/archives/boris... Notes: The back of this picture holds the mention (in Russian) "IInd Congress of the IIIrd International. The tribune on Uritsky Square". One recognizes the Winter Palace colonnade in the background. The people photographed may be delegates to the Congress of the IIIrd International. The lady in a white dress seems to be the same as in the photo entitled "Group of the delegates of the IIIrd International, Petrograd". French syndicalist Alfred Rosmer (1877-1964) was one of the French delegates to the Communist International. He wrote about this event: "L?après-midi [17 juillet 1920] un meeting eut lieu sur la vaste place du Palais d?Hiver, si riche en souvenirs. (....) Une tribune était dressée devant le Palais d?où l?on dominait la foule venue pour écouter les orateurs. (...) La scène, c?était le péristyle qu?on atteignait par un haut escalier. La foule immense accourue pour voir le spectacle tenait à l?aise sur la vaste place. Dans ce cadre exceptionnel se déroulèrent une suite de scènes évoquant ? la marche du socialisme à travers les luttes et les défaites vers la victoire?. Unknown photographer. Description: 1 photograph. Black and white ; 11 x 16.5 cm. Sources and further reading: Rosmer, Alfred. 1920. Moscou sous Lénine. Extract available online, "XIII: Smolny - Séance solennelle d'ouverture du IIe Congrès": www.marxists.org/francais/rosmer/works/msl/msl2013.htm Related resources: www.wikiart.org/en/boris-kustodiev/festivities-marking-th...

Subjects

20thcentury | sovietunion | borissouvarine | communistinternational | activism | russia | thirdinternational | iindcongress | petrograd | saintpetersburg | uritskyplace | 1920 | komintern | ouritskyplace | palacesquare | delegates | comintern | july1920 | iiirdinternational

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Portrait of Karl Radek [s.d.]

Description

Boris Souvarine Papers - Soviet Russia Photos graduateinstitute.ch/home/research/library/archives/boris... Notes: This document is a portrait of Karl Radek, as indicated by the legend. Karl Radek was a prominent figure of the Communist International (Komintern or III International). Born in Ukraine in 1885, Karl Radek was a revolutionary. He joined Lenin during his exile in Switzerland ; after the October Revolution, he came back to Russia and became Vice-Commissar for Foreign Affairs. In 1920, he became the Secretary of the Komintern. A political opponent of Grigori Zinoviev, he was ousted from the Executive Committee of the Communist International in 1924. A supporter of Trotsky, he was seen with suspicion by Stalin, and was expelled from the Party in 1927. However, he regained a political influence in the early 1930s, becoming Stalin's foreign policy advisor. He collaborated in the preparation of the Soviet Constitution in 1935, but the following year he was charged with treason in Stalin's Great Purge, and sentenced to imprisonment. He disappeared in 1939, while in prison. The document is a reproduction of a photo made by photographer V. Shabel'skii. Description: 1 photograph. Black and white ; 17.5 x 12.5 cm. Sources and further reading: Fayet, Jean-François. 2004. Karl Radek (1885-1939): biographie politique. Bern, P. Lang. Lazic, Branko M., and Milorad M. Drachkovitch. 1973. Biographical Dictionary of the Comintern. Stanford, Calif: Hoover Institution Press, pp. 324-326.

Subjects

borissouvarine | karlradek | russia | portrait | communistinternational | bolshevikleaders | vshabelskii | sovietunion | 20thcentury | comintern

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Front view of Smolny, decorated for the IInd Congress of the IIIrd International, Petrograd (July 1920)

Description

Boris Souvarine Papers - Soviet Russia Photos graduateinstitute.ch/home/research/library/archives/boris... Notes: The back of the picture holds the mention (in French) "Former court of the page-boys". During the imperial period, Smolny Institute was an educational establishment for noble girls, where they used to learn good manners at the tsarist court. After 1917, the building was used as the headquarters for the Bolshevik Party, before the Party moved to Moscow the following year. The two banners at the entrance read: "Fraternal greetings to the IInd Congress of the IIIrd Communist International". Unknown photographer. Description: 1 photograph. Black and white ; 11 x 15 cm.

Subjects

20thcentury | sovietunion | borissouvarine | russia | smolny | thirdinternational | iindcongress | petrograd | saintpetersburg | 1920 | komintern | communistinternational | comintern | july1920 | iiirdinternational

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Group of delegates to the IInd Congress of the IIIrd International [Summer 1920]

Description

Boris Souvarine Papers - Soviet Russia Photos graduateinstitute.ch/home/research/library/archives/boris... Notes: The back of the document holds the mention (in French): "Group of delegates". One recognizes Grigori Zinoviev (fourth from the right). The man wearing glasses and a hat might be Karl Radek. Unknown photographer. Description: 1 photograph. Black and white ; 11.5 x 16.5 cm.

Subjects

20thcentury | sovietunion | borissouvarine | komintern | russia | zinoviev | delegates | thirdinternational | iindcongress | 1920 | communistinternational | comintern | karlradek | iiirdinternational

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At Smolny, Petrograd [17th July 1920]

Description

Boris Souvarine Papers - Soviet Russia Photos graduateinstitute.ch/home/research/library/archives/boris... Notes: The back of the picture holds the mention (in Russian) "At Smolny". The picture was very likely at the IInd Congress of the IIIrd International: one recognizes the decorations of the entrance of Smolny. At the centre of the photo, the man with a cap may be Lenin, surrounded by delegates to the Congress. Unknown photographer. Description: 1 photograph. Black and white ; 11 x 15.5 cm. Sources and further reading: Rosmer, Alfred. 1920. Moscou sous Lénine. Extract available online, "XIII: Smolny - Séance solennelle d'ouverture du IIe Congrès": www.marxists.org/francais/rosmer/works/msl/msl2013.htm

Subjects

20thcentury | sovietunion | borissouvarine | russia | komintern | thirdinternational | iindcongress | smolny | saintpetersburg | 1920 | communistinternational | comintern | lenin | july1920 | iiirdinternational

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