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Description

This course is offered to undergraduates and introduces basic mathematical models of computation and the finite representation of infinite objects. The course is slower paced than 6.840J/18.404J. Topics covered include: finite automata and regular languages, context-free languages, Turing machines, partial recursive functions, Church's Thesis, undecidability, reducibility and completeness, time complexity and NP-completeness, probabilistic computation, and interactive proof systems. This course is offered to undergraduates and introduces basic mathematical models of computation and the finite representation of infinite objects. The course is slower paced than 6.840J/18.404J. Topics covered include: finite automata and regular languages, context-free languages, Turing machines, partial recursive functions, Church's Thesis, undecidability, reducibility and completeness, time complexity and NP-completeness, probabilistic computation, and interactive proof systems.Subjects

automata | automata | computability | computability | complexity | complexity | mathematical models | mathematical models | computation | computation | finite representation | finite representation | infinite objects | infinite objects | finite automata | finite automata | regular languages | regular languages | context-free languages | context-free languages | Turing machines | Turing machines | partial recursive functions | partial recursive functions | Church's Thesis | Church's Thesis | undecidability | undecidability | reducibility | reducibility | completeness | completeness | time complexity | time complexity | NP-completeness | NP-completeness | probabilistic computation | probabilistic computation | interactive proof systems | interactive proof systems | 6.045 | 6.045 | 18.400 | 18.400License

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See all metadata18.404J Theory of Computation (MIT) 18.404J Theory of Computation (MIT)

Description

A more extensive and theoretical treatment of the material in 18.400J, Automata, Computability, and Complexity, emphasizing computability and computational complexity theory. Regular and context-free languages. Decidable and undecidable problems, reducibility, recursive function theory. Time and space measures on computation, completeness, hierarchy theorems, inherently complex problems, oracles, probabilistic computation, and interactive proof systems. A more extensive and theoretical treatment of the material in 18.400J, Automata, Computability, and Complexity, emphasizing computability and computational complexity theory. Regular and context-free languages. Decidable and undecidable problems, reducibility, recursive function theory. Time and space measures on computation, completeness, hierarchy theorems, inherently complex problems, oracles, probabilistic computation, and interactive proof systems.Subjects

computability | computability | computational complexity theory | computational complexity theory | Regular and context-free languages | Regular and context-free languages | Decidable and undecidable problems | Decidable and undecidable problems | reducibility | reducibility | recursive function theory | recursive function theory | Time and space measures on computation | Time and space measures on computation | completeness | completeness | hierarchy theorems | hierarchy theorems | inherently complex problems | inherently complex problems | oracles | oracles | probabilistic computation | probabilistic computation | interactive proof systems | interactive proof systems | 18.404 | 18.404 | 6.840 | 6.840License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htmSite sourced from

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This course introduces basic mathematical models of computation and the finite representation of infinite objects. Topics covered include: finite automata and regular languages, context-free languages, Turing machines, partial recursive functions, Church's Thesis, undecidability, reducibility and completeness, time complexity and NP-completeness, probabilistic computation, and interactive proof systems. This course introduces basic mathematical models of computation and the finite representation of infinite objects. Topics covered include: finite automata and regular languages, context-free languages, Turing machines, partial recursive functions, Church's Thesis, undecidability, reducibility and completeness, time complexity and NP-completeness, probabilistic computation, and interactive proof systems.Subjects

automata | automata | computability | computability | complexity | complexity | mathematical models | mathematical models | computation | computation | finite representation | finite representation | infinite objects | infinite objects | finite automata | finite automata | regular languages | regular languages | context-free languages | context-free languages | Turing machines | Turing machines | partial recursive functions | partial recursive functions | Church's Thesis | Church's Thesis | undecidability | undecidability | reducibility | reducibility | completeness | completeness | time complexity | time complexity | NP-completeness | NP-completeness | probabilistic computation | probabilistic computation | interactive proof systems | interactive proof systems | 6.045 | 6.045 | 18.400 | 18.400License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htmSite sourced from

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This course provides a challenging introduction to some of the central ideas of theoretical computer science. Beginning in antiquity, the course will progress through finite automata, circuits and decision trees, Turing machines and computability, efficient algorithms and reducibility, the P versus NP problem, NP-completeness, the power of randomness, cryptography and one-way functions, computational learning theory, and quantum computing. It examines the classes of problems that can and cannot be solved by various kinds of machines. It tries to explain the key differences between computational models that affect their power. This course provides a challenging introduction to some of the central ideas of theoretical computer science. Beginning in antiquity, the course will progress through finite automata, circuits and decision trees, Turing machines and computability, efficient algorithms and reducibility, the P versus NP problem, NP-completeness, the power of randomness, cryptography and one-way functions, computational learning theory, and quantum computing. It examines the classes of problems that can and cannot be solved by various kinds of machines. It tries to explain the key differences between computational models that affect their power.Subjects

finite automata | finite automata | Turing machine | Turing machine | halting problem | halting problem | computability | computability | computational complexity | computational complexity | polynomial time | polynomial time | P | P | NP | NP | NP complete | NP complete | probabilistic algorithms | probabilistic algorithms | private-key cryptography | private-key cryptography | public-key cryptography | public-key cryptography | randomness | randomnessLicense

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htmSite sourced from

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This course provides a challenging introduction to some of the central ideas of theoretical computer science. It attempts to present a vision of "computer science beyond computers": that is, CS as a set of mathematical tools for understanding complex systems such as universes and minds. Beginning in antiquity—with Euclid's algorithm and other ancient examples of computational thinking—the course will progress rapidly through propositional logic, Turing machines and computability, finite automata, Gödel's theorems, efficient algorithms and reducibility, NP-completeness, the P versus NP problem, decision trees and other concrete computational models, the power of randomness, cryptography and one-way functions, computational theories of learning, interactive proofs, and q This course provides a challenging introduction to some of the central ideas of theoretical computer science. It attempts to present a vision of "computer science beyond computers": that is, CS as a set of mathematical tools for understanding complex systems such as universes and minds. Beginning in antiquity—with Euclid's algorithm and other ancient examples of computational thinking—the course will progress rapidly through propositional logic, Turing machines and computability, finite automata, Gödel's theorems, efficient algorithms and reducibility, NP-completeness, the P versus NP problem, decision trees and other concrete computational models, the power of randomness, cryptography and one-way functions, computational theories of learning, interactive proofs, and qSubjects

computer science | computer science | theoretical computer science | theoretical computer science | logic | logic | turing machines | turing machines | computability | computability | finite automata | finite automata | godel | godel | complexity | complexity | polynomial time | polynomial time | efficient algorithms | efficient algorithms | reducibility | reducibility | p and np | p and np | np completeness | np completeness | private key cryptography | private key cryptography | public key cryptography | public key cryptography | pac learning | pac learning | quantum computing | quantum computing | quantum algorithms | quantum algorithmsLicense

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htmSite sourced from

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6.844 is a graduate introduction to programming theory, logic of programming, and computability, with the programming language Scheme used to crystallize computability constructions and as an object of study itself. Topics covered include: programming and computability theory based on a term-rewriting, "substitution" model of computation by Scheme programs with side-effects; computation as algebraic manipulation: Scheme evaluation as algebraic manipulation and term rewriting theory; paradoxes from self-application and introduction to formal programming semantics; undecidability of the Halting Problem for Scheme; properties of recursively enumerable sets, leading to Incompleteness Theorems for Scheme equivalences; logic for program specification and verification; and Hilbert's Tenth Prob 6.844 is a graduate introduction to programming theory, logic of programming, and computability, with the programming language Scheme used to crystallize computability constructions and as an object of study itself. Topics covered include: programming and computability theory based on a term-rewriting, "substitution" model of computation by Scheme programs with side-effects; computation as algebraic manipulation: Scheme evaluation as algebraic manipulation and term rewriting theory; paradoxes from self-application and introduction to formal programming semantics; undecidability of the Halting Problem for Scheme; properties of recursively enumerable sets, leading to Incompleteness Theorems for Scheme equivalences; logic for program specification and verification; and Hilbert's Tenth ProbSubjects

Scheme | Scheme | programming theory | programming theory | logic of programming | logic of programming | computability | computability | programming language | programming language | Scheme evaluation | Scheme evaluation | algebraic manipulation | algebraic manipulation | term rewriting theory | term rewriting theory | programming semantics | programming semantics | Halting Problem for Scheme | Halting Problem for Scheme | Incompleteness Theorems | Incompleteness Theorems | Hilbert's Tenth Problem | Hilbert's Tenth ProblemLicense

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htmSite sourced from

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See all metadata24.242 Logic II (MIT) 24.242 Logic II (MIT)

Description

This course begins with an introduction to the theory of computability, then proceeds to a detailed study of its most illustrious result: Kurt GÃ¶del's theorem that, for any system of true arithmetical statements we might propose as an axiomatic basis for proving truths of arithmetic, there will be some arithmetical statements that we can recognize as true even though they don't follow from the system of axioms. In my opinion, which is widely shared, this is the most important single result in the entire history of logic, important not only on its own right but for the many applications of the technique by which it's proved. We'll discuss some of these applications, among them: Church's theorem that there is no algorithm for deciding when a formula is valid in the predicate calculus; This course begins with an introduction to the theory of computability, then proceeds to a detailed study of its most illustrious result: Kurt GÃ¶del's theorem that, for any system of true arithmetical statements we might propose as an axiomatic basis for proving truths of arithmetic, there will be some arithmetical statements that we can recognize as true even though they don't follow from the system of axioms. In my opinion, which is widely shared, this is the most important single result in the entire history of logic, important not only on its own right but for the many applications of the technique by which it's proved. We'll discuss some of these applications, among them: Church's theorem that there is no algorithm for deciding when a formula is valid in the predicate calculus;Subjects

Logic | Logic | theory of computability | theory of computability | Kurt G?del | Kurt G?del | theorem | theorem | system | system | true | true | arithmetical | arithmetical | statements | statements | axiomatic basis | axiomatic basis | proving | proving | truths of arithmetic | truths of arithmetic | history applications | history applications | technique | technique | Church?s theorem | Church?s theorem | algorithm | algorithm | formula | formula | valid | valid | predicate calculus | predicate calculus | Tarski?s theorem | Tarski?s theorem | G?del?s second incompleteness theorem. | G?del?s second incompleteness theorem.License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htmSite sourced from

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This course explores different kinds of infinity; the paradoxes of set theory; the reduction of arithmetic to logic; formal systems; paradoxes involving the concept of truth; GÃ¶del’s incompleteness theorems; the nonformalizable nature of mathematical truth; and Turing machines. This course explores different kinds of infinity; the paradoxes of set theory; the reduction of arithmetic to logic; formal systems; paradoxes involving the concept of truth; GÃ¶del’s incompleteness theorems; the nonformalizable nature of mathematical truth; and Turing machines.Subjects

time travel | time travel | free will | free will | Newcomb | Newcomb | Newcomb's Paradox | Newcomb's Paradox | probability | probability | Zeno | Zeno | Zeno's Paradox | Zeno's Paradox | infinity | infinity | axiom of choice | axiom of choice | computability | computability | Godel | Godel | Godel's theorem | Godel's theorem | prisoner's dilemma | prisoner's dilemma | higher infinite | higher infiniteLicense

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htmSite sourced from

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See all metadata24.118 Paradox and Infinity (MIT) 24.118 Paradox and Infinity (MIT)

Description

In this class we will study a cluster of puzzles, paradoxes and intellectual wonders - from Zeno's Paradox to Godel's Theorem - and discuss their philosophical implications. In this class we will study a cluster of puzzles, paradoxes and intellectual wonders - from Zeno's Paradox to Godel's Theorem - and discuss their philosophical implications.Subjects

paradox | paradox | infinity | infinity | zeno | zeno | higher infinite | higher infinite | set theory | set theory | vagueness | vagueness | newcomb's puzzle | newcomb's puzzle | liar paradox | liar paradox | computability | computability | backward induction | backward induction | common knowledge | common knowledge | Godel's theorem | Godel's theorem | puzzle | puzzleLicense

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htmSite sourced from

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See all metadata24.118 Paradox and Infinity (MIT)

Description

In this class we will study a cluster of puzzles, paradoxes and intellectual wonders - from Zeno's Paradox to Godel's Theorem - and discuss their philosophical implications.Subjects

paradox | infinity | zeno | higher infinite | set theory | vagueness | newcomb's puzzle | liar paradox | computability | backward induction | common knowledge | Godel's theorem | puzzleLicense

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htmSite sourced from

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Description

In this class we will study a cluster of puzzles, paradoxes and intellectual wonders - from Zeno's Paradox to Godel's Theorem - and discuss their philosophical implications.Subjects

paradox | infinity | zeno | higher infinite | set theory | vagueness | newcomb's puzzle | liar paradox | computability | backward induction | common knowledge | Godel's theorem | puzzleLicense

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htmSite sourced from

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See all metadata6.045J Automata, Computability, and Complexity (MIT)

Description

This course is offered to undergraduates and introduces basic mathematical models of computation and the finite representation of infinite objects. The course is slower paced than 6.840J/18.404J. Topics covered include: finite automata and regular languages, context-free languages, Turing machines, partial recursive functions, Church's Thesis, undecidability, reducibility and completeness, time complexity and NP-completeness, probabilistic computation, and interactive proof systems.Subjects

automata | computability | complexity | mathematical models | computation | finite representation | infinite objects | finite automata | regular languages | context-free languages | Turing machines | partial recursive functions | Church's Thesis | undecidability | reducibility | completeness | time complexity | NP-completeness | probabilistic computation | interactive proof systems | 6.045 | 18.400License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htmSite sourced from

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See all metadata18.404J Theory of Computation (MIT)

Description

A more extensive and theoretical treatment of the material in 18.400J, Automata, Computability, and Complexity, emphasizing computability and computational complexity theory. Regular and context-free languages. Decidable and undecidable problems, reducibility, recursive function theory. Time and space measures on computation, completeness, hierarchy theorems, inherently complex problems, oracles, probabilistic computation, and interactive proof systems.Subjects

computability | computational complexity theory | Regular and context-free languages | Decidable and undecidable problems | reducibility | recursive function theory | Time and space measures on computation | completeness | hierarchy theorems | inherently complex problems | oracles | probabilistic computation | interactive proof systems | 18.404 | 6.840License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htmSite sourced from

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See all metadata6.045J Automata, Computability, and Complexity (MIT)

Description

This course introduces basic mathematical models of computation and the finite representation of infinite objects. Topics covered include: finite automata and regular languages, context-free languages, Turing machines, partial recursive functions, Church's Thesis, undecidability, reducibility and completeness, time complexity and NP-completeness, probabilistic computation, and interactive proof systems.Subjects

automata | computability | complexity | mathematical models | computation | finite representation | infinite objects | finite automata | regular languages | context-free languages | Turing machines | partial recursive functions | Church's Thesis | undecidability | reducibility | completeness | time complexity | NP-completeness | probabilistic computation | interactive proof systems | 6.045 | 18.400License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htmSite sourced from

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This course explores different kinds of infinity; the paradoxes of set theory; the reduction of arithmetic to logic; formal systems; paradoxes involving the concept of truth; Gödel’s incompleteness theorems; the nonformalizable nature of mathematical truth; and Turing machines.Subjects

time travel | free will | Newcomb | Newcomb's Paradox | probability | Zeno | Zeno's Paradox | infinity | axiom of choice | computability | Godel | Godel's theorem | prisoner's dilemma | higher infiniteLicense

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htmSite sourced from

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See all metadata6.045J Automata, Computability, and Complexity (MIT)

Description

This course provides a challenging introduction to some of the central ideas of theoretical computer science. Beginning in antiquity, the course will progress through finite automata, circuits and decision trees, Turing machines and computability, efficient algorithms and reducibility, the P versus NP problem, NP-completeness, the power of randomness, cryptography and one-way functions, computational learning theory, and quantum computing. It examines the classes of problems that can and cannot be solved by various kinds of machines. It tries to explain the key differences between computational models that affect their power.Subjects

finite automata | Turing machine | halting problem | computability | computational complexity | polynomial time | P | NP | NP complete | probabilistic algorithms | private-key cryptography | public-key cryptography | randomnessLicense

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htmSite sourced from

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See all metadata6.080 Great Ideas in Theoretical Computer Science (MIT)

Description

This course provides a challenging introduction to some of the central ideas of theoretical computer science. It attempts to present a vision of "computer science beyond computers": that is, CS as a set of mathematical tools for understanding complex systems such as universes and minds. Beginning in antiquity—with Euclid's algorithm and other ancient examples of computational thinking—the course will progress rapidly through propositional logic, Turing machines and computability, finite automata, Gödel's theorems, efficient algorithms and reducibility, NP-completeness, the P versus NP problem, decision trees and other concrete computational models, the power of randomness, cryptography and one-way functions, computational theories of learning, interactive proofs, and qSubjects

computer science | theoretical computer science | logic | turing machines | computability | finite automata | godel | complexity | polynomial time | efficient algorithms | reducibility | p and np | np completeness | private key cryptography | public key cryptography | pac learning | quantum computing | quantum algorithmsLicense

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htmSite sourced from

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This course begins with an introduction to the theory of computability, then proceeds to a detailed study of its most illustrious result: Kurt Gödel's theorem that, for any system of true arithmetical statements we might propose as an axiomatic basis for proving truths of arithmetic, there will be some arithmetical statements that we can recognize as true even though they don't follow from the system of axioms. In my opinion, which is widely shared, this is the most important single result in the entire history of logic, important not only on its own right but for the many applications of the technique by which it's proved. We'll discuss some of these applications, among them: Church's theorem that there is no algorithm for deciding when a formula is valid in the predicate calculus;Subjects

Logic | theory of computability | Kurt G?del | theorem | system | true | arithmetical | statements | axiomatic basis | proving | truths of arithmetic | history applications | technique | Church?s theorem | algorithm | formula | valid | predicate calculus | Tarski?s theorem | G?del?s second incompleteness theorem.License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htmSite sourced from

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See all metadata6.844 Computability Theory of and with Scheme (MIT)

Description

6.844 is a graduate introduction to programming theory, logic of programming, and computability, with the programming language Scheme used to crystallize computability constructions and as an object of study itself. Topics covered include: programming and computability theory based on a term-rewriting, "substitution" model of computation by Scheme programs with side-effects; computation as algebraic manipulation: Scheme evaluation as algebraic manipulation and term rewriting theory; paradoxes from self-application and introduction to formal programming semantics; undecidability of the Halting Problem for Scheme; properties of recursively enumerable sets, leading to Incompleteness Theorems for Scheme equivalences; logic for program specification and verification; and Hilbert's Tenth ProbSubjects

Scheme | programming theory | logic of programming | computability | programming language | Scheme evaluation | algebraic manipulation | term rewriting theory | programming semantics | Halting Problem for Scheme | Incompleteness Theorems | Hilbert's Tenth ProblemLicense

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htmSite sourced from

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