Searching for corematerials : 2064 results found | RSS Feed for this search

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Zn, cold rolled - mechanical twins

Description

This sample was cold rolled. Zinc has a hexagonal structure so it contains only two independent slip systems. However, for slip to occur, five slip systems are required so zinc does not undergo general plasticity. Instead it forms mechanical twins as an alternative to dislocation motion to accommodate the deformation.

Subjects

alloy | mechanical twins | metal | twinning | zinc | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Fe, C 0.15 (wt%) steel, quenched.

Description

A low carbon steel quenched in order to produce martensitic plates.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | quenching | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Tensile failure surface of a carbon fibre composite

Description

This is from the region of the fracture surface which was in tension. The fibres show clean, brittle fracture surfaces (with no fibrillation or distortion and little distortion of the matrix) and have broken at varying lengths and hence some stick out while others have left holes in the matrix. This is indicative of fibre pull-out having occurred after an initial failure of the matrix, followed by failure of the fibres themselves. This is a toughening mechanism in fibre reinforced composites. It is also involved in composite crack stopping properties; each fibre has briefly slowed the progress of the crack by opening it up along the weak fibre-matrix interface and hence blunting the crack tip. The crack therefore advances relatively slowly, with much lateral meandering.

Subjects

alignment | carbon | carbon fibres | CFC | composite material | epoxy | fibre | fracture | neutral axis | polymer composite | pull-out | reinforcement | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Changes in microstructure of a shape memory alloy (CuAlNi single crystal)

Description

Changes in microstructure of a shape memory alloy being heat treated and also mechanically deformed. A CuAlNi single crystal (2H orthorhombic phase ) is compressed (vertical axis) at room temperature, causing activation of two sequential twinning deformations. As austenite, the crystal is cube-shaped, whereas in the martensite form it is sheared. Six different sheared martensite crystals, having well - defined prism shapes (three of which appear in this video), can be created by pressing on 3 different faces of the cube. It is essential that the loading arrangement allows lateral displacements to occur. From TLP: Microstructural Changes. Video was kindly donated by Vaclav Novak and Petr Sittner, Department of Functional Materials Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic

Subjects

microstructure | shape memory alloy | deformation | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | video | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 2203: Structural materials fabrication

Description

This lecture gives a brief introduction into the basic fabrication methods for structural aluminium alloy materials with respect to machining, forming, joining and surface treatments as a necessary background for the design process; it describes the subject of welding structural aluminium alloys in order to understand the materials requirements which the designer has to take into account when designing load carrying welded aluminium structures. General materials engineering background is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | eaa | talat | training in aluminium application technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | design | product | structural design | preparation | extrusion | cutting | plasma gas cutting | shearing | sawing | machining | cold forming | bending | cold forging | bolting | riveting | adhesive bonding | explosion welded connections | sandwich element construction | surface treatment | joining | chemical properties | physical properties | welding | inert gas welding | mig welding | pulsed arc mig welding | plasma mig welding | tig welding | filler materials | weldability | joint design | backing methods | cleaning | shielding gas | pre-heating | weld cracks | solidification cracks | solution cracks | weld imperfections | economy | distortion | inspection | non-destructive testing | destructive testing | quality control aspects | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Oven-to-tableware

Description

Oven-to-tableware ceramics have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and therefore a high resistance to thermal shock, which makes them suitable for use at a wide range of temperatures.

Subjects

ceramic | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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Cu 65, Zn 35 (wt%) B4 brass, chill cast

Description

An good example of dendritic solidification, which occurs when the solidification front becomes unstable with respect to small perturbations. This results in the growth of the perturbations, producing dendrites (from the Greek for tree). Interdendritic β phase and purple-grey ZnO inclusions.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | dendrite | metal | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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A medium carbon low alloyed structural steel

Description

The steel sample was etched in 4% picral solution first and revealed the presence of pearlite and carbides distinctly. Further tint etching in SMB resulted in the straw coloured martensite to appear as a band. Retained austenite is appearing as very fine white particles. The bainite is appearing as bluish-black background between the martensite constituents. Coarse dark grains are pearlite. Microhardness measurements and SEM studies further proved the constituents identity. Conventional nital etching is not successful in delineating all the micro-constituents so distinctly.

Subjects

alloy | metal | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 0.2 (wt%), explosively deformed - mechanical twins

Description

This sample was explosively deformed so that there was insufficient time for dislocation motion to occur. Hence, mechanical twins are produced despite the b.c.c. structure of mild steel.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | mechanical twins | metal | steel | twinning | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Fe, C 0.15 (wt%) steel, quenched.

Description

A low carbon steel quenched in order to produce martensitic plates.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | quenching | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Kevlar fibre composite fracture surface

Description

Because a relatively short beam was used, significant shear stresses existed in the beam, and failure has occurred principally by shear. In this mode, the specimen splits longitudinally along planes parallel to its neutral axis, due to shear failure within the matrix and at the weak interface between fibres and matrix. Matrix porosity (and particularly the long longitudinal voids present in this specimen), the poor wetting of fibres by the resin, and poor fibre distribution will all promote failure by shear. However, it may be that this failure mechanism has been partly inhibited by poor fibre alignment since some off-axis fibres will reinforce the matrix in shear

Subjects

alignment | composite material | epoxy | fibre | fibrillation | fracture | hackle region | Kevlar | liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) | lyotropic | polymer | polymer composite | reinforcement | shear | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Changes in microstructure of a shape memory alloy (bi-crystal of austenitic CuAlNi )

Description

Changes in microstructure of a shape memory alloy being heat treated and also mechanically deformed. A bi-crystal of austenitic CuAlNi is cooled, causing transformation to the martensitic (2H orthorhombic) phase. The process is reversed in the second half of the video, as the specimen is heated again. The rate at which transformation occurs is controlled by heat flow effects. (The shear process itself tends to take place very rapidly.) The martensitic phase is internally twinned. This is very clear within the dark-coloured phase moving in from the left-hand side in the first part of this video. From TLP: Microstructural Changes. Video was kindly donated by Vaclav Novak and Petr Sittner, Department of Functional Materials Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic

Subjects

microstructure | shape memory alloy | deformation | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | video | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 2204: Design Philosophy

Description

This lecture outlines the requirements on load bearing structures with respect to safety against failure; it introduces the design analysis process with methods of verification and partial safety factors; it describes the characteristic of loads and load combinations on structures; it introduces the subject of load and resistance factors in the verification methods; it describes the basic structural design properties of aluminium alloys versus steel. Some background and experience in structural engineering and design calculations; basic understanding of the physical and mechanical properties of aluminium is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | eaa | talat | training in aluminium application technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | design | product | structural design | load carrying structure | safety | serviceability | limit states | economic considerations | verification | load and resistance design factor method | method of allowable stresses | characteristic loads | normal loads | long-term loads | load combinations | design value of the load | buildings | bridges | hydraulic structures | resistance | strength properties | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Oven-to-tableware

Description

Oven-to-tableware ceramics have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and therefore a high resistance to thermal shock, which makes them suitable for use at a wide range of temperatures.

Subjects

ceramic | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 55, Zn 45 (wt%) brass, rapidly cooled

Description

Brasses with greater than 40% zinc usually consist of β primary dendrites surrounded by α phase. The lack of such a microstructure in this sample indicates that the cooling rate during casting was sufficiently rapid that dendrites were unable to form and consequently the microstructure consists entirely of β phase.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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TRIP steel annealed at 775°C for 5 mins and then hold at 400°C for 150s for austenite stabilization

Description

The steel microstructure reveals clearly the retained austenite as white, martensite as straw-coloured constituents, bainite can be identified with needle-shaped austenites (there is no carbide present due to the addition of Si). Many martensite-austenite constituents can be found in the microstructure which is revealed because of the tint etching. This is not possible with any other reported ethants/etching techniques for TRIP steels. The microstructure does not show presence of any carbides.

Subjects

alloy | bainite | metal | retained austenite | trip steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 0.2 (wt%), explosively deformed - mechanical twins

Description

This sample was explosively deformed so that there was insufficient time for dislocation motion to occur. Hence, mechanical twins are produced despite the b.c.c. structure of mild steel.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | mechanical twins | metal | steel | twinning | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Fe, C 0.15 (wt%) steel, quenched.

Description

A low carbon steel quenched in order to produce martensitic plates.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | quenching | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Kevlar fibre composite shear surface

Description

This is an image of the shear surface in a failed composite beam. 'Hackles' of matrix are clearly visible where shear has occurred within the matrix and it is also clear that shear has occurred across the fibre/matrix interface. The fibres are for the most part totally unscathed, though some mis-aligned fibres have become caught between the shear surfaces and 'fibrillated' by rolling and bending actions. It may be that this failure mechanism has been partly inhibited by poor fibre alignment since some off-axis fibres will reinforce the matrix in shear. It will have been promoted, however, by the extensive longitudinal voids.

Subjects

alignment | composite material | epoxy | fibre | fibrillation | fracture | hackle region | Kevlar | liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) | lyotropic | polymer | polymer composite | reinforcement | shear | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Fundamentals of Materials Science: Diffusion

Description

This set of animations provides an introduction to the mechanisms and driving forces of diffusion. It demonstartes some of the processes in which it is observed. From TLP: Diffusion

Subjects

diffusionsubstitutional | interstitial | random walk | Fick | law | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | animation | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 2205: Special Design Issues

Description

This lecture describes the measurement and amount of residual stresses in extruded and welded profiles which have to be accounted for in design; it introduces the subject of corrosion and of preventive design measures; it describes the behavior and properties of structural aluminium alloys at ambient, low and elevated temperatures; it gives useful examples of structural applications of extrusions. Background in mechanical and structural engineering disciplines is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | eaa | talat | training in aluminium application technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | design | product | structural design | residual stresses | extruded profiles | welded profiles | fatigue behaviour | corrosion | galvanic corrosion | differential aeration corrosion | working temperature | mechanical properties | linear thermal expansion | low temperatures | elevated temperatures | extrusion | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Oven-to-tableware

Description

Oven-to-tableware ceramics have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and therefore a high resistance to thermal shock, which makes them suitable for use at a wide range of temperatures.

Subjects

ceramic | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 55, Zn 45 (wt%) brass, rapidly cooled

Description

Brasses with greater than 40% zinc usually consist of β primary dendrites surrounded by α phase. The lack of such a microstructure in this sample indicates that the cooling rate during casting was sufficiently rapid that dendrites were unable to form and consequently the microstructure consists entirely of β phase.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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TRIP steel annealed at 775°C for 5 mins and then hold at 400°C for 40s for austenite stabilization

Description

The microstructure shows martensite (straw-coloured), retained austenite (white) and some M-A constituents. Martensite volume fraction is higher than the steel which was hold for 150s at 400°C and cooled. Since the austenite is low in C-content for such a low holding time at 400°C, most of the austenite is transformed to martensite during cooling from 400°C to room temperature.

Subjects

alloy | bainite | metal | retained austenite | trip steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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Fe, Ni 30, C 0.3 (wt%), quenched - martensite plates

Description

This sample was quenched to -80 C to give a metastable martensitic microstructure. The martensite plates show a lenticular morphology as the material attempts to shear as it transforms but is unable to open up voids at the grain boundaries. The plates form in a similar way to mechanical twins but the shear processes lead to changes in crystal structure as well as crystallographic orientation.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | metastable | nickel | quenching | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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