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6.856J Randomized Algorithms (MIT) 6.856J Randomized Algorithms (MIT)

Description

This course examines how randomization can be used to make algorithms simpler and more efficient via random sampling, random selection of witnesses, symmetry breaking, and Markov chains. Topics covered include: randomized computation; data structures (hash tables, skip lists); graph algorithms (minimum spanning trees, shortest paths, minimum cuts); geometric algorithms (convex hulls, linear programming in fixed or arbitrary dimension); approximate counting; parallel algorithms; online algorithms; derandomization techniques; and tools for probabilistic analysis of algorithms. This course examines how randomization can be used to make algorithms simpler and more efficient via random sampling, random selection of witnesses, symmetry breaking, and Markov chains. Topics covered include: randomized computation; data structures (hash tables, skip lists); graph algorithms (minimum spanning trees, shortest paths, minimum cuts); geometric algorithms (convex hulls, linear programming in fixed or arbitrary dimension); approximate counting; parallel algorithms; online algorithms; derandomization techniques; and tools for probabilistic analysis of algorithms.

Subjects

Randomized Algorithms | Randomized Algorithms | algorithms | algorithms | efficient in time and space | efficient in time and space | randomization | randomization | computational problems | computational problems | data structures | data structures | graph algorithms | graph algorithms | optimization | optimization | geometry | geometry | Markov chains | Markov chains | sampling | sampling | estimation | estimation | geometric algorithms | geometric algorithms | parallel and distributed algorithms | parallel and distributed algorithms | parallel and ditributed algorithm | parallel and ditributed algorithm | parallel and distributed algorithm | parallel and distributed algorithm | random sampling | random sampling | random selection of witnesses | random selection of witnesses | symmetry breaking | symmetry breaking | randomized computational models | randomized computational models | hash tables | hash tables | skip lists | skip lists | minimum spanning trees | minimum spanning trees | shortest paths | shortest paths | minimum cuts | minimum cuts | convex hulls | convex hulls | linear programming | linear programming | fixed dimension | fixed dimension | arbitrary dimension | arbitrary dimension | approximate counting | approximate counting | parallel algorithms | parallel algorithms | online algorithms | online algorithms | derandomization techniques | derandomization techniques | probabilistic analysis | probabilistic analysis | computational number theory | computational number theory | simplicity | simplicity | speed | speed | design | design | basic probability theory | basic probability theory | application | application | randomized complexity classes | randomized complexity classes | game-theoretic techniques | game-theoretic techniques | Chebyshev | Chebyshev | moment inequalities | moment inequalities | limited independence | limited independence | coupon collection | coupon collection | occupancy problems | occupancy problems | tail inequalities | tail inequalities | Chernoff bound | Chernoff bound | conditional expectation | conditional expectation | probabilistic method | probabilistic method | random walks | random walks | algebraic techniques | algebraic techniques | probability amplification | probability amplification | sorting | sorting | searching | searching | combinatorial optimization | combinatorial optimization | approximation | approximation | counting problems | counting problems | distributed algorithms | distributed algorithms | 6.856 | 6.856 | 18.416 | 18.416

License

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6.890 Algorithmic Lower Bounds: Fun with Hardness Proofs (MIT) 6.890 Algorithmic Lower Bounds: Fun with Hardness Proofs (MIT)

Description

Includes audio/video content: AV lectures. 6.890 Algorithmic Lower Bounds: Fun with Hardness Proofs is a class taking a practical approach to proving problems can't be solved efficiently (in polynomial time and assuming standard complexity-theoretic assumptions like P ≠ NP). The class focuses on reductions and techniques for proving problems are computationally hard for a variety of complexity classes. Along the way, the class will create many interesting gadgets, learn many hardness proof styles, explore the connection between games and computation, survey several important problems and complexity classes, and crush hopes and dreams (for fast optimal solutions). Includes audio/video content: AV lectures. 6.890 Algorithmic Lower Bounds: Fun with Hardness Proofs is a class taking a practical approach to proving problems can't be solved efficiently (in polynomial time and assuming standard complexity-theoretic assumptions like P ≠ NP). The class focuses on reductions and techniques for proving problems are computationally hard for a variety of complexity classes. Along the way, the class will create many interesting gadgets, learn many hardness proof styles, explore the connection between games and computation, survey several important problems and complexity classes, and crush hopes and dreams (for fast optimal solutions).

Subjects

NP-completeness | NP-completeness | 3SAT | 3SAT | 3-partition | 3-partition | Hamiltonicity | Hamiltonicity | PSPACE | PSPACE | EXPTIME | EXPTIME | EXPSPACE | EXPSPACE | games | games | puzzles | puzzles | computation | computation | Tetris | Tetris | Nintendo | Nintendo | Super Mario Bros. | Super Mario Bros. | The Legend of Zelda | The Legend of Zelda | Metroid | Metroid | Pokémon | Pokémon | constraint logic | constraint logic | Sudoku | Sudoku | Nikoli | Nikoli | Chess | Chess | Go | Go | Othello | Othello | board games | board games | inapproximability | inapproximability | PCP theorem | PCP theorem | OPT-preserving reduction | OPT-preserving reduction | APX-hardness | APX-hardness | vertex cover | vertex cover | Set-cover hardness | Set-cover hardness | Group Steiner tree | Group Steiner tree | k-dense subgraph | k-dense subgraph | label cover | label cover | Unique Games Conjecture | Unique Games Conjecture | independent set | independent set | fixed-parameter intractability | fixed-parameter intractability | parameter-preserving reduction | parameter-preserving reduction | W hierarchy | W hierarchy | clique-hardness | clique-hardness | 3SUM-hardness | 3SUM-hardness | exponential time hypothesis | exponential time hypothesis | counting problems | counting problems | solution uniqueness | solution uniqueness | game theory | game theory | Existential theory of the reals | Existential theory of the reals | undecidability | undecidability

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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6.890 Algorithmic Lower Bounds: Fun with Hardness Proofs (MIT)

Description

6.890 Algorithmic Lower Bounds: Fun with Hardness Proofs is a class taking a practical approach to proving problems can't be solved efficiently (in polynomial time and assuming standard complexity-theoretic assumptions like P ≠ NP). The class focuses on reductions and techniques for proving problems are computationally hard for a variety of complexity classes. Along the way, the class will create many interesting gadgets, learn many hardness proof styles, explore the connection between games and computation, survey several important problems and complexity classes, and crush hopes and dreams (for fast optimal solutions).

Subjects

NP-completeness | 3SAT | 3-partition | Hamiltonicity | PSPACE | EXPTIME | EXPSPACE | games | puzzles | computation | Tetris | Nintendo | Super Mario Bros. | The Legend of Zelda | Metroid | mon | constraint logic | Sudoku | Nikoli | Chess | Go | Othello | board games | inapproximability | PCP theorem | OPT-preserving reduction | APX-hardness | vertex cover | Set-cover hardness | Group Steiner tree | k-dense subgraph | label cover | Unique Games Conjecture | independent set | fixed-parameter intractability | parameter-preserving reduction | W hierarchy | clique-hardness | 3SUM-hardness | exponential time hypothesis | counting problems | solution uniqueness | game theory | Existential theory of the reals | undecidability

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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6.856J Randomized Algorithms (MIT)

Description

This course examines how randomization can be used to make algorithms simpler and more efficient via random sampling, random selection of witnesses, symmetry breaking, and Markov chains. Topics covered include: randomized computation; data structures (hash tables, skip lists); graph algorithms (minimum spanning trees, shortest paths, minimum cuts); geometric algorithms (convex hulls, linear programming in fixed or arbitrary dimension); approximate counting; parallel algorithms; online algorithms; derandomization techniques; and tools for probabilistic analysis of algorithms.

Subjects

Randomized Algorithms | algorithms | efficient in time and space | randomization | computational problems | data structures | graph algorithms | optimization | geometry | Markov chains | sampling | estimation | geometric algorithms | parallel and distributed algorithms | parallel and ditributed algorithm | parallel and distributed algorithm | random sampling | random selection of witnesses | symmetry breaking | randomized computational models | hash tables | skip lists | minimum spanning trees | shortest paths | minimum cuts | convex hulls | linear programming | fixed dimension | arbitrary dimension | approximate counting | parallel algorithms | online algorithms | derandomization techniques | probabilistic analysis | computational number theory | simplicity | speed | design | basic probability theory | application | randomized complexity classes | game-theoretic techniques | Chebyshev | moment inequalities | limited independence | coupon collection | occupancy problems | tail inequalities | Chernoff bound | conditional expectation | probabilistic method | random walks | algebraic techniques | probability amplification | sorting | searching | combinatorial optimization | approximation | counting problems | distributed algorithms | 6.856 | 18.416

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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