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7.346 DNA Wars: How the Cell Strikes Back to Avoid Disease after Attacks on DNA (MIT) 7.346 DNA Wars: How the Cell Strikes Back to Avoid Disease after Attacks on DNA (MIT)

Description

A never-ending molecular war takes place in the nucleus of your cells, with DNA damage occurring at a rate of over 20,000 lesions per cell per day. Where does this damage come from, and what are its consequences? What are the differences in the molecular blueprint between individuals who can sustain attacks on DNA and remain healthy compared to those who become sick? This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Advanced Undergraduate Seminars are postdoctoral scientists with a strong interest in teaching. A never-ending molecular war takes place in the nucleus of your cells, with DNA damage occurring at a rate of over 20,000 lesions per cell per day. Where does this damage come from, and what are its consequences? What are the differences in the molecular blueprint between individuals who can sustain attacks on DNA and remain healthy compared to those who become sick? This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Advanced Undergraduate Seminars are postdoctoral scientists with a strong interest in teaching.

Subjects

DNA damage | DNA damage | DNA repair | DNA repair | mismatch repair | mismatch repair | direct reversal | direct reversal | nucleotide excision repair | nucleotide excision repair | base excision repair | base excision repair | double strand break repair | double strand break repair | nuclear DNA damage | nuclear DNA damage | mitochondrial DNA damage | mitochondrial DNA damage | Alkylating agents | Alkylating agents | replication errors | replication errors | mutations | mutations | epigenetics | epigenetics | Werner helicase activity | Werner helicase activity

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Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Damage suffered by HMS Broke at the Battle of Jutland Damage suffered by HMS Broke at the Battle of Jutland

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sky | sky | abstract | abstract | blur | blur | men | men | industry | industry | bar | bar | landscape | landscape | interesting | interesting | workers | workers | support | support | industrial | industrial | ship | ship | view | view | panel | panel | timber | timber | mark | mark | debris | debris | grain | grain | working | working | navy | navy | platform | platform | surreal | surreal | ground | ground | vessel | vessel | battle | battle | rope | rope | tools | tools | destroyer | destroyer | deck | deck | pile | pile | bow | bow | isleofwight | isleofwight | porthole | porthole | damage | damage | land | land | ladder | ladder | unusual | unusual | mast | mast | ww1 | ww1 | damaged | damaged | greatwar | greatwar | plank | plank | drydock | drydock | spectator | spectator | tyneside | tyneside | firstworldwar | firstworldwar | warship | warship | repairs | repairs | fascinating | fascinating | digitalimage | digitalimage | collision | collision | worldwar1 | worldwar1 | wartime | wartime | eastcowes | eastcowes | rivertyne | rivertyne | royalnavy | royalnavy | industrialheritage | industrialheritage | northeastengland | northeastengland | blackandwhitephotograph | blackandwhitephotograph | navalhistory | navalhistory | navalvessel | navalvessel | shipbuildingheritage | shipbuildingheritage | maritimeheritage | maritimeheritage | battleofjutland | battleofjutland | extraudinary | extraudinary | thegreatwar19141918 | thegreatwar19141918 | june1916 | june1916 | jsamuelwhite | jsamuelwhite | shiprepairing | shiprepairing | 1june1916 | 1june1916 | hmsbroke | hmsbroke | thebattleofjutland | thebattleofjutland | hmssparrowhawk | hmssparrowhawk | bowdamage | bowdamage | faulknorclassdestroyer | faulknorclassdestroyer

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7.341 DNA Damage Checkpoints: The Emergency Brake on the Road to Cancer (MIT) 7.341 DNA Damage Checkpoints: The Emergency Brake on the Road to Cancer (MIT)

Description

The DNA contained in human cells is under constant attack by both exogenous and endogenous agents that can damage one of its three billion base pairs. To cope with this permanent exposure to DNA-damaging agents, such as the sun's radiation or by-products of our normal metabolism, powerful DNA damage checkpoints have evolved that allow organisms to survive this constant assault on their genomes. In this class we will analyze classical and recent papers from the primary research literature to gain a profound understanding of checkpoints that act as powerful emergency brakes to prevent cancer. We will consider basic principles of cell proliferation and molecular details of the DNA damage response. We will discuss the methods and model organisms typically used in this field as well as how an The DNA contained in human cells is under constant attack by both exogenous and endogenous agents that can damage one of its three billion base pairs. To cope with this permanent exposure to DNA-damaging agents, such as the sun's radiation or by-products of our normal metabolism, powerful DNA damage checkpoints have evolved that allow organisms to survive this constant assault on their genomes. In this class we will analyze classical and recent papers from the primary research literature to gain a profound understanding of checkpoints that act as powerful emergency brakes to prevent cancer. We will consider basic principles of cell proliferation and molecular details of the DNA damage response. We will discuss the methods and model organisms typically used in this field as well as how an

Subjects

DNA | DNA | damage checkpoints | damage checkpoints | cancer | cancer | cells | cells | human cells | human cells | exogenous | exogenous | endogenous | endogenous | checkpoints | checkpoints | gene | gene | signaling | signaling | cancer biology | cancer biology | cancer prevention | cancer prevention | primary sources | primary sources | discussion | discussion | DNA damage | DNA damage | molecular | molecular | enzyme | enzyme | cell cycle | cell cycle | extracellular cues | extracellular cues | growth factors | growth factors | Cdk regulation | Cdk regulation | cyclin-dependent kinase | cyclin-dependent kinase | p53 | p53 | tumor suppressor | tumor suppressor | apoptosis | apoptosis | MDC1 | MDC1 | H2AX | H2AX | Rad50 | Rad50 | Fluorescence activated cell sorter | Fluorescence activated cell sorter | Chk1 | Chk1 | mutant | mutant

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7.341 The DNA Damage Response as a Target for Anti-Cancer Therapy (MIT) 7.341 The DNA Damage Response as a Target for Anti-Cancer Therapy (MIT)

Description

Cellular responses to DNA damage constitute one of the most important fields in cancer biology. In this class we will analyze classical and recent papers from the primary research literature to gain a profound understand of cell cycle regulation and DNA damage checkpoints that act as powerful emergency brakes to prevent cancer. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Advanced Undergraduate Seminars are postdoctoral scientists with a strong interest in teaching. Cellular responses to DNA damage constitute one of the most important fields in cancer biology. In this class we will analyze classical and recent papers from the primary research literature to gain a profound understand of cell cycle regulation and DNA damage checkpoints that act as powerful emergency brakes to prevent cancer. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Advanced Undergraduate Seminars are postdoctoral scientists with a strong interest in teaching.

Subjects

DNA | DNA | damage checkpoints | damage checkpoints | cancer | cancer | cells | cells | human cells | human cells | exogenous | exogenous | endogenous | endogenous | checkpoints | checkpoints | gene | gene | signaling | signaling | cancer biology | cancer biology | cancer prevention | cancer prevention | primary sources | primary sources | discussion | discussion | DNA damage | DNA damage | molecular | molecular | enzyme | enzyme | cell cycle | cell cycle | extracellular cues | extracellular cues | growth factors | growth factors | Cdk regulation | Cdk regulation | cyclin-dependent kinase | cyclin-dependent kinase | p53 | p53 | tumor suppressor | tumor suppressor | apoptosis | apoptosis | MDC1 | MDC1 | H2AX | H2AX | Rad50 | Rad50 | Fluorescence activated cell sorter | Fluorescence activated cell sorter | Chk1 | Chk1 | mutant | mutant

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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22.55J Principles of Radiation Interactions (MIT) 22.55J Principles of Radiation Interactions (MIT)

Description

The central theme of this course is the interaction of radiation with biological material. The course is intended to provide a broad understanding of how different types of radiation deposit energy, including the creation and behavior of secondary radiations; of how radiation affects cells and why the different types of radiation have very different biological effects. Topics will include: the effects of radiation on biological systems including DNA damage; in vitro cell survival models; and in vivo mammalian systems. The course covers radiation therapy, radiation syndromes in humans and carcinogenesis. Environmental radiation sources on earth and in space, and aspects of radiation protection are also discussed. Examples from the current literature will be used to supplement lecture materi The central theme of this course is the interaction of radiation with biological material. The course is intended to provide a broad understanding of how different types of radiation deposit energy, including the creation and behavior of secondary radiations; of how radiation affects cells and why the different types of radiation have very different biological effects. Topics will include: the effects of radiation on biological systems including DNA damage; in vitro cell survival models; and in vivo mammalian systems. The course covers radiation therapy, radiation syndromes in humans and carcinogenesis. Environmental radiation sources on earth and in space, and aspects of radiation protection are also discussed. Examples from the current literature will be used to supplement lecture materi

Subjects

Interaction of radiation with biological material | Interaction of radiation with biological material | how different types of radiation deposit energy | how different types of radiation deposit energy | secondary radiations | secondary radiations | how radiation affects cells | how radiation affects cells | biological effects | biological effects | effects of radiation on biological systems | effects of radiation on biological systems | DNA damage | DNA damage | in vitro cell survival models | in vitro cell survival models | in vivo mammalian systems | in vivo mammalian systems | radiation therapy | radiation therapy | radiation syndromes in humans | radiation syndromes in humans | carcinogenesis | carcinogenesis | Environmental radiation sources | Environmental radiation sources | radiation protection | radiation protection | cells | cells | tissues | tissues | radiation interactions | radiation interactions | radiation chemistry | radiation chemistry | LET | LET | tracks | tracks | chromosome damags | chromosome damags | in vivo | in vivo | in vitro | in vitro | cell survival curves | cell survival curves | dose response | dose response | RBE | RBE | clustered damage | clustered damage | radiation response | radiation response | tumor kinetics | tumor kinetics | tumor radiobiology | tumor radiobiology | fractionation | fractionation | protons | protons | alpha particles | alpha particles | whole body exposure | whole body exposure | chronic exposure | chronic exposure | space | space | microbeams | microbeams | radon | radon | background radiation | background radiation | 22.55 | 22.55 | HST.560 | HST.560

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TALAT Lecture 2401: Fatigue Behaviour and Analysis

Description

This lecture explains why, when and where fatigue problems may arise and the special significance to aluminium as structural material; it helps to understand the effects of material and loading parameters on fatigue; to appreciate the statistical nature of fatigue and its importance in data analysis, evaluation and use; it shows how to estimate fatigue life under service conditions of time-dependent, variable amplitude loading; how to estimate stresses acting in notches and welds with conceptual approaches other than nominal stress; it provides qualitative and quantitative information on the classification of welded details and allow for more sophisticated design procedures. Background in materials engineering, design and fatigue is required.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | design | fatigue | fatigue cracks | susceptibility | cyclic loading | crack growth | crack propagation rate | endurance limit | predictive theories | damage accumulation theories | Manson-Coffin law | crack growth laws | ideal cumulative damage theory | fatigue data analysis | middle-cycle fatigue range | high-cycle fatigue range | fatigue diagrams | linear P-S-N curves | non-linear P-S-N curves | service behaviour | time dependent loads | load spectrum | cycle counting | rain-flow cycle counting method | service behaviour fatigue test | analytical life estimation | damage accumulation | Palmgren-Miner linear damage accumulation hypothesis | strain | fatigue life | notch theory | strain-life diagram | weld imperfections | static strength | fatigue strength | cracks | porosity | inclusions | oxides | lack of penetration | weld shape | lack of fusion | geometric misalignment | arc strike | spatter | post-weld mechanical imperfections | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 2401: Fatigue Behaviour and Analysis

Description

This lecture explains why, when and where fatigue problems may arise and the special significance to aluminium as structural material; it helps to understand the effects of material and loading parameters on fatigue; to appreciate the statistical nature of fatigue and its importance in data analysis, evaluation and use; it shows how to estimate fatigue life under service conditions of time-dependent, variable amplitude loading; how to estimate stresses acting in notches and welds with conceptual approaches other than nominal stress; it provides qualitative and quantitative information on the classification of welded details and allow for more sophisticated design procedures. Background in materials engineering, design and fatigue is required.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | eaa | talat | training in aluminium application technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | design | fatigue | fatigue cracks | susceptibility | cyclic loading | crack growth | crack propagation rate | endurance limit | predictive theories | damage accumulation theories | manson-coffin law | crack growth laws | ideal cumulative damage theory | fatigue data analysis | middle-cycle fatigue range | high-cycle fatigue range | fatigue diagrams | linear p-s-n curves | non-linear p-s-n curves | service behaviour | time dependent loads | load spectrum | cycle counting | rain-flow cycle counting method | service behaviour fatigue test | analytical life estimation | damage accumulation | palmgren-miner linear damage accumulation hypothesis | strain | fatigue life | notch theory | strain-life diagram | weld imperfections | static strength | fatigue strength | cracks | porosity | inclusions | oxides | lack of penetration | weld shape | lack of fusion | geometric misalignment | arc strike | spatter | post-weld mechanical imperfections | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Bomb damage at Readhead's shipyard, South Shields, 1941 Bomb damage at Readhead's shipyard, South Shields, 1941

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wood | wood | shadow | shadow | sky | sky | industry | industry | loss | loss | daylight | daylight | site | site | interesting | interesting | scary | scary | construction | construction | mess | mess | unitedkingdom | unitedkingdom | timber | timber | destruction | destruction | board | board | debris | debris | ruin | ruin | newquay | newquay | beam | beam | dirt | dirt | damage | damage | land | land | ww2 | ww2 | conflict | conflict | drape | drape | unusual | unusual | cloth | cloth | shipyard | shipyard | bombs | bombs | southshields | southshields | crease | crease | development | development | partnership | partnership | explosive | explosive | sawmill | sawmill | fascinating | fascinating | digitalimage | digitalimage | tankers | tankers | losses | losses | wartime | wartime | secondworldwar | secondworldwar | 1865 | 1865 | worldwartwo | worldwartwo | shipbuilding | shipbuilding | industrialheritage | industrialheritage | southtyneside | southtyneside | readheads | readheads | bombdamage | bombdamage | blackandwhitephotograph | blackandwhitephotograph | lawe | lawe | directhit | directhit | northeastofengland | northeastofengland | shipbuildingheritage | shipbuildingheritage | airraids | airraids | joinersshop | joinersshop | sirjamesknott | sirjamesknott | johnreadhead | johnreadhead | stricklineltd | stricklineltd | princeline | princeline | britishshipbuilders | britishshipbuilders | hainsteamshipcompanyltd | hainsteamshipcompanyltd | johnreadheadsonsltd | johnreadheadsonsltd | johnreadheadsons | johnreadheadsons | highwestyard | highwestyard | johnreadheadsonssouthshields | johnreadheadsonssouthshields | jsoftley | jsoftley | swanhuntergroup | swanhuntergroup | johnreadheadco | johnreadheadco | readheadsshipyard | readheadsshipyard | 10april1941 | 10april1941

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HMS Broke in dry dock after the Battle of Jutland HMS Broke in dry dock after the Battle of Jutland

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roof | roof | sky | sky | people | people | blur | blur | industry | industry | wheel | wheel | metal | metal | wall | wall | buildings | buildings | wonderful | wonderful | children | children | belt | belt | interesting | interesting | wire | wire | workers | workers | support | support | industrial | industrial | ship | ship | dress | dress | darkness | darkness | panel | panel | post | post | unitedkingdom | unitedkingdom | britain | britain | timber | timber | mark | mark | coat | coat | debris | debris | grain | grain | platform | platform | vessel | vessel | battle | battle | rope | rope | destroyer | destroyer | deck | deck | fabric | fabric | maritime | maritime | isleofwight | isleofwight | porthole | porthole | gathering | gathering | damage | damage | unusual | unusual | ww1 | ww1 | damaged | damaged | striking | striking | naval | naval | adults | adults | greatwar | greatwar | drydock | drydock | tyneside | tyneside | firstworldwar | firstworldwar | wreckage | wreckage | warship | warship | fascinating | fascinating | digitalimage | digitalimage | collision | collision | wartime | wartime | eastcowes | eastcowes | rivertyne | rivertyne | royalnavy | royalnavy | industrialheritage | industrialheritage | northeastengland | northeastengland | blackandwhitephotograph | blackandwhitephotograph | shipbuildingheritage | shipbuildingheritage | maritimeheritage | maritimeheritage | battleofjutland | battleofjutland | june1916 | june1916 | jsamuelwhite | jsamuelwhite | shiprepairing | shiprepairing | 1june1916 | 1june1916 | hmsbroke | hmsbroke | thebattleofjutland | thebattleofjutland | hmssparrowhawk | hmssparrowhawk | royalnavalvessel | royalnavalvessel | faulknorclassdestroyer | faulknorclassdestroyer

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Messrs John Kelly Ltd. Damaged motor cycle. Messrs John Kelly Ltd. Damaged motor cycle.

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ahpoole | ahpoole | arthurhenripoole | arthurhenripoole | poolecollection | poolecollection | glassnegative | glassnegative | nationallibraryofireland | nationallibraryofireland | damaged | damaged | exhaust | exhaust | baffles | baffles | silencer | silencer | stand | stand | motorcycle | motorcycle | damage | damage | crash | crash | cotton | cotton | cottonmotorcycleco | cottonmotorcycleco | cottonmotors | cottonmotors | wi966 | wi966 | johnkelly | johnkelly | garage | garage | waterford | waterford | japrestwich | japrestwich | japrestwichindustries | japrestwichindustries | cottonmotorcycle | cottonmotorcycle

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TALAT Lecture 2712: Design Example in Fatigue

Description

This is a fully documented calculation example with direct reference to the actual code provisions. Its purpose is to present an outline of necessary steps but also of possible considerations for other cases or possibilities of enhancement of fatigue behaviour in service. It is based on European Standard ENV 1999-2 (Eurocode 9)

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | design | service conditions | loading spectrum | stress spectrum | structural detail | S-N curve parameters | fatigue damage | life check | damage equivalent stress | damage tolerant design | mean stress effect | environmental effects | enhancement of fatigue strength | quality requirements | fitness-for-purpose concept | inspection | acceptance levels | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 2712: Design Example in Fatigue

Description

This is a fully documented calculation example with direct reference to the actual code provisions. Its purpose is to present an outline of necessary steps but also of possible considerations for other cases or possibilities of enhancement of fatigue behaviour in service. It is based on European Standard ENV 1999-2 (Eurocode 9)

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | eaa | talat | training in aluminium application technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | design | service conditions | loading spectrum | stress spectrum | structural detail | s-n curve parameters | fatigue damage | life check | damage equivalent stress | damage tolerant design | mean stress effect | environmental effects | enhancement of fatigue strength | quality requirements | fitness-for-purpose concept | inspection | acceptance levels | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Damage suffered by HMS Broke at the Battle of Jutland

Description

View of HMS Broke in dry dock on Tyneside, showing bow damage sustained at the Battle of Jutland, June 1916 (TWAM ref. DS.SWH/5/3/4/2/B600). HMS Broke was a Faulknor-class destroyer built by J. Samuel White, East Cowes, Isle of Wight. She was damaged during a collision with HMS Sparrowhawk on 1 June 1916. The Rivers Tyne and Wear were responsible for building many vessels, which served Britain during the First World War. This set remembers some of those warships that took part in the Battle of Jutland from 31 May to 1 June 1916. During the battle over 6,000 British sailors lost their lives and 14 Royal Naval vessels were sunk. The losses included the battlecruisers HMS Queen Mary and HMS Invincible, as well as the destroyers HMS Shark, HMS Sparrowhawk and HMS Turbulent, all built on Tyneside. Their memory lives on. (Copyright) We're happy for you to share these digital images within the spirit of The Commons. Please cite 'Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums' when reusing. Certain restrictions on high quality reproductions and commercial use of the original physical version apply though; if you're unsure please email archives@twmuseums.org.uk

Subjects

warship | destroyer | hmsbroke | battleofjutland | rivertyne | firstworldwar | ww1 | greatwar | royalnavy | ship | vessel | drydock | damage | tyneside | northeastengland | industry | industrial | shiprepairing | damaged | thebattleofjutland | shipbuildingheritage | maritimeheritage | industrialheritage | abstract | blackandwhitephotograph | digitalimage | fascinating | interesting | unusual | extraudinary | navy | thegreatwar19141918 | worldwar1 | june1916 | navalhistory | faulknorclassdestroyer | jsamuelwhite | eastcowes | isleofwight | collision | hmssparrowhawk | 1june1916 | wartime | battle | navalvessel | sky | workers | ground | rope | deck | mast | debris | pile | grain | mark | timber | platform | ladder | plank | tools | support | panel | porthole | bar | blur | spectator | working | men | landscape | view | land | repairs | bowdamage | bow | surreal

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7.346 DNA Wars: How the Cell Strikes Back to Avoid Disease after Attacks on DNA (MIT)

Description

A never-ending molecular war takes place in the nucleus of your cells, with DNA damage occurring at a rate of over 20,000 lesions per cell per day. Where does this damage come from, and what are its consequences? What are the differences in the molecular blueprint between individuals who can sustain attacks on DNA and remain healthy compared to those who become sick? This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Advanced Undergraduate Seminars are postdoctoral scientists with a strong interest in teaching.

Subjects

DNA damage | DNA repair | mismatch repair | direct reversal | nucleotide excision repair | base excision repair | double strand break repair | nuclear DNA damage | mitochondrial DNA damage | Alkylating agents | replication errors | mutations | epigenetics | Werner helicase activity

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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13.400 Introduction to Naval Architecture (MIT) 13.400 Introduction to Naval Architecture (MIT)

Description

This course is an introduction to principles of naval architecture, ship geometry, hydrostatics, calculation and drawing of curves of form. It also explores concepts of  intact and damaged stability, hull structure strength calculations and ship resistance. Projects include analysis of ship lines drawings and ship model testing. This course is an introduction to principles of naval architecture, ship geometry, hydrostatics, calculation and drawing of curves of form. It also explores concepts of  intact and damaged stability, hull structure strength calculations and ship resistance. Projects include analysis of ship lines drawings and ship model testing.

Subjects

elementary principles of Naval Architecture | elementary principles of Naval Architecture | naval architecture tools | naval architecture tools | ship geometry | ship geometry | hydrostatics | hydrostatics | calculation | calculation | drawing | drawing | curves of form | curves of form | intact and damaged stability | intact and damaged stability | hull structure strength calculations | hull structure strength calculations | ship resistance | ship resistance | ship model testing | ship model testing | 2.701 | 2.701

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3.35 Fracture and Fatigue (MIT) 3.35 Fracture and Fatigue (MIT)

Description

Investigation of linear elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. Topics include microstructural effects on fracture in metals, ceramics, polymers, thin films, biological materials and composites, toughening mechanisms, crack growth resistance and creep fracture. Also covered: interface fracture mechanics, fatigue damage and dislocation substructures in single crystals, stress- and strain-life approach to fatigue, fatigue crack growth models and mechanisms, variable amplitude fatigue, corrosion fatigue and case studies of fracture and fatigue in structural, bioimplant, and microelectronic components. Investigation of linear elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. Topics include microstructural effects on fracture in metals, ceramics, polymers, thin films, biological materials and composites, toughening mechanisms, crack growth resistance and creep fracture. Also covered: interface fracture mechanics, fatigue damage and dislocation substructures in single crystals, stress- and strain-life approach to fatigue, fatigue crack growth models and mechanisms, variable amplitude fatigue, corrosion fatigue and case studies of fracture and fatigue in structural, bioimplant, and microelectronic components.

Subjects

Linear elastic | Linear elastic | elastic-plastic fracture mechanics | elastic-plastic fracture mechanics | Microstructural effects on fracture | Microstructural effects on fracture | Toughening mechanisms | Toughening mechanisms | Crack growth resistance | Crack growth resistance | creep fracture | creep fracture | Interface fracture mechanics | Interface fracture mechanics | Fatigue damage | Fatigue damage | dislocation substructures | dislocation substructures | Variable amplitude fatigue | Variable amplitude fatigue | Corrosion fatigue | Corrosion fatigue | experimental methods | experimental methods | microstructural effects | microstructural effects | metals | metals | ceramics | ceramics | polymers | polymers | thin films | thin films | biological materials | biological materials | composites | composites | single crystals | single crystals | stress-life | stress-life | strain-life | strain-life | structural components | structural components | bioimplant components | bioimplant components | microelectronic components | microelectronic components | case studies | case studies

License

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7.342 The Biology of Aging: Age-Related Diseases and Interventions (MIT) 7.342 The Biology of Aging: Age-Related Diseases and Interventions (MIT)

Description

Aging involves an intrinsic and progressive decline in function that eventually will affect us all. While everyone is familiar with aging, many basic questions about aging are mysterious. Why are older people more likely to experience diseases like cancer, stroke, and neurodegenerative disorders? What changes happen at the molecular and cellular levels to cause the changes that we associate with old age? Is aging itself a disease, and can we successfully intervene in the aging process?This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Ad Aging involves an intrinsic and progressive decline in function that eventually will affect us all. While everyone is familiar with aging, many basic questions about aging are mysterious. Why are older people more likely to experience diseases like cancer, stroke, and neurodegenerative disorders? What changes happen at the molecular and cellular levels to cause the changes that we associate with old age? Is aging itself a disease, and can we successfully intervene in the aging process?This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Ad

Subjects

Aging | Aging | age-related diseases | age-related diseases | molecular biology of aging | molecular biology of aging | calorie restriction | calorie restriction | resveratrol | resveratrol | rapamycin | rapamycin | Caloric restriction (CR) | Caloric restriction (CR) | Cellular senescence | Cellular senescence | telomerase | telomerase | progeroid syndromes | progeroid syndromes | mitochondrial DNA | mitochondrial DNA | yeast | yeast | C. elegans | C. elegans | Drosophila | Drosophila | Sirtuins | Sirtuins | SIR4 | SIR4 | target of rapamycin (TOR) | target of rapamycin (TOR) | oxidative damage | oxidative damage | Reactive oxygen species (ROS) | Reactive oxygen species (ROS) | National Institute on Aging Interventions Testing Program | National Institute on Aging Interventions Testing Program | Alzheimer’s disease | Alzheimer’s disease

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7.344 Tumor Suppressor Gene p53: How the Guardian of our Genome Prevents Cancer (MIT) 7.344 Tumor Suppressor Gene p53: How the Guardian of our Genome Prevents Cancer (MIT)

Description

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Cancer involves uncontrolled cell growth, resistance to cell death, failure to differentiate into a particular cell type, and increased cellular motility. A family of gate-keeper genes, known as tumor suppressor genes, plays important roles in preventing the initiation and progression of cancer. Among these, p53 is the most famous. Because of its essential role in maintaining genomic integrity, p53 is often called the guardian of the genome. During this course, we will study how p53 serves as a pivotal tumor suppressor gene in preventing cancer.This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to disc Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Cancer involves uncontrolled cell growth, resistance to cell death, failure to differentiate into a particular cell type, and increased cellular motility. A family of gate-keeper genes, known as tumor suppressor genes, plays important roles in preventing the initiation and progression of cancer. Among these, p53 is the most famous. Because of its essential role in maintaining genomic integrity, p53 is often called the guardian of the genome. During this course, we will study how p53 serves as a pivotal tumor suppressor gene in preventing cancer.This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to disc

Subjects

tumor suppressor gene | tumor suppressor gene | p53 | p53 | p53 protein | p53 protein | cancer | cancer | cell-growth signals | cell-growth signals | cell cycle regulation | cell cycle regulation | DNA damage | DNA damage | DNA repair | DNA repair | programmed cell death | programmed cell death | apoptosis | apoptosis | genome integrity | genome integrity | oncogenes | oncogenes | p53 mutations | p53 mutations | mouse cancer models | mouse cancer models | Mdm2 | Mdm2 | microRNA | microRNA

License

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7.343 The Radical Consequences of Respiration: Reactive Oxygen Species in Aging and Disease (MIT) 7.343 The Radical Consequences of Respiration: Reactive Oxygen Species in Aging and Disease (MIT)

Description

This course will start with a survey of basic oxygen radical biochemistry followed by a discussion of the mechanisms of action of cellular as well as dietary antioxidants. After considering the normal physiological roles of oxidants, we will examine the effects of elevated ROS and a failure of cellular redox capacity on the rate of organismal and cellular aging as well as on the onset and progression of several major diseases that are often age-related. Topics will include ROS-induced effects on stem cell regeneration, insulin resistance, heart disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. The role of antioxidants in potential therapeutic strategies for modulating ROS levels will also be discussed. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology D This course will start with a survey of basic oxygen radical biochemistry followed by a discussion of the mechanisms of action of cellular as well as dietary antioxidants. After considering the normal physiological roles of oxidants, we will examine the effects of elevated ROS and a failure of cellular redox capacity on the rate of organismal and cellular aging as well as on the onset and progression of several major diseases that are often age-related. Topics will include ROS-induced effects on stem cell regeneration, insulin resistance, heart disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. The role of antioxidants in potential therapeutic strategies for modulating ROS levels will also be discussed. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology D

Subjects

reactive oxygen species | reactive oxygen species | oxygen | oxygen | ROS | ROS | energy | energy | mitochondria | mitochondria | cell signaling | cell signaling | anti-pathogen | anti-pathogen | oxidative damage | oxidative damage | oncogene | oncogene | antioxidant | antioxidant | insulin resistance | insulin resistance | diabetes | diabetes | stem cell | stem cell | neurodegenerative | neurodegenerative | ischemic | ischemic | ATP | ATP | pathways | pathways | NADPH | NADPH | nox | nox | psd | psd | programmed cell death | programmed cell death | apoptosis | apoptosis | hsc | hsc | hematopoietic | hematopoietic

License

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7.343 Neuron-glial Cell Interactions in Biology and Disease (MIT) 7.343 Neuron-glial Cell Interactions in Biology and Disease (MIT)

Description

The main goal of this seminar will be to study the nervous system from the perspective of neuron-glia interactions. In each class, we will focus on one type of glial cell and discuss its origin, classification and function within the nervous system. Current findings concerning diseases associated with each type of glial cell will be discussed. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Advanced Undergraduate Seminars are postdoctoral scientists with a strong interest in teaching. The main goal of this seminar will be to study the nervous system from the perspective of neuron-glia interactions. In each class, we will focus on one type of glial cell and discuss its origin, classification and function within the nervous system. Current findings concerning diseases associated with each type of glial cell will be discussed. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Advanced Undergraduate Seminars are postdoctoral scientists with a strong interest in teaching.

Subjects

glial | glial | glial cell | glial cell | Rudolph Virchow | Rudolph Virchow | nervous system | nervous system | neurons | neurons | synapse formation | synapse formation | synapse control | synapse control | Multiple Sclerosis | Multiple Sclerosis | glioblastoma multiforme | glioblastoma multiforme | HIV-associated dementia | HIV-associated dementia | Alzheimer?s Disease | Alzheimer?s Disease | epilepsy | epilepsy | brain damage | brain damage | neurodegeneration | neurodegeneration | Myelination | Myelination | Schwann cells | Schwann cells | Nodes of Ranvier | Nodes of Ranvier | Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMTX) disease | Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMTX) disease | connexin-32 gene | connexin-32 gene | Oligodendrocytes | Oligodendrocytes | Nogo Hypothesis | Nogo Hypothesis | Neuregulin-1 | Neuregulin-1 | schizophrenia | schizophrenia | CNS Astrocytes | CNS Astrocytes | demyelination | demyelination | Gliomas | Gliomas

License

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7.340 Avoiding Genomic Instability: DNA Replication, the Cell Cycle, and Cancer (MIT) 7.340 Avoiding Genomic Instability: DNA Replication, the Cell Cycle, and Cancer (MIT)

Description

In this class we will learn about how the process of DNA replication is regulated throughout the cell cycle and what happens when DNA replication goes awry. How does the cell know when and where to begin replicating its DNA? How does a cell prevent its DNA from being replicated more than once? How does damaged DNA cause the cell to arrest DNA replication until that damage has been repaired? And how is the duplication of the genome coordinated with other essential processes? We will examine both classical and current papers from the scientific literature to provide answers to these questions and to gain insights into how biologists have approached such problems. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored f In this class we will learn about how the process of DNA replication is regulated throughout the cell cycle and what happens when DNA replication goes awry. How does the cell know when and where to begin replicating its DNA? How does a cell prevent its DNA from being replicated more than once? How does damaged DNA cause the cell to arrest DNA replication until that damage has been repaired? And how is the duplication of the genome coordinated with other essential processes? We will examine both classical and current papers from the scientific literature to provide answers to these questions and to gain insights into how biologists have approached such problems. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored f

Subjects

cell | cell | genetic material | genetic material | cell death | cell death | tumorigenesis | tumorigenesis | mutations | mutations | genes | genes | DNA replication | DNA replication | cell cycle | cell cycle | damaged DNA | damaged DNA | genome | genome | tumor formation | tumor formation | anti-cancer drugs | anti-cancer drugs | viruses | viruses | cellular controls | cellular controls

License

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22.01 Introduction to Ionizing Radiation (MIT) 22.01 Introduction to Ionizing Radiation (MIT)

Description

This course provides an introduction to the basic properties of ionizing radiations and their uses in medicine, industry, science, and environmental studies. We will discuss natural and man-made radiation sources, energy deposition and dose calculations, and various physical, chemical, and biological processes and effects of radiation, with examples of their uses, and principles of radiation protection. This course provides an introduction to the basic properties of ionizing radiations and their uses in medicine, industry, science, and environmental studies. We will discuss natural and man-made radiation sources, energy deposition and dose calculations, and various physical, chemical, and biological processes and effects of radiation, with examples of their uses, and principles of radiation protection.

Subjects

ionizing radiation | ionizing radiation | natural radiation | natural radiation | man-made radiation | man-made radiation | energy deposition | energy deposition | dose calculations | dose calculations | radiation protection | radiation protection | radiation damage | radiation damage | DNA | DNA | cell survival curves | cell survival curves | radioactive decay | radioactive decay | beta decay | beta decay | gamma decay | gamma decay | radiological dating | radiological dating | radiation interactions | radiation interactions | radon | radon | medical imaging | medical imaging

License

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22.55J Principles of Radiation Interactions (MIT)

Description

The central theme of this course is the interaction of radiation with biological material. The course is intended to provide a broad understanding of how different types of radiation deposit energy, including the creation and behavior of secondary radiations; of how radiation affects cells and why the different types of radiation have very different biological effects. Topics will include: the effects of radiation on biological systems including DNA damage; in vitro cell survival models; and in vivo mammalian systems. The course covers radiation therapy, radiation syndromes in humans and carcinogenesis. Environmental radiation sources on earth and in space, and aspects of radiation protection are also discussed. Examples from the current literature will be used to supplement lecture materi

Subjects

Interaction of radiation with biological material | how different types of radiation deposit energy | secondary radiations | how radiation affects cells | biological effects | effects of radiation on biological systems | DNA damage | in vitro cell survival models | in vivo mammalian systems | radiation therapy | radiation syndromes in humans | carcinogenesis | Environmental radiation sources | radiation protection | cells | tissues | radiation interactions | radiation chemistry | LET | tracks | chromosome damags | in vivo | in vitro | cell survival curves | dose response | RBE | clustered damage | radiation response | tumor kinetics | tumor radiobiology | fractionation | protons | alpha particles | whole body exposure | chronic exposure | space | microbeams | radon | background radiation | 22.55 | HST.560

License

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22.01 Introduction to Ionizing Radiation (MIT) 22.01 Introduction to Ionizing Radiation (MIT)

Description

This course provides an introduction to the basic properties of ionizing radiations and their uses in medicine, industry, science, and environmental studies. We will discuss natural and man-made radiation sources, energy deposition and dose calculations, and various physical, chemical, and biological processes and effects of radiation, with examples of their uses, and principles of radiation protection. This course provides an introduction to the basic properties of ionizing radiations and their uses in medicine, industry, science, and environmental studies. We will discuss natural and man-made radiation sources, energy deposition and dose calculations, and various physical, chemical, and biological processes and effects of radiation, with examples of their uses, and principles of radiation protection.

Subjects

ionizing radiation | ionizing radiation | natural radiation | natural radiation | man-made radiation | man-made radiation | energy deposition | energy deposition | dose calculations | dose calculations | radiation protection | radiation protection | radiation damage | radiation damage | DNA | DNA | cell survival curves | cell survival curves | radioactive decay | radioactive decay | beta decay | beta decay | gamma decay | gamma decay | radiological dating | radiological dating | radiation interactions | radiation interactions | radon | radon | medical imaging | medical imaging

License

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The 'Baron Aberdare' accident

Description

Reproduction ID: P1717 Maker: Unknown Date: December 1883 Find out more about this image on Collections

Subjects

nationalmaritimemuseum | cl0412 | cl0412fs | cl0412s1 | cl0412d7 | accident | capsized | docks | cause | salvage | ship | damage | survey | end | effort | tragedy | submerged | scuttling | disaster | cursed | rescue | tilt | calm | cold | oops | calamity | insured | the | damaged | trouble | cost | broken | scapegoat | recovery | loss

License

No known copyright restrictions

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Royal Museums Greenwich | FlickR

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