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Mechanical Behaviour of Materials: Creep Deformation of Metals

Description

This set consists of an animation explaning Nabarro-Herring creep and Coble creep, and the simulation of a creeping coil experiment. From TLP: Creep Deformation of Metals

Subjects

creep | Coble creep | Nabarro-Herring creep | diffusion | dislocations | dislocation creep | stress exponent | activation energy | mechanical properties | turbine blades | nickel superalloys | solder | single crystals | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | animation | corematerials | ukoer

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3.35 Fracture and Fatigue (MIT) 3.35 Fracture and Fatigue (MIT)

Description

Investigation of linear elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. Topics include microstructural effects on fracture in metals, ceramics, polymers, thin films, biological materials and composites, toughening mechanisms, crack growth resistance and creep fracture. Also covered: interface fracture mechanics, fatigue damage and dislocation substructures in single crystals, stress- and strain-life approach to fatigue, fatigue crack growth models and mechanisms, variable amplitude fatigue, corrosion fatigue and case studies of fracture and fatigue in structural, bioimplant, and microelectronic components. Investigation of linear elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. Topics include microstructural effects on fracture in metals, ceramics, polymers, thin films, biological materials and composites, toughening mechanisms, crack growth resistance and creep fracture. Also covered: interface fracture mechanics, fatigue damage and dislocation substructures in single crystals, stress- and strain-life approach to fatigue, fatigue crack growth models and mechanisms, variable amplitude fatigue, corrosion fatigue and case studies of fracture and fatigue in structural, bioimplant, and microelectronic components.

Subjects

Linear elastic | Linear elastic | elastic-plastic fracture mechanics | elastic-plastic fracture mechanics | Microstructural effects on fracture | Microstructural effects on fracture | Toughening mechanisms | Toughening mechanisms | Crack growth resistance | Crack growth resistance | creep fracture | creep fracture | Interface fracture mechanics | Interface fracture mechanics | Fatigue damage | Fatigue damage | dislocation substructures | dislocation substructures | Variable amplitude fatigue | Variable amplitude fatigue | Corrosion fatigue | Corrosion fatigue | experimental methods | experimental methods | microstructural effects | microstructural effects | metals | metals | ceramics | ceramics | polymers | polymers | thin films | thin films | biological materials | biological materials | composites | composites | single crystals | single crystals | stress-life | stress-life | strain-life | strain-life | structural components | structural components | bioimplant components | bioimplant components | microelectronic components | microelectronic components | case studies | case studies

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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12.520 Geodynamics (MIT) 12.520 Geodynamics (MIT)

Description

This course deals with mechanics of deformation of the crust and mantle, with emphasis on the importance of different rheological descriptions: brittle, elastic, linear and nonlinear fluids, and viscoelastic. This course deals with mechanics of deformation of the crust and mantle, with emphasis on the importance of different rheological descriptions: brittle, elastic, linear and nonlinear fluids, and viscoelastic.

Subjects

Geodynamics | Geodynamics | mechanics of deformation | mechanics of deformation | crust | crust | mantle | mantle | rheological descriptions | rheological descriptions | brittle | brittle | elastic | elastic | linear | linear | nonlinear fluids | nonlinear fluids | viscoelastic | viscoelastic | surface tractions | surface tractions | tectonic stress | tectonic stress | quantity expression | quantity expression | stress variations | stress variations | sandbox tectonics | sandbox tectonics | displacement gradients | displacement gradients | strains | strains | rotations | rotations | finite strain | finite strain | motivation | motivation | dislocation | dislocation | plates | plates | topography | topography | rock rheology | rock rheology | accretionary wedge | accretionary wedge | linear fluids | linear fluids | elastic models | elastic models | newtonian fluids | newtonian fluids | stream function | stream function | Rayleigh-Taylor instability | Rayleigh-Taylor instability | diapirism | diapirism | diapirs | diapirs | plumes | plumes | corner flow | corner flow | power law creep | power law creep | viscoelasticity | viscoelasticity | porous media | porous media | Elsasser model | Elsasser model | time dependent porous flow | time dependent porous flow

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Mechanical Behaviour of Materials: Creep Deformation of Metals

Description

This set consists of an animation explaning Nabarro-Herring creep and Coble creep, and the simulation of a creeping coil experiment. From TLP: Creep Deformation of Metals

Subjects

creep | coble creep | nabarro-herring creep | diffusion | dislocations | dislocation creep | stress exponent | activation energy | mechanical properties | turbine blades | nickel superalloys | solder | single crystals | doitpoms | university of cambridge | animation | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fundamentals of Materials Science: Materials for Nuclear Power Generation

Description

This set of animations provides better understanding of the materials used in nuclear power generation. From TLP: Materials for Nuclear Power Generation

Subjects

nuclear | reactor | power | cross-section | displacement spike | dislocation loop | moderator | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | animation | corematerials | ukoer

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Disclinations in a smectic LCP, revealed by decoration

Description

Detailed configurations of disclinations and their interactions have been elucidated by band texture decoration. The positive value of elastic anisotropy of a semi-flexible LCP, Cl-6, shows that bend distortion is favoured. The obvious variations of elastic anisotropy values measured from the different disclinations is probably related to the polydispersity of the polymer. The majority of disclination pairs showing random configurations indicate that that defect interactions are far from equilibrium in polymeric smectics.

Subjects

alignment | decoration | disclination | dislocation | liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) | polymer | smectic | spontaneous band texture | texture | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Disclinations in a smectic LCP, revealed by decoration

Description

Detailed configurations of disclinations and their interactions have been elucidated by band texture decoration. The positive value of elastic anisotropy of a semi-flexible LCP, Cl-6, shows that bend distortion is favoured. The obvious variations of elastic anisotropy values measured from the different disclinations is probably related to the polydispersity of the polymer. The majority of disclination pairs showing random configurations indicate that that defect interactions are far from equilibrium in polymeric smectics.

Subjects

alignment | decoration | disclination | dislocation | liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) | polymer | smectic | spontaneous band texture | texture | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Austenitic stainless steel

Description

This is a transmission electron micrograph taken at 200 kV, from a thin foil sample of "302AA" austenitic stainless steel. The sample was cold-deformed by rolling and then annealed at 704 °C for one hour. The image shows a recrystallised grain which is relatively free of dislocations, surrounded by a deformed matrix which has a high dislocation density. The recrystallised grain contains annealing twins (parallel bands with different contrast). Source: http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/abstracts/annealing.twin.html.

Subjects

alloy | annealing twins | austenite | dislocation | grain | metal | recrystallisation | stainless steel | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Austenitic stainless steel

Description

This is a transmission electron micrograph taken at 200 kV, from a thin foil sample of "302AA" austenitic stainless steel. The sample was cold-deformed by rolling and then annealed at 704 °C for one hour. The image shows recrystallised grains which which show uniform contrast because they are relatively free of dislocations, surrounded by a deformed matrix which has a high dislocation density. The recrystallised grain contains annealing twins (parallel bands with different contrast. The steps at the top left-hand corner are simply steps in annealing twin boundaries.Source: http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/abstracts/annealing.twin.html.

Subjects

alloy | annealing twins | austenite | carbon | dislocation | grain | iron | metal | recrystallisation | stainless steel | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Austenitic stainless steel

Description

This is a transmission electron micrograph taken at 200 kV, from a thin foil sample of "302AA" austenitic stainless steel. The sample was cold-deformed by rolling and then annealed at 704 °C for one hour. The image shows a beautiful picture of annealing twins. Notice how the ends of annealing twins are flat, the shape being determined by a minimisation of interfacial energy. Mechanical twins, by contrast, are lenticular (lens like) with sharply pointed ends to minimise the strain energy due to the twinning shear. Annealing twins do not cause any deformation so strain energy minimisation is not an issue. This is also the reason why there is no strain field contrast visible at the tips of the annealing twins. Source: http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/abstracts/annealing.twin.html.

Subjects

alloy | annealing twins | austenite | carbon | dislocation | grain | iron | metal | recrystallisation | stainless steel | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Austenitic stainless steel

Description

This is a transmission electron micrograph taken at 200 kV, from a thin foil sample of "302AA" austenitic stainless steel. The sample was cold-deformed by rolling and then annealed at 704 °C for one hour. The image shows a mixture of deformed and recrystallised grains. Source: http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/abstracts/recryst.html.

Subjects

alloy | annealing twins | austenite | carbon | dislocation | grain | iron | metal | recrystallisation | stainless steel | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Austenitic stainless steel

Description

This is a transmission electron micrograph taken at 200 kV, from a thin foil sample of "302AA" austenitic stainless steel. The sample was cold-deformed by rolling and then annealed at 704 °C for one hour. The image shows a mixture of recrystallised and deformed grains. There are some stacking faults (ribbon like contrast) in the recrystallised grains; austenitic stainless steels have a relatively low stacking fault energy. Source: http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/abstracts/recryst.html.

Subjects

alloy | annealing twins | austenite | carbon | dislocation | grain | iron | metal | recrystallisation | stainless steel | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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TALAT Lecture 3802: Physical Mechanism of Superplasticity

Description

This lecture describes in general the physical mechanism of superplasticity and the microstructural changes which accompany superplastic forming. General background in production engineering and material science is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | eaa | talat | training in aluminium application technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | machining | forming | forging | sheet | superplastic forming | superplasticity equation | deformation | grain boundary gliding | gliding of dislocations | exchange mechanism | creep | permutation model | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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TALAT Lecture 1201: Introduction to Aluminium as an Engineering Material

Description

This lecture provides an introduction to metallurgical concepts necessary to understand how structural features of aluminium alloys are influenced by alloy composition, processing and heat treatment, and the basic affects of these parameters on the mechanical properties, and hence engineering applications, of the alloys. It is assumed that the reader has some elementary knowledge of physics, chemistry and mathematics.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | alloy | atomic structure | crystal defects | crystal structure | crystals and atomic bonding | dislocations | grain growth | mechanical properties | microstructure | phase transformations | physical properties | plastic deformation | recrystallisation | slip | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 2101.01: Understanding aluminium as a material

Description

This lecture is an introduction to aluminium alloys, fabrication methods and properties. It provides information about the classification of aluminium alloys, new alloys and composites; shaping processes, processing chains and component shapes; microstructure and the interaction between microstructure and properties. It promotes understanding of the fact that the correct choice of materials demands knowledge of alloys, shaping processes and microstructure and the interaction among them. The lecture is recommended for those situations, where a brief, general background information about aluminium is needed as an introduction of other subject areas of aluminium application technologies. This lecture is part of the self-contained course "Aluminium in Product Development", which is treated u

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | design | product | material characteristics | alloying elements | classification | composites | shaping processes | processing chain | component | sheet | extruded product | impact-extruded product | cast | microstructure | properties | atomic structure | dislocations | work hardening | atoms in solution | precipitation | solution heat treatment | artificial ageing | grains | dendrites | innovation | corematerials | ukoer

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3.35 Fracture and Fatigue (MIT)

Description

Investigation of linear elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. Topics include microstructural effects on fracture in metals, ceramics, polymers, thin films, biological materials and composites, toughening mechanisms, crack growth resistance and creep fracture. Also covered: interface fracture mechanics, fatigue damage and dislocation substructures in single crystals, stress- and strain-life approach to fatigue, fatigue crack growth models and mechanisms, variable amplitude fatigue, corrosion fatigue and case studies of fracture and fatigue in structural, bioimplant, and microelectronic components.

Subjects

Linear elastic | elastic-plastic fracture mechanics | Microstructural effects on fracture | Toughening mechanisms | Crack growth resistance | creep fracture | Interface fracture mechanics | Fatigue damage | dislocation substructures | Variable amplitude fatigue | Corrosion fatigue | experimental methods | microstructural effects | metals | ceramics | polymers | thin films | biological materials | composites | single crystals | stress-life | strain-life | structural components | bioimplant components | microelectronic components | case studies

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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3.35 Fracture and Fatigue (MIT)

Description

Investigation of linear elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. Topics include microstructural effects on fracture in metals, ceramics, polymers, thin films, biological materials and composites, toughening mechanisms, crack growth resistance and creep fracture. Also covered: interface fracture mechanics, fatigue damage and dislocation substructures in single crystals, stress- and strain-life approach to fatigue, fatigue crack growth models and mechanisms, variable amplitude fatigue, corrosion fatigue and case studies of fracture and fatigue in structural, bioimplant, and microelectronic components.

Subjects

Linear elastic | elastic-plastic fracture mechanics | Microstructural effects on fracture | Toughening mechanisms | Crack growth resistance | creep fracture | Interface fracture mechanics | Fatigue damage | dislocation substructures | Variable amplitude fatigue | Corrosion fatigue | experimental methods | microstructural effects | metals | ceramics | polymers | thin films | biological materials | composites | single crystals | stress-life | strain-life | structural components | bioimplant components | microelectronic components | case studies

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Austenitic stainless steel

Description

This is a transmission electron micrograph taken at 200 kV, from a thin foil sample of "302AA" austenitic stainless steel. The sample was cold-deformed by rolling and then annealed at 704 C for one hour. The image shows a recrystallised grain which is relatively free of dislocations, surrounded by a deformed matrix which has a high dislocation density. The recrystallised grain contains annealing twins (parallel bands with different contrast). Source: http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/abstracts/annealing.twin.html.

Subjects

alloy | annealing twins | austenite | dislocation | grain | metal | recrystallisation | stainless steel | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Austenitic stainless steel

Description

This is a transmission electron micrograph taken at 200 kV, from a thin foil sample of "302AA" austenitic stainless steel. The sample was cold-deformed by rolling and then annealed at 704 C for one hour. The image shows recrystallised grains which which show uniform contrast because they are relatively free of dislocations, surrounded by a deformed matrix which has a high dislocation density. The recrystallised grain contains annealing twins (parallel bands with different contrast. The steps at the top left-hand corner are simply steps in annealing twin boundaries.Source: http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/abstracts/annealing.twin.html.

Subjects

alloy | annealing twins | austenite | carbon | dislocation | grain | iron | metal | recrystallisation | stainless steel | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Austenitic stainless steel

Description

This is a transmission electron micrograph taken at 200 kV, from a thin foil sample of "302AA" austenitic stainless steel. The sample was cold-deformed by rolling and then annealed at 704 C for one hour. The image shows a beautiful picture of annealing twins. Notice how the ends of annealing twins are flat, the shape being determined by a minimisation of interfacial energy. Mechanical twins, by contrast, are lenticular (lens like) with sharply pointed ends to minimise the strain energy due to the twinning shear. Annealing twins do not cause any deformation so strain energy minimisation is not an issue. This is also the reason why there is no strain field contrast visible at the tips of the annealing twins. Source: http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/abstracts/annealing.twin.html.

Subjects

alloy | annealing twins | austenite | carbon | dislocation | grain | iron | metal | recrystallisation | stainless steel | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Austenitic stainless steel

Description

This is a transmission electron micrograph taken at 200 kV, from a thin foil sample of "302AA" austenitic stainless steel. The sample was cold-deformed by rolling and then annealed at 704 C for one hour. The image shows a mixture of deformed and recrystallised grains. Source: http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/abstracts/recryst.html.

Subjects

alloy | annealing twins | austenite | carbon | dislocation | grain | iron | metal | recrystallisation | stainless steel | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Austenitic stainless steel

Description

This is a transmission electron micrograph taken at 200 kV, from a thin foil sample of "302AA" austenitic stainless steel. The sample was cold-deformed by rolling and then annealed at 704 C for one hour. The image shows a mixture of recrystallised and deformed grains. There are some stacking faults (ribbon like contrast) in the recrystallised grains; austenitic stainless steels have a relatively low stacking fault energy. Source: http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/abstracts/recryst.html.

Subjects

alloy | annealing twins | austenite | carbon | dislocation | grain | iron | metal | recrystallisation | stainless steel | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 70, Zn 30 (wt%), annealed and cold rolled

Description

This sample was annealed and 50% cold rolled to give a highly deformed structure with a high dislocation density, illustrated by the large number of persistent slip bands.

Subjects

alloy | annealing | brass | copper | dislocation | metal | slip band | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 70, Zn 30 (wt%), annealed and cold rolled

Description

This sample was annealed and 50% cold rolled to give a highly deformed structure with a high dislocation density, illustrated by the large number of persistent slip bands.

Subjects

alloy | annealing | brass | copper | dislocation | metal | slip band | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fundamentals of Materials Science: Materials for Nuclear Power Generation

Description

This set of animations provides better understanding of the materials used in nuclear power generation. From TLP: Materials for Nuclear Power Generation

Subjects

nuclear | reactor | power | cross-section | displacement spike | dislocation loop | moderator | doitpoms | university of cambridge | animation | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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