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Oven-to-tableware

Description

Oven-to-tableware ceramics have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and therefore a high resistance to thermal shock, which makes them suitable for use at a wide range of temperatures.

Subjects

ceramic | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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Cu 65, Zn 35 (wt%) B4 brass, chill cast

Description

An good example of dendritic solidification, which occurs when the solidification front becomes unstable with respect to small perturbations. This results in the growth of the perturbations, producing dendrites (from the Greek for tree). Interdendritic β phase and purple-grey ZnO inclusions.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | dendrite | metal | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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A medium carbon low alloyed structural steel

Description

The steel sample was etched in 4% picral solution first and revealed the presence of pearlite and carbides distinctly. Further tint etching in SMB resulted in the straw coloured martensite to appear as a band. Retained austenite is appearing as very fine white particles. The bainite is appearing as bluish-black background between the martensite constituents. Coarse dark grains are pearlite. Microhardness measurements and SEM studies further proved the constituents identity. Conventional nital etching is not successful in delineating all the micro-constituents so distinctly.

Subjects

alloy | metal | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Oven-to-tableware

Description

Oven-to-tableware ceramics have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and therefore a high resistance to thermal shock, which makes them suitable for use at a wide range of temperatures.

Subjects

ceramic | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 55, Zn 45 (wt%) brass, rapidly cooled

Description

Brasses with greater than 40% zinc usually consist of β primary dendrites surrounded by α phase. The lack of such a microstructure in this sample indicates that the cooling rate during casting was sufficiently rapid that dendrites were unable to form and consequently the microstructure consists entirely of β phase.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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TRIP steel annealed at 775°C for 5 mins and then hold at 400°C for 150s for austenite stabilization

Description

The steel microstructure reveals clearly the retained austenite as white, martensite as straw-coloured constituents, bainite can be identified with needle-shaped austenites (there is no carbide present due to the addition of Si). Many martensite-austenite constituents can be found in the microstructure which is revealed because of the tint etching. This is not possible with any other reported ethants/etching techniques for TRIP steels. The microstructure does not show presence of any carbides.

Subjects

alloy | bainite | metal | retained austenite | trip steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Oven-to-tableware

Description

Oven-to-tableware ceramics have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and therefore a high resistance to thermal shock, which makes them suitable for use at a wide range of temperatures.

Subjects

ceramic | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 55, Zn 45 (wt%) brass, rapidly cooled

Description

Brasses with greater than 40% zinc usually consist of β primary dendrites surrounded by α phase. The lack of such a microstructure in this sample indicates that the cooling rate during casting was sufficiently rapid that dendrites were unable to form and consequently the microstructure consists entirely of β phase.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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TRIP steel annealed at 775°C for 5 mins and then hold at 400°C for 40s for austenite stabilization

Description

The microstructure shows martensite (straw-coloured), retained austenite (white) and some M-A constituents. Martensite volume fraction is higher than the steel which was hold for 150s at 400°C and cooled. Since the austenite is low in C-content for such a low holding time at 400°C, most of the austenite is transformed to martensite during cooling from 400°C to room temperature.

Subjects

alloy | bainite | metal | retained austenite | trip steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Oven-to-tableware

Description

Oven-to-tableware ceramics have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and therefore a high resistance to thermal shock, which makes them suitable for use at a wide range of temperatures.

Subjects

ceramic | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 55, Zn 45 (wt%) brass, rapidly cooled

Description

Brasses with greater than 40% zinc usually consist of β primary dendrites surrounded by α phase. The lack of such a microstructure in this sample indicates that the cooling rate during casting was sufficiently rapid that dendrites were unable to form and consequently the microstructure consists entirely of β phase.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Silicon Nitride-bonded Silicon Carbide

Description

Silicon Nitride bonded Silicon Carbide is characterized by excellent wear properties, good resistance to high temperatures, good impact resistance, an ability to be easily cast, and good corrosion resistance.

Subjects

ceramic | silicon carbide | silicon nitride | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 52.5, Zn 47.5 (wt%) brass, as cast

Description

β brass consisting of large grains of β phase with Widmanstätten γ forming from the grain boundaries.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | widmanstätten | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Silicon Carbide from within a Silicon Nitride-bonded Silicon Carbide sample

Description

Silicon Nitride bonded Silicon Carbide is characterized by excellent wear properties, good resistance to high temperatures, good impact resistance, an ability to be easily cast, and good corrosion resistance.

Subjects

ceramic | silicon carbide | silicon nitride | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 52.5, Zn 47.5 (wt%) brass, as cast

Description

β brass consisting of large grains of β phase with Widmanstätten γ forming from the grain boundaries.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | widmanstätten | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Part of a Denby pottery mug, showing the glaze on the surface

Description

On firing, water trapped within the clay evaporates as the temperature rises. Vitrification occurs above about 1000°C, and the clay material fuses into a dense glassy material. Aluminium silicate crystals bond the matrix, increasing the strength, and the object shrinks and becomes more dense. Glaze is then applied, which vitrifies when the object is fired again, and bonds to the surface making it waterproof.

Subjects

ceramic | clay | glaze | pottery | vitrification | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 52.5, Zn 47.5 (wt%) brass, as cast

Description

β brass consisting of large grains of β phase with Widmanstätten γ forming from the grain boundaries.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | widmanstätten | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Bi 10, Sn 90 (wt%)

Description

Low concentration of bismuth - there are two components - higher bismuth (light coloured because bismuth has a larger atomic mass than tin) and low bismuth (grey).

Subjects

alloy | bismuth | metal | tin | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Part of a Denby pottery mug

Description

On firing, water trapped within the clay evaporates as the temperature rises. Vitrification occurs above about 1000°C, and the clay material fuses into a dense glassy material. Aluminium silicate crystals bond the matrix, increasing the strength, and the object shrinks and becomes more dense. Glaze is then applied, which vitrifies when the object is fired again, and bonds to the surface making it waterproof.

Subjects

ceramic | clay | pottery | vitrification | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 55, Zn 45 (wt%) brass, as cast, dendritic

Description

A cast alloy of high zinc brass, consisting of β dendrites. The α precipitates out of solution at the crystal boundaries, forming a structure of β dendrites surrounded by α. This is known as a Widmanstätten structure because a geometrical pattern of α forms on certain crystallographic orientations of the β lattice.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | widmanstätten | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Bi 10, Sn 90 (wt%)

Description

Low concentration of bismuth - there are two components - higher bismuth (light coloured because bismuth has a larger atomic mass than tin) and low bismuth (grey).

Subjects

alloy | bismuth | metal | tin | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Titanate ceramic for immobilising radioactive waste

Description

An assemblage of 5 mixed oxide phases and at least 2 metals. White phases are metals, either austenites (Fe,Ni,Mo,Ru) or silver. Oxide phases are by contrast: light grey is zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7 with some substituted species); mid grey is hollandite (Ba[Fe,Cr,Ti]8O16) with some Cs on Ba site; dark grey is perovskite loveringite (Ca[Ti,Fe,Cr,Zr]21O38) or spinel ([Fe,Ti,Cr]3O4).

Subjects

ceramic | hollandite | loveringite | spinel | titanate | zirconolite | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 55, Zn 45 (wt%) brass, as cast, dendritic

Description

A cast alloy of high zinc brass, consisting of β dendrites. The α precipitates out of solution at the crystal boundaries, forming a structure of β dendrites surrounded by α. This is known as a Widmanstätten structure because a geometrical pattern of α forms on certain crystallographic orientations of the β lattice.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | widmanstätten | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Bi 10, Sn 90 (wt%)

Description

Low concentration of bismuth - there are two components - higher bismuth (light coloured because bismuth has a larger atomic mass than tin) and low bismuth (grey).

Subjects

alloy | bismuth | metal | tin | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Aluminous Electrical Porcelain

Description

The microstructure of porcelain is surprisingly complex. Quartz silica grains (Q) are beginning to dissolve and show solution rims (R) of glassy material. The alumina particles are not dissolving at this firing temperature. The relicts of the starting clays contain fine primary mullite in glass (P) while feldspar relicts contain elongated secondary mullite needles.

Subjects

ceramic | clay | feldspar | grain and bond | insulator | porcelain | quartz | vitreous | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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