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DoITPoMS Micrograph Library

Description

The DoITPoMS Micrograph Library is a collection of materials micrographs intended for use in teaching and learning.

Subjects

ukoer | corematerials | doitpoms | micrographs | Engineering | H000

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Al 75, Cu 25 (wt%), hypoeutectic alloy

Description

The micrograph shows primary Al dendrite arms (white). The dendrite trunk has been intersected at an angle by the plane of polishing to give the observed morphology. Between the dendrites is the Al - CuAl2 eutectic. Initially dendrites would have formed from the liquid, the regions between the dendrite arms known as the mushy zone transforming to a eutectic solid (L to Al + CuAl2). These two phases form cooperatively as neighbouring lamellae with the lateral diffusion of material across the growing interface. The relative amounts of the two phases (Al and CuAl2 ) within the eutectic are determined by applying the Lever Rule at the eutectic temperature.

Subjects

alloy | aluminium | copper | dendrite | hypoeutectic | lamella | metal | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

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Al 75, Cu 25 (wt%), hypoeutectic alloy

Description

This is a secondary electron micrograph of the hypereuctectic alloy showing the Al dendrites and the Al-CuAl2 eutectic in greater detail. It is clear that the lamellar eutectic has been significantly distorted by the presence of the primary Al dendrites. Around the dendrites there is a layer of CuAl2.

Subjects

alloy | bismuth | cadmium | eutectic | lamella | metal | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

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Al 67, Cu 33 (wt%), eutectic alloy

Description

This alloy is of the eutectic composition and has solidified with a lamellae eutectic structure. The Al and θ phases form co-operatively. The eutectic lamellae grows in the principal direction of heat flow; the lamellae structure is stabilised by the high temperature gradient. In the lower part of the micrograph the lamellae structure breaks down.

Subjects

alloy | aluminium | copper | eutectic | lamella | metal | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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Al 67, Cu 33 (wt%), eutectic alloy

Description

This SEM image shows the lamellar eutectic very clearly. The interlamellar spacing is about one micron. There are several imperfections in the lamellar structure, which have arisen from irregularities and disturbances during growth.

Subjects

alloy | aluminium | copper | eutectic | lamella | metal | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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Al 64, Cu 36 (wt%), hypereutectic alloy

Description

When the composition of the alloy exceeds the eutectic, as in this hypereutectic sample, the initial dendrites that form are of CuAl2. The remaining liquid transforms to the eutectic at the eutectic temperature.

Subjects

alloy | aluminium | copper | dendrite | hypereutectic | metal | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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Bi 60, Cd 40 (wt%), eutectic alloy

Description

This sample has the eutectic composition so all the liquid solidifies at the eutectic temperature to form a lamellar eutectic structure. The two phases grow co-operatively from the melt.

Subjects

alloy | bismuth | cadmium | eutectic | lamella | metal | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

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Bi 60, Cd 40 (wt%), eutectic alloy

Description

This sample has the eutectic composition so all the liquid solidifies at the eutectic temperature to form a lamellar eutectic structure. The two phases grow co-operatively from the melt.

Subjects

alloy | bismuth | cadmium | eutectic | lamella | metal | test | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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Bi 80, Cd 20 (wt%), hypereutectic alloy

Description

The high proportion of Bi in this sample results in predominantly Bi dendrites with some interdendritic eutectic. The primary Bi dendrites are strongly facetted (white blocks) indicating the importance of crystallographic orientation upon growth.

Subjects

alloy | bismuth | cadmium | dendrite | facet | hypereutectic | metal | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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Bi 80, Cd 20 (wt%), hypereutectic alloy

Description

The high proportion of Bi in this sample results in predominantly Bi dendrites with some interdendritic eutectic. The primary Bi dendrites are strongly facetted (white blocks) indicating the importance of crystallographic orientation upon growth.

Subjects

alloy | bismuth | cadmium | dendrite | facet | hypereutectic | metal | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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Cu 70, Ni 30 (wt%), cored dendrites

Description

This alloy is typical of many copper based alloy systems. The dendrite structure shows coring (variation in solute concentration). The light areas are rich in nickel and the darker areas are low in nickel. Chill casting extracts heat quickly enough to prevent significant solid state diffusion, resulting in cored dendrites. The centres of the dendrites that cool near the liquidus temperature, are nickel rich compared to the outer layers that solidify at progressively lower temperatures. Because the partition coefficient is positive the outer layers solidify with progressively lower nickel concentrations. The observed pattern results from the intersection of the plane of polish and the randomly orientated regions of equal solute concentration.

Subjects

alloy | copper | coring | dendrite | metal | nickel | partition coefficient | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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Cu 70, Ni 30 (wt%), cored dendrites

Description

This alloy is typical of many copper based alloy systems. The dendrite structure shows coring (variation in solute concentration). The light areas are rich in nickel and the darker areas are low in nickel. Chill casting extracts heat quickly enough to prevent significant solid state diffusion, resulting in cored dendrites. The centres of the dendrites that cool near the liquidus temperature, are nickel rich compared to the outer layers that solidify at progressively lower temperatures. Because the partition coefficient is positive the outer layers solidify with progressively lower nickel concentrations. The observed pattern results from the intersection of the plane of polish and the randomly orientated regions of equal solute concentration.

Subjects

alloy | copper | coring | dendrite | metal | nickel | partition coefficient | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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Cu 21, Sn 79 (wt%), peritectic transformation

Description

This microstructure is generated via a peritectic′s reaction (L+ε = η), which bears some similarities to the more familiar eutectic reaction (L = α+β). Upon cooling from the liquid phase field, primary ε is formed, which can be seen here as a slightly darker phase than the sheath of η surrounding it. The η sheath is the product of a peritectic reaction between ε and liquid. The peritectic reaction rarely goes to completion, since the formation of η around the ε phase separates it from the liquid and inhibits further growth. Eventually, the remaining liquid transforms by a eutectic reaction to η and Sn. In this micrograph, the constituents of the eutectic mixture cannot be distinguished and it appears

Subjects

alloy | bronze | copper | metal | peritectic reaction | tin | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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Cu 21, Sn 79 (wt%), peritectic transformation

Description

This microstructure is generated via a peritectic reaction (L+ε = η), which bears some similarities to the more familiar eutectic reaction (L = α + β). Upon cooling from the liquid phase field, primary ε is formed, which can be seen here as a slightly darker phase than the sheath of η surrounding it. The η sheath is the product of a peritectic reaction between ε and liquid. The peritectic reaction rarely goes to completion, since the formation of η around the ε phase separates it from the liquid and inhibits further growth. Eventually, the remaining liquid transforms by a eutectic reaction to η and Sn. In this micrograph, the constituents of the eutectic mixture cannot be distinguished and it appears uniformly dark.

Subjects

alloy | bronze | copper | metal | peritectic reaction | tin | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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Fe, C 0.8 (wt%), eutectoid transformation - pearlite (coarse)

Description

This steel is of the eutectoid composition. Once the temperature is lowered below the eutectoid temperature the steel becomes simultaneously supersaturated with both ferrite and cementite. A eutectoid transformation results (γ to α + Fe3C). The resultant microstructure, known as pearlite, comprises lamellae of cementite (dark) embedded in ferrite (white). The platelets are parallel to each other and do not follow a specific crystallographic direction.Each pearlite colony is made up of a number of subgrains. Thus each pearlite colony consists of two interpenetrating single crystals having an orientation relationship with respect to each other and with respect to the austenite grain they grow from, but not with respect to the austenite grain they have grown into. Changes in the apparent in

Subjects

alloy | austenite | carbon | cementite | eutectoid reaction | ferrite | iron | lamella | metal | pearlite | steel | supercooling | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

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Fe, C 0.8 (wt%), eutectoid transformation - pearlite (coarse)

Description

This steel is of the eutectoid composition. Once the temperature is lowered below the eutectoid temperature the steel becomes simultaneously supersaturated with both ferrite and cementite. A eutectoid transformation results (γ to α + Fe3C). The resultant microstructure, known as pearlite, comprises lamellae of cementite (dark) embedded in ferrite (white). The platelets are parallel to each other and do not follow a specific crystallographic direction.Each pearlite colony is made up of a number of subgrains. Thus each pearlite colony consists of two interpenetrating single crystals having an orientation relationship with respect to each other and with respect to the austenite grain they grow from, but not with respect to the austenite grain they have grown into. Changes in the apparent in

Subjects

alloy | austenite | carbon | cementite | eutectoid reaction | ferrite | iron | lamella | metal | pearlite | steel | supercooling | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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Fe, C 0.8 (wt%), eutectoid transformation - pearlite (coarse)

Description

This steel is of the eutectoid composition. Once the temperature is lowered below the eutectoid temperature the steel becomes simultaneously supersaturated with both ferrite and cementite. A eutectoid transformation results (γ to α + Fe3C). The resultant microstructure, known as pearlite, comprises lamellae of cementite (dark) embedded in ferrite (white). The platelets are parallel to each other and do not follow a specific crystallographic direction. Each pearlite colony is made up of a number of subgrains. Thus each pearlite colony consists of two interpenetrating single crystals having an orientation relationship with respect to each other and with respect to the austenite grain they grow from, but not with respect to the austenite grain they have grown into. Changes in the apparent i

Subjects

alloy | austenite | carbon | cementite | eutectoid reaction | ferrite | iron | lamella | metal | pearlite | steel | supercooling | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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Fe, C 0.1 (wt%), hypoeutectoid alloy

Description

This is a hypoeutectoid alloy, which has been air cooled from the austenite phase field at 950 °C. The first solid to form is proeutectoid ferrite, its morphology being determined by the cooling rate. At slow cooling rates (furnace cooling) there is sufficient time for the carbon rejected from the austenite to diffuse and equilibrium solidification occurs. With faster cooling the microstructure also depends on the original austenite grain size.Fast cooling and large grain size favours ferrite forming as Widmanstätten side plates from the grain boundaries. Small grain sizes imply a high number of nuclei and hence the ferrite grows as grain boundary allotriomorphs. In this case air cooling is sufficiently slow to produce allotriomorphic ferrite. The majority of the austenite has changed to

Subjects

allotriomorph | alloy | austenite | carbon | ferrite | hypoeutectoid | iron | metal | pearlite | proeutectoid steel | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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Fe, C 0.1 (wt%), hypoeutectoid alloy

Description

This is a hypoeutectoid alloy, which has been air cooled from the austenite phase field at 950 °C. The first solid to form is proeutectoid ferrite, its morphology being determined by the cooling rate. At slow cooling rates (furnace cooling) there is sufficient time for the carbon rejected from the austenite to diffuse and equilibrium solidification occurs. With faster cooling the microstructure also depends on the original austenite grain size.Fast cooling and large grain size favours ferrite forming as Widmanstätten side plates from the grain boundaries. Small grain sizes imply a high number of nuclei and hence the ferrite grows as grain boundary allotriomorphs. In this case air cooling is sufficiently slow to produce allotriomorphic ferrite. The majority of the austenite has changed to

Subjects

allotriomorph | alloy | austenite | carbon | ferrite | hypoeutectoid | iron | metal | pearlite | proeutectoid steel | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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Fe, C 0.1 (wt%), hypoeutectoid alloy

Description

This SEM image shows that the ferrite phase in the pearlite has been selectively etched compared to the cementite. The cementite phase appears to protrude from the surface. Within the pearlite region there are several colonies in different orientations, indicating that the pearlite nucleated on grains of the primary ferrite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cementite | ferrite | hypoeutectoid | iron | metal | pearlite | proeutectoid steel | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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Fe, C 0.1 (wt%), hypoeutectoid alloy

Description

This SEM image of a pearlite region in the microstructure shown in micrograph no 19 shows that the ferrite phase in the pearlite has been selectively etched compared to the cementite. The cementite phase appears to protrude from the surface. Within such A pearlite region there are several colonies in different orientations, indicating that the pearlite nucleated on grains of the primary ferrite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cementite | ferrite | hypoeutectoid | iron | metal | pearlite | proeutectoid steel | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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Fe, C 1.0 (wt%), hypereutectoid alloy

Description

This is a hypereutectoid alloy and illustrates the effect of a fast cooling rate on the resultant microstructure. The first phase to form from the austenite is proeutectoid cementite. With faster cooling there is less time for carbon to diffuse and the microstructure is more refined and may form the initial cementite as Widmanstätten side plates.

Subjects

doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | alloy | carbon | cementite | hypereutectoid | iron | metal | steel | widmanstätten | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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Fe, C 1.0 (wt%), hypereutectoid alloy

Description

This is a hypereutectoid alloy and illustrates the effect of a fast cooling rate on the resultant microstructure. The first phase to form from the austenite is proeutectoid cementite. With faster cooling there is less time for carbon to diffuse and the microstructure is more refined and may form the initial cementite as Widmanstätten side plates.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cementite | hypereutectoid | iron | metal | steel | widmanstätten | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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Fe, C 1.0 (wt%), hypereutectoid alloy

Description

This secondary electron SEM image shows the cementite delineating prior austenite grain boundaries with a thin layer. The amount of proeutectoid phase is very low, with the majority of the area being taken by the pearlite eutectoid. Again each pearlite cell has a different orientation with the ferrite phase being selectively etched.

Subjects

alloy | austenite | carbon | cementite | ferrite | hypereutectoid | iron | metal | pearlite | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

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Fe, C 1.0 (wt%), hypereutectoid alloy

Description

This secondary electron SEM image shows the cementite delineating prior austenite grain boundaries with a thin layer. The amount of proeutectoid phase is very low, with the majority of the area being taken by the pearlite eutectoid. Again each pearlite cell has a different orientation with the ferrite phase being selectively etched.

Subjects

alloy | austenite | carbon | cementite | ferrite | hypereutectoid | iron | metal | pearlite | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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