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3.012 Fundamentals of Materials Science (MIT) 3.012 Fundamentals of Materials Science (MIT)

Description

This subject describes the fundamentals of bonding, energetics, and structure that underpin materials science. From electrons to silicon to DNA: the role of electronic bonding in determining the energy, structure, and stability of materials. Quantum mechanical descriptions of interacting electrons and atoms. Symmetry properties of molecules and solids. Structure of complex and disordered materials. Introduction to thermodynamic functions and laws governing equilibrium properties, relating macroscopic behavior to molecular models of materials. Develops basis for understanding a broad range of materials phenomena, from heat capacities, phase transformations, and multiphase equilibria to chemical reactions and magnetism. Fundamentals are taught using real-world examples such as engineered all This subject describes the fundamentals of bonding, energetics, and structure that underpin materials science. From electrons to silicon to DNA: the role of electronic bonding in determining the energy, structure, and stability of materials. Quantum mechanical descriptions of interacting electrons and atoms. Symmetry properties of molecules and solids. Structure of complex and disordered materials. Introduction to thermodynamic functions and laws governing equilibrium properties, relating macroscopic behavior to molecular models of materials. Develops basis for understanding a broad range of materials phenomena, from heat capacities, phase transformations, and multiphase equilibria to chemical reactions and magnetism. Fundamentals are taught using real-world examples such as engineered all

Subjects

fundamentals of bonding | energetics | and structure | fundamentals of bonding | energetics | and structure | Quantum mechanical descriptions of interacting electrons and atoms | Quantum mechanical descriptions of interacting electrons and atoms | Symmetry properties of molecules and solids | Symmetry properties of molecules and solids | complex and disordered materials | complex and disordered materials | thermodynamic functions | thermodynamic functions | equilibrium properties | equilibrium properties | macroscopic behavior | macroscopic behavior | molecular models | molecular models | heat capacities | heat capacities | phase transformations | phase transformations | multiphase equilibria | multiphase equilibria | chemical reactions | chemical reactions | magnetism | magnetism | engineered alloys | engineered alloys | electronic and magnetic materials | electronic and magnetic materials | ionic and network solids | ionic and network solids | polymers | polymers | biomaterials | biomaterials | energetics | energetics | structure | structure | materials science | materials science | electrons | electrons | silicon | silicon | DNA | DNA | electronic bonding | electronic bonding | energy | energy | stability | stability | quantum mechanics | quantum mechanics | atoms | atoms | interactions | interactions | symmetry | symmetry | molecules | molecules | solids | solids | complex material | complex material | disorderd materials | disorderd materials | thermodynamic laws | thermodynamic laws | electronic materials | electronic materials | magnetic materials | magnetic materials | ionic solids | ionic solids | network solids | network solids | statistical mechanics | statistical mechanics | microstates | microstates | microscopic complexity | microscopic complexity | entropy | entropy

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8.044 Statistical Physics I (MIT) 8.044 Statistical Physics I (MIT)

Description

This course offers an introduction to probability, statistical mechanics, and thermodynamics. Numerous examples are used to illustrate a wide variety of physical phenomena such as magnetism, polyatomic gases, thermal radiation, electrons in solids, and noise in electronic devices. This course offers an introduction to probability, statistical mechanics, and thermodynamics. Numerous examples are used to illustrate a wide variety of physical phenomena such as magnetism, polyatomic gases, thermal radiation, electrons in solids, and noise in electronic devices.

Subjects

probability | probability | statistical mechanics | statistical mechanics | thermodynamics | thermodynamics | random variables | random variables | joint and conditional probability densities | joint and conditional probability densities | functions of a random variable | functions of a random variable | macroscopic variables | macroscopic variables | thermodynamic equilibrium | thermodynamic equilibrium | fundamental assumption of statistical mechanics | fundamental assumption of statistical mechanics | microcanonical and canonical ensembles | microcanonical and canonical ensembles | First | First | second | second | and third laws of thermodynamics | and third laws of thermodynamics | magnetism | magnetism | polyatomic gases | polyatomic gases | hermal radiation | hermal radiation | thermal radiation | thermal radiation | electrons in solids | electrons in solids | and noise in electronic devices | and noise in electronic devices | First | second | and third laws of thermodynamics | First | second | and third laws of thermodynamics

License

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8.044 Statistical Physics I (MIT) 8.044 Statistical Physics I (MIT)

Description

Introduction to probability, statistical mechanics, and thermodynamics. Random variables, joint and conditional probability densities, and functions of a random variable. Concepts of macroscopic variables and thermodynamic equilibrium, fundamental assumption of statistical mechanics, microcanonical and canonical ensembles. First, second, and third laws of thermodynamics. Numerous examples illustrating a wide variety of physical phenomena such as magnetism, polyatomic gases, thermal radiation, electrons in solids, and noise in electronic devices. Concurrent enrollment in 8.04, Quantum Physics I, is recommended. Introduction to probability, statistical mechanics, and thermodynamics. Random variables, joint and conditional probability densities, and functions of a random variable. Concepts of macroscopic variables and thermodynamic equilibrium, fundamental assumption of statistical mechanics, microcanonical and canonical ensembles. First, second, and third laws of thermodynamics. Numerous examples illustrating a wide variety of physical phenomena such as magnetism, polyatomic gases, thermal radiation, electrons in solids, and noise in electronic devices. Concurrent enrollment in 8.04, Quantum Physics I, is recommended.

Subjects

probability | probability | statistical mechanics | statistical mechanics | thermodynamics | thermodynamics | random variables | random variables | joint and conditional probability densities | joint and conditional probability densities | functions of a random variable | functions of a random variable | macroscopic variables | macroscopic variables | thermodynamic equilibrium | thermodynamic equilibrium | fundamental assumption of statistical mechanics | fundamental assumption of statistical mechanics | microcanonical and canonical ensembles | microcanonical and canonical ensembles | First | First | second | second | and third laws of thermodynamics | and third laws of thermodynamics | magnetism | magnetism | polyatomic gases | polyatomic gases | hermal radiation | hermal radiation | thermal radiation | thermal radiation | electrons in solids | electrons in solids | and noise in electronic devices | and noise in electronic devices | First | second | and third laws of thermodynamics | First | second | and third laws of thermodynamics

License

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22.616 Plasma Transport Theory (MIT) 22.616 Plasma Transport Theory (MIT)

Description

This course describes the processes by which mass, momentum, and energy are transported in plasmas, with special reference to magnetic confinement fusion applications. The Fokker-Planck collision operator and its limiting forms, as well as collisional relaxation and equilibrium, are considered in detail. Special applications include a Lorentz gas, Brownian motion, alpha particles, and runaway electrons. The Braginskii formulation of classical collisional transport in general geometry based on the Fokker-Planck equation is presented. Neoclassical transport in tokamaks, which is sensitive to the details of the magnetic geometry, is considered in the high (Pfirsch-Schluter), low (banana) and intermediate (plateau) regimes of collisionality. This course describes the processes by which mass, momentum, and energy are transported in plasmas, with special reference to magnetic confinement fusion applications. The Fokker-Planck collision operator and its limiting forms, as well as collisional relaxation and equilibrium, are considered in detail. Special applications include a Lorentz gas, Brownian motion, alpha particles, and runaway electrons. The Braginskii formulation of classical collisional transport in general geometry based on the Fokker-Planck equation is presented. Neoclassical transport in tokamaks, which is sensitive to the details of the magnetic geometry, is considered in the high (Pfirsch-Schluter), low (banana) and intermediate (plateau) regimes of collisionality.

Subjects

Plasmas | Plasmas | magnetic confinement fusion | magnetic confinement fusion | Fokker-Planck collision operator | Fokker-Planck collision operator | collisional relaxation and equilibrium | collisional relaxation and equilibrium | Lorentz gas | Lorentz gas | Brownian motion | Brownian motion | alpha particles | alpha particles | runaway electrons | runaway electrons | Braginskii formulation | Braginskii formulation | tokamak | tokamak | Pfirsch-Schluter | Pfirsch-Schluter | regimes of collisionality | regimes of collisionality

License

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8.231 Physics of Solids I (MIT) 8.231 Physics of Solids I (MIT)

Description

The topics covered in this course include:Periodic Structure and Symmetry of CrystalsDiffraction, Reciprocal LatticeChemical BondingLattice DynamicsPhononsThermal PropertiesFree Electron GasModel of MetalsBloch Theorem and Band StructureNearly Free Electron ApproximationTight Binding MethodFermi SurfaceSemiconductorsElectronsHolesImpuritiesOptical PropertiesExcitons andMagnetism The topics covered in this course include:Periodic Structure and Symmetry of CrystalsDiffraction, Reciprocal LatticeChemical BondingLattice DynamicsPhononsThermal PropertiesFree Electron GasModel of MetalsBloch Theorem and Band StructureNearly Free Electron ApproximationTight Binding MethodFermi SurfaceSemiconductorsElectronsHolesImpuritiesOptical PropertiesExcitons andMagnetism

Subjects

periodic structure and symmetry of crystals | periodic structure and symmetry of crystals | diffraction | diffraction | reciprocal lattice | reciprocal lattice | chemical bonding | chemical bonding | phonons | phonons | thermal properties | thermal properties | free electron gas | free electron gas | model of metals | model of metals | Bloch theorem and band structure | Bloch theorem and band structure | nearly free electron approximation | nearly free electron approximation | tight binding method | tight binding method | Fermi surface | Fermi surface | semiconductors | semiconductors | electrons | electrons | holes | holes | impurities | impurities | optical properties | optical properties | excitons | excitons | magnetism | magnetism

License

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Transistors : operation at zero bias

Description

An animation to show that when no voltage is applied to the transistor, the free electrons and holes are attracted towards each other across the two junctions.

Subjects

electronics | physics | transistors | free electrons | holes | electrons | MATHEMATICS | Engineering | Learning | Design and delivery of programmes | UK EL05 = SCQF 5 | Intermediate level | Intermediate | NICAT 2 | CQFW 2 | Intermediate | GSCE A-C | NVQ 2 | | UK EL10 = SCQF 10 | Honours degree | Graduate diploma | UK EL06 = SCQF 6 | Advanced courses | NICAT 3 | CQFW 3 | Advanced | A/AS Level | NVQ 3 | Higher | SVQ 3 | H000 | ENGINEERING | SCIENCES and MATHEMATICS | X | R

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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8.231 Physics of Solids I (MIT) 8.231 Physics of Solids I (MIT)

Description

This course offers an introduction to the basic concepts of the quantum theory of solids. This course offers an introduction to the basic concepts of the quantum theory of solids.

Subjects

periodic structure | periodic structure | symmetry of crystals | symmetry of crystals | diffraction | diffraction | reciprocal lattice | reciprocal lattice | chemical bonding | chemical bonding | lattice dynamics | lattice dynamics | phonons | phonons | thermal properties | thermal properties | free electron gas | free electron gas | model of metals | model of metals | Bloch theorem | Bloch theorem | band structure | band structure | nearly free electron approximation | nearly free electron approximation | tight binding method | tight binding method | Fermi surface | Fermi surface | semiconductors | semiconductors | electrons | electrons | holes | holes | impurities | impurities | optical properties | optical properties | excitons | excitons | magnetism. | magnetism.

License

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The scanning electron microscope

Description

This is a third edition of the Electron Microscopy and Analysis textbook, which was published by Taylor and Francis Books UK in 2001 (ISBN 0748409688). It deals with several sophisticated techniques for magnifying images of very small objects by large amounts - especially in a physical science context. Consisting of seven chapters, presented as separate files the resource incorporates questions and answers in each chapter for ease of learning. Equally as relevant for material scientists and bioscientists, this resource is an essential textbook and laboratory manual. The chapter gives insight into the scanning electron microscope technique.

Subjects

electron microscopy | book | analysis | secondary electrons | interaction volume | backscattered electrons | imaging methods | image processing | sem imaging methods | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/uk/

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6.012 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits (MIT) 6.012 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits (MIT)

Description

6.012 is the header course for the department's "Devices, Circuits and Systems" concentration. The topics covered include modeling of microelectronic devices, basic microelectronic circuit analysis and design, physical electronics of semiconductor junction and MOS devices, relation of electrical behavior to internal physical processes, development of circuit models, and understanding the uses and limitations of various models. The course uses incremental and large-signal techniques to analyze and design bipolar and field effect transistor circuits, with examples chosen from digital circuits, single-ended and differential linear amplifiers, and other integrated circuits. 6.012 is the header course for the department's "Devices, Circuits and Systems" concentration. The topics covered include modeling of microelectronic devices, basic microelectronic circuit analysis and design, physical electronics of semiconductor junction and MOS devices, relation of electrical behavior to internal physical processes, development of circuit models, and understanding the uses and limitations of various models. The course uses incremental and large-signal techniques to analyze and design bipolar and field effect transistor circuits, with examples chosen from digital circuits, single-ended and differential linear amplifiers, and other integrated circuits.

Subjects

semiconductor | semiconductor | integrated circuit | integrated circuit | p-n junction | p-n junction | mos | mos | mosfet | mosfet | digital logic | digital logic | nmos | nmos | cmos | cmos | bipolar junction transistor | bipolar junction transistor | single stage amplifier | single stage amplifier | frequency domain analysis | frequency domain analysis | common emitter | common emitter | multistage amplifier | multistage amplifier | intrinsic semiconductors | intrinsic semiconductors | electrons | electrons | holes | holes | carrier transport | carrier transport | 60mV rule | 60mV rule

License

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6.012 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits (MIT) 6.012 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits (MIT)

Description

6.012 is the header course for the department's "Devices, Circuits and Systems" concentration. The topics covered include: modeling of microelectronic devices, basic microelectronic circuit analysis and design, physical electronics of semiconductor junction and metal-on-silicon (MOS) devices, relation of electrical behavior to internal physical processes, development of circuit models, and understanding the uses and limitations of various models. The course uses incremental and large-signal techniques to analyze and design bipolar and field effect transistor circuits, with examples chosen from digital circuits, single-ended and differential linear amplifiers, and other integrated circuits. 6.012 is the header course for the department's "Devices, Circuits and Systems" concentration. The topics covered include: modeling of microelectronic devices, basic microelectronic circuit analysis and design, physical electronics of semiconductor junction and metal-on-silicon (MOS) devices, relation of electrical behavior to internal physical processes, development of circuit models, and understanding the uses and limitations of various models. The course uses incremental and large-signal techniques to analyze and design bipolar and field effect transistor circuits, with examples chosen from digital circuits, single-ended and differential linear amplifiers, and other integrated circuits.

Subjects

semiconductor | semiconductor | integrated circuit | integrated circuit | p-n junction | p-n junction | mos | mos | mosfet | mosfet | digital logic | digital logic | nmos | nmos | cmos | cmos | bipolar junction transistor | bipolar junction transistor | single stage amplifier | single stage amplifier | frequency domain analysis | frequency domain analysis | common emitter | common emitter | multistage amplifier | multistage amplifier | intrinsic semiconductors | intrinsic semiconductors | electrons | electrons | holes | holes | carrier transport | carrier transport | 60mV rule | 60mV rule

License

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2.57 Nano-to-Macro Transport Processes (MIT) 2.57 Nano-to-Macro Transport Processes (MIT)

Description

This course provides parallel treatments of photons, electrons, phonons, and molecules as energy carriers, aiming at fundamental understanding and descriptive tools for energy and heat transport processes from nanoscale continuously to macroscale. Topics include the energy levels, the statistical behavior and internal energy, energy transport in the forms of waves and particles, scattering and heat generation processes, Boltzmann equation and derivation of classical laws, deviation from classical laws at nanoscale and their appropriate descriptions, with applications in nano- and microtechnology. This course provides parallel treatments of photons, electrons, phonons, and molecules as energy carriers, aiming at fundamental understanding and descriptive tools for energy and heat transport processes from nanoscale continuously to macroscale. Topics include the energy levels, the statistical behavior and internal energy, energy transport in the forms of waves and particles, scattering and heat generation processes, Boltzmann equation and derivation of classical laws, deviation from classical laws at nanoscale and their appropriate descriptions, with applications in nano- and microtechnology.

Subjects

nanotechnology | nanotechnology | nanoscale | nanoscale | transport phenomena | transport phenomena | photons | photons | electrons | electrons | phonons | phonons | energy carriers | energy carriers | energy transport | energy transport | heat transport | heat transport | energy levels | energy levels | statistical behavior | statistical behavior | internal energy | internal energy | waves and particles | waves and particles | scattering | scattering | heat generation | heat generation | Boltzmann equation | Boltzmann equation | classical laws | classical laws | microtechnology | microtechnology | crystal | crystal | lattice | lattice | quantum oscillator | quantum oscillator | laudaurer | laudaurer | nanotube | nanotube | Louiville equation | Louiville equation | X-ray | X-ray | blackbody | blackbody | quantum well | quantum well | Fourier | Fourier | Newton | Newton | Ohm | Ohm | thermoelectric effect | thermoelectric effect | Brownian motion | Brownian motion | surface tension | surface tension | van der Waals potential. | van der Waals potential. | van der Waals potential | van der Waals potential

License

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Superconductivity Superconductivity

Description

The fascinating phenomenon of superconductivity and its potential applications has attracted the attention of scientists, engineers and businessmen. Intense research has taken place to discover new superconductors, to understand the physics that underlies the properties of superconductors, and to develop new applications for these materials. In this free course you will read about the history of superconductors, taking a brief look at their properties. You will also learn about modelling the properties of superconductors and the two different types of superconductor that exist today. First published on Thu, 24 Mar 2016 as Superconductivity. To find out more visit The Open University's Openlearn website. Creative-Commons 2016 The fascinating phenomenon of superconductivity and its potential applications has attracted the attention of scientists, engineers and businessmen. Intense research has taken place to discover new superconductors, to understand the physics that underlies the properties of superconductors, and to develop new applications for these materials. In this free course you will read about the history of superconductors, taking a brief look at their properties. You will also learn about modelling the properties of superconductors and the two different types of superconductor that exist today. First published on Thu, 24 Mar 2016 as Superconductivity. To find out more visit The Open University's Openlearn website. Creative-Commons 2016 First published on Thu, 24 Mar 2016 as Superconductivity. To find out more visit The Open University's Openlearn website. Creative-Commons 2016 First published on Thu, 24 Mar 2016 as Superconductivity. To find out more visit The Open University's Openlearn website. Creative-Commons 2016

Subjects

Engineering | Engineering | electricity | electricity | electromagnetism | electromagnetism | electrons | electrons

License

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence - see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ - Original copyright The Open University

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8.044 Statistical Physics I (MIT) 8.044 Statistical Physics I (MIT)

Description

This course offers an introduction to probability, statistical mechanics, and thermodynamics. Numerous examples are used to illustrate a wide variety of physical phenomena such as magnetism, polyatomic gases, thermal radiation, electrons in solids, and noise in electronic devices.This course is an elective subject in MIT’s undergraduate Energy Studies Minor. This Institute-wide program complements the deep expertise obtained in any major with a broad understanding of the interlinked realms of science, technology, and social sciences as they relate to energy and associated environmental challenges. This course offers an introduction to probability, statistical mechanics, and thermodynamics. Numerous examples are used to illustrate a wide variety of physical phenomena such as magnetism, polyatomic gases, thermal radiation, electrons in solids, and noise in electronic devices.This course is an elective subject in MIT’s undergraduate Energy Studies Minor. This Institute-wide program complements the deep expertise obtained in any major with a broad understanding of the interlinked realms of science, technology, and social sciences as they relate to energy and associated environmental challenges.

Subjects

probability | probability | statistical mechanics | statistical mechanics | thermodynamics | thermodynamics | random variables | random variables | joint and conditional probability densities | joint and conditional probability densities | functions of a random variable | functions of a random variable | macroscopic variables | macroscopic variables | thermodynamic equilibrium | thermodynamic equilibrium | fundamental assumption of statistical mechanics | fundamental assumption of statistical mechanics | microcanonical and canonical ensembles | microcanonical and canonical ensembles | First | second | and third laws of thermodynamics | First | second | and third laws of thermodynamics | magnetism | magnetism | polyatomic gases | polyatomic gases | thermal radiation | thermal radiation | electrons in solids | electrons in solids | noise in electronic devices | noise in electronic devices

License

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8.044 Statistical Physics I (MIT) 8.044 Statistical Physics I (MIT)

Description

This course offers an introduction to probability, statistical mechanics, and thermodynamics. Numerous examples are used to illustrate a wide variety of physical phenomena such as magnetism, polyatomic gases, thermal radiation, electrons in solids, and noise in electronic devices. This course offers an introduction to probability, statistical mechanics, and thermodynamics. Numerous examples are used to illustrate a wide variety of physical phenomena such as magnetism, polyatomic gases, thermal radiation, electrons in solids, and noise in electronic devices.

Subjects

probability | probability | statistical mechanics | statistical mechanics | thermodynamics | thermodynamics | random variables | random variables | joint and conditional probability densities | joint and conditional probability densities | functions of a random variable | functions of a random variable | macroscopic variables | macroscopic variables | thermodynamic equilibrium | thermodynamic equilibrium | fundamental assumption of statistical mechanics | fundamental assumption of statistical mechanics | microcanonical and canonical ensembles | microcanonical and canonical ensembles | First | First | second | second | and third laws of thermodynamics | and third laws of thermodynamics | magnetism | magnetism | polyatomic gases | polyatomic gases | hermal radiation | hermal radiation | thermal radiation | thermal radiation | electrons in solids | electrons in solids | and noise in electronic devices | and noise in electronic devices | First | second | and third laws of thermodynamics | First | second | and third laws of thermodynamics

License

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3.012 Fundamentals of Materials Science (MIT)

Description

This subject describes the fundamentals of bonding, energetics, and structure that underpin materials science. From electrons to silicon to DNA: the role of electronic bonding in determining the energy, structure, and stability of materials. Quantum mechanical descriptions of interacting electrons and atoms. Symmetry properties of molecules and solids. Structure of complex and disordered materials. Introduction to thermodynamic functions and laws governing equilibrium properties, relating macroscopic behavior to molecular models of materials. Develops basis for understanding a broad range of materials phenomena, from heat capacities, phase transformations, and multiphase equilibria to chemical reactions and magnetism. Fundamentals are taught using real-world examples such as engineered all

Subjects

fundamentals of bonding | energetics | and structure | Quantum mechanical descriptions of interacting electrons and atoms | Symmetry properties of molecules and solids | complex and disordered materials | thermodynamic functions | equilibrium properties | macroscopic behavior | molecular models | heat capacities | phase transformations | multiphase equilibria | chemical reactions | magnetism | engineered alloys | electronic and magnetic materials | ionic and network solids | polymers | biomaterials | energetics | structure | materials science | electrons | silicon | DNA | electronic bonding | energy | stability | quantum mechanics | atoms | interactions | symmetry | molecules | solids | complex material | disorderd materials | thermodynamic laws | electronic materials | magnetic materials | ionic solids | network solids | statistical mechanics | microstates | microscopic complexity | entropy

License

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7.01SC Fundamentals of Biology (MIT) 7.01SC Fundamentals of Biology (MIT)

Description

Fundamentals of Biology focuses on the basic principles of biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, and recombinant DNA. These principles are necessary to understanding the basic mechanisms of life and anchor the biological knowledge that is required to understand many of the challenges in everyday life, from human health and disease to loss of biodiversity and environmental quality. Fundamentals of Biology focuses on the basic principles of biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, and recombinant DNA. These principles are necessary to understanding the basic mechanisms of life and anchor the biological knowledge that is required to understand many of the challenges in everyday life, from human health and disease to loss of biodiversity and environmental quality.

Subjects

amino acids | amino acids | carboxyl group | carboxyl group | amino group | amino group | side chains | side chains | polar | polar | hydrophobic | hydrophobic | primary structure | primary structure | secondary structure | secondary structure | tertiary structure | tertiary structure | quaternary structure | quaternary structure | x-ray crystallography | x-ray crystallography | alpha helix | alpha helix | beta sheet | beta sheet | ionic bond | ionic bond | non-polar bond | non-polar bond | van der Waals interactions | van der Waals interactions | proton gradient | proton gradient | cyclic photophosphorylation | cyclic photophosphorylation | sunlight | sunlight | ATP | ATP | chlorophyll | chlorophyll | chlorophyll a | chlorophyll a | electrons | electrons | hydrogen sulfide | hydrogen sulfide | biosynthesis | biosynthesis | non-cyclic photophosphorylation | non-cyclic photophosphorylation | photosystem II | photosystem II | photosystem I | photosystem I | cyanobacteria | cyanobacteria | chloroplast | chloroplast | stroma | stroma | thylakoid membrane | thylakoid membrane | Genetics | Genetics | Mendel | Mendel | Mendel's Laws | Mendel's Laws | cloning | cloning | restriction enzymes | restriction enzymes | vector | vector | insert DNA | insert DNA | ligase | ligase | library | library | E.Coli | E.Coli | phosphatase | phosphatase | yeast | yeast | transformation | transformation | ARG1 gene | ARG1 gene | ARG1 mutant yeast | ARG1 mutant yeast | yeast wild-type | yeast wild-type | cloning by complementation | cloning by complementation | Human Beta Globin gene | Human Beta Globin gene | protein tetramer | protein tetramer | vectors | vectors | antibodies | antibodies | human promoter | human promoter | splicing | splicing | mRNA | mRNA | cDNA | cDNA | reverse transcriptase | reverse transcriptase | plasmid | plasmid | electrophoresis | electrophoresis | DNA sequencing | DNA sequencing | primer | primer | template | template | capillary tube | capillary tube | laser detector | laser detector | human genome project | human genome project | recombinant DNA | recombinant DNA | clone | clone | primer walking | primer walking | subcloning | subcloning | computer assembly | computer assembly | shotgun sequencing | shotgun sequencing | open reading frame | open reading frame | databases | databases | polymerase chain reaction (PCR) | polymerase chain reaction (PCR) | polymerase | polymerase | nucleotides | nucleotides | Thermus aquaticus | Thermus aquaticus | Taq polymerase | Taq polymerase | thermocycler | thermocycler | resequencing | resequencing | in vitro fertilization | in vitro fertilization | pre-implantation diagnostics | pre-implantation diagnostics | forensics | forensics | genetic engineering | genetic engineering | DNA sequences | DNA sequences | therapeutic proteins | therapeutic proteins | E. coli | E. coli | disease-causing mutations | disease-causing mutations | cleavage of DNA | cleavage of DNA | bacterial transformation | bacterial transformation | recombinant DNA revolution | recombinant DNA revolution | biotechnology industry | biotechnology industry | Robert Swanson | Robert Swanson | toxin gene | toxin gene | pathogenic bacterium | pathogenic bacterium | biomedical research | biomedical research | S. Pyogenes | S. Pyogenes | origin of replication | origin of replication

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Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Metallic bonding

Description

This animation shows the metallic bonding in copper.

Subjects

positive charge | copper | electrons | atomic structure | atoms | Physical Sciences | MATHEMATICS | Teaching | UK EL03 = SCQF 3 | Level 3 | Entry level 2 | NICAT Entry | Access 3 | Foundation SG | UK EL04 = SCQF 4 | Foundational Level | NICAT 1 | CQFW 1 | Foundation | GCSE D-G | NVQ 1 | Intermediate 1 | | Physical sciences | F000 | EDUCATION / TRAINING / TEACHING | SCIENCES and MATHEMATICS | G | R

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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6.012 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits (MIT)

Description

6.012 is the header course for the department's "Devices, Circuits and Systems" concentration. The topics covered include modeling of microelectronic devices, basic microelectronic circuit analysis and design, physical electronics of semiconductor junction and MOS devices, relation of electrical behavior to internal physical processes, development of circuit models, and understanding the uses and limitations of various models. The course uses incremental and large-signal techniques to analyze and design bipolar and field effect transistor circuits, with examples chosen from digital circuits, single-ended and differential linear amplifiers, and other integrated circuits.

Subjects

semiconductor | integrated circuit | p-n junction | mos | mosfet | digital logic | nmos | cmos | bipolar junction transistor | single stage amplifier | frequency domain analysis | common emitter | multistage amplifier | intrinsic semiconductors | electrons | holes | carrier transport | 60mV rule

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Superconductivity

Description

The fascinating phenomenon of superconductivity and its potential applications has attracted the attention of scientists engineers and businessmen. Intense research has taken place to discover new superconductors to understand the physics that underlies the properties of superconductors and to develop new applications for these materials. In this free course you will read about the history of superconductors

Subjects

Engineering | electricity | electromagnetism | electrons

License

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated in the acknowledgement section (see our terms and conditions http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions) this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence. - http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 Except for third party materials and otherwise stated in the acknowledgement section (see our terms and conditions http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions) this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence. - http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0

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Electrons and their interaction with the specimen

Description

This is a third edition of the Electron Microscopy and Analysis textbook, which was published by Taylor and Francis Books UK in 2001 (ISBN 0748409688). It deals with several sophisticated techniques for magnifying images of very small objects by large amounts - especially in a physical science context. Consisting of seven chapters, presented as separate files the resource incorporates questions and answers in each chapter for ease of learning. Equally as relevant for material scientists and bioscientists, this resource is an essential textbook and laboratory manual. The chapter explains the behaviour of electrons within a specimen and shows how they interact with the atoms of the sample.

Subjects

electron microscopy | book | analysis | electron gun | scattering | magnetic lens | phonons | plasmons | characteristic x-rays | auger electrons | microscope column | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/uk/

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8.044 Statistical Physics I (MIT)

Description

Introduction to probability, statistical mechanics, and thermodynamics. Random variables, joint and conditional probability densities, and functions of a random variable. Concepts of macroscopic variables and thermodynamic equilibrium, fundamental assumption of statistical mechanics, microcanonical and canonical ensembles. First, second, and third laws of thermodynamics. Numerous examples illustrating a wide variety of physical phenomena such as magnetism, polyatomic gases, thermal radiation, electrons in solids, and noise in electronic devices. Concurrent enrollment in 8.04, Quantum Physics I, is recommended.

Subjects

probability | statistical mechanics | thermodynamics | random variables | joint and conditional probability densities | functions of a random variable | macroscopic variables | thermodynamic equilibrium | fundamental assumption of statistical mechanics | microcanonical and canonical ensembles | First | second | and third laws of thermodynamics | magnetism | polyatomic gases | hermal radiation | thermal radiation | electrons in solids | and noise in electronic devices | First | second | and third laws of thermodynamics

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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6.012 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits (MIT)

Description

6.012 is the header course for the department's "Devices, Circuits and Systems" concentration. The topics covered include: modeling of microelectronic devices, basic microelectronic circuit analysis and design, physical electronics of semiconductor junction and metal-on-silicon (MOS) devices, relation of electrical behavior to internal physical processes, development of circuit models, and understanding the uses and limitations of various models. The course uses incremental and large-signal techniques to analyze and design bipolar and field effect transistor circuits, with examples chosen from digital circuits, single-ended and differential linear amplifiers, and other integrated circuits.

Subjects

semiconductor | integrated circuit | p-n junction | mos | mosfet | digital logic | nmos | cmos | bipolar junction transistor | single stage amplifier | frequency domain analysis | common emitter | multistage amplifier | intrinsic semiconductors | electrons | holes | carrier transport | 60mV rule

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Atomic Bonding

Description

Examining ionic and covalent between atoms.

Subjects

atoms | ionic bonding | covalent bonding | ions | electrons | chemistry | foundation science | Physical Sciences | Subjects allied to Medicine | Physical sciences | Subjects allied to medicine | F000 | B000

License

Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/uk/

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22.616 Plasma Transport Theory (MIT)

Description

This course describes the processes by which mass, momentum, and energy are transported in plasmas, with special reference to magnetic confinement fusion applications. The Fokker-Planck collision operator and its limiting forms, as well as collisional relaxation and equilibrium, are considered in detail. Special applications include a Lorentz gas, Brownian motion, alpha particles, and runaway electrons. The Braginskii formulation of classical collisional transport in general geometry based on the Fokker-Planck equation is presented. Neoclassical transport in tokamaks, which is sensitive to the details of the magnetic geometry, is considered in the high (Pfirsch-Schluter), low (banana) and intermediate (plateau) regimes of collisionality.

Subjects

Plasmas | magnetic confinement fusion | Fokker-Planck collision operator | collisional relaxation and equilibrium | Lorentz gas | Brownian motion | alpha particles | runaway electrons | Braginskii formulation | tokamak | Pfirsch-Schluter | regimes of collisionality

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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8.044 Statistical Physics I (MIT)

Description

This course offers an introduction to probability, statistical mechanics, and thermodynamics. Numerous examples are used to illustrate a wide variety of physical phenomena such as magnetism, polyatomic gases, thermal radiation, electrons in solids, and noise in electronic devices.

Subjects

probability | statistical mechanics | thermodynamics | random variables | joint and conditional probability densities | functions of a random variable | macroscopic variables | thermodynamic equilibrium | fundamental assumption of statistical mechanics | microcanonical and canonical ensembles | First | second | and third laws of thermodynamics | magnetism | polyatomic gases | hermal radiation | thermal radiation | electrons in solids | and noise in electronic devices | First | second | and third laws of thermodynamics

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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