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Glass-fibre reinforced polymer

Description

15 vol % of short glass fibres are intimately mixed with the polypropylene matrix and injection moulded together. The fibre orientation reflects the flow of material into the mould. In this case, the fibres are well aligned in the outer layers of the moulding but more randomly aligned near the core.

Subjects

alignment | composite material | fibre | glass | glass fibre reinforced composite | glass fibres | injection moulding | polymer | polymer composite | polypropylene (PP) | thermoplastic | toughness | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Muscles

Description

This topic starts with a basic introduction to muscles and an image illustrating the possible locations of the different muscle tissues. The three types of muscle tissue are described in more detail. Along with the features of muscle tissue (e.g. contractibility), the functions of these tissues (e.g. support) are discussed.

Subjects

cardiac muscle fibre | smooth muscle fibre | skeletal muscle fibre | muscle tissue | ukoer | ooer | medev | Medicine and Dentistry | Subjects allied to Medicine | SAFETY | Institutions | Students | Learning | Teaching | UK EL07 = SCQF 7 | Higher Certificate | NICAT 4 | CQFW 4 | NVQ 4 | Advanced Higher | SVQ 4 | HN Certificate | dentistry | A000

License

Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/uk/

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Glass-fibre reinforced polymer

Description

15 vol % of short glass fibres are intimately mixed with the polypropylene matrix and injection moulded together. The fibre orientation reflects the flow of material into the mould. In this case, the fibres are well aligned in the outer layers of the moulding but more randomly aligned near the core.

Subjects

alignment | composite material | fibre | glass | glass fibre reinforced composite | glass fibres | injection moulding | polymer | polymer composite | polypropylene (pp) | thermoplastic | toughness | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Carbon string

Description

Carbon string is used as a conducting bridge in the preparation of specimens for observation in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is also representative of the preforms used in the manufacture of some carbon fibre based composite components. Fibres can be woven into appropriate shapes using traditional weaving technology. The preforms can then be injected with the resin matrix by processes such as resin transfer moulding (RTM) or resin film infusion (RFI).

Subjects

carbon | carbon fibres | composite material | fibre | polymer | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

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Fracture surface of a carbon fibre composite

Description

The neutral axis is clearly visible, up the centre of the image, with a region of ragged fibres indicating tensile failure to the left, and a smother, apparently crushed surface to the right where the beam was in compression. The holes and proud fibres in the tensile region are indicative of fibre pull-out which is a toughening mechanism in fibre composites.

Subjects

alignment | carbon | carbon fibres | CFC | composite material | epoxy | fibre | fracture | neutral axis | polymer | polymer composite | pull-out | reinforcement | tensile | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Tensile failure surface of a carbon fibre composite

Description

This is from the region of the fracture surface which was in tension. The fibres show clean, brittle fracture surfaces (with no fibrillation or distortion and little distortion of the matrix) and have broken at varying lengths and hence some stick out while others have left holes in the matrix. This is indicative of fibre pull-out having occurred after an initial failure of the matrix, followed by failure of the fibres themselves. This is a toughening mechanism in fibre reinforced composites. It is also involved in composite crack stopping properties; each fibre has briefly slowed the progress of the crack by opening it up along the weak fibre-matrix interface and hence blunting the crack tip. The crack therefore advances relatively slowly, with much lateral meandering.

Subjects

alignment | carbon | carbon fibres | CFC | composite material | epoxy | fibre | fracture | neutral axis | polymer composite | pull-out | reinforcement | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Carbon string

Description

Carbon string is used as a conducting bridge in the preparation of specimens for observation in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is also representative of the preforms used in the manufacture of some carbon fibre based composite components. Fibres can be woven into appropriate shapes using traditional weaving technology. The preforms can then be injected with the resin matrix by processes such as resin transfer moulding (RTM) or resin film infusion (RFI).

Subjects

carbon | carbon fibres | composite material | fibre | polymer | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fracture surface of a carbon fibre composite

Description

The neutral axis is clearly visible, up the centre of the image, with a region of ragged fibres indicating tensile failure to the left, and a smother, apparently crushed surface to the right where the beam was in compression. The holes and proud fibres in the tensile region are indicative of fibre pull-out which is a toughening mechanism in fibre composites.

Subjects

alignment | carbon | carbon fibres | cfc | composite material | epoxy | fibre | fracture | neutral axis | polymer | polymer composite | pull-out | reinforcement | tensile | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Tensile failure surface of a carbon fibre composite

Description

This is from the region of the fracture surface which was in tension. The fibres show clean, brittle fracture surfaces (with no fibrillation or distortion and little distortion of the matrix) and have broken at varying lengths and hence some stick out while others have left holes in the matrix. This is indicative of fibre pull-out having occurred after an initial failure of the matrix, followed by failure of the fibres themselves. This is a toughening mechanism in fibre reinforced composites. It is also involved in composite crack stopping properties; each fibre has briefly slowed the progress of the crack by opening it up along the weak fibre-matrix interface and hence blunting the crack tip. The crack therefore advances relatively slowly, with much lateral meandering.

Subjects

alignment | carbon | carbon fibres | cfc | composite material | epoxy | fibre | fracture | neutral axis | polymer composite | pull-out | reinforcement | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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TALAT Lecture 1402: Aluminium Matrix Composite Materials

Description

This lecture provides understanding of the state-of-the-art of aluminium matrix composite materials; it outlines the properties of aluminium matrix composite materials as a basis for materials selection; it explains the limits of useful applications; it demonstrates the various types of aluminium matrix composites. Knowledge in metallurgy, materials science, materials engineering is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | advanced materials | continuous fibre composites | discontinuously reinforced composites | particulate composites | density | thermal properties | stiffness | plastic properties | fatigue | wear resistance | interfaces | manufacturing techniques | liquid state | solid state | spray methods | in-situ production | automotive | aerospace | electronic | communication | application | sports and leisure market | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 2502: Material Aspects of Fire Design

Description

This lecture gives information about characteristic behaviour of aluminium alloys and insulation materials at high temperatures; it describes the philosophy of using aluminium alloy structures under risks of fire; it gives an example of fire risk analysis. General engineering background and some familiarity with TALAT lecture 2501 is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | design | fire resistance | high temperatures | physical properties | mechanical properties | insulation materials | rockwool | ceramic fibres | calcium silicate boards | gypsum boards | intumescent materials | spray-on cement based materials | microtherm | risk analysis | corematerials | ukoer

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C0000P0089

Description

high fibre nuts

Subjects

svmsvet | feeds | feed | nuts | highfibrefeednuts | feednuts

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Woven E - glass fibres in a DERAKANE (TM) matrix

Description

The micrograph shows woven E - glass fibres in a DERAKANE (TM) matrix

Subjects

composite material | glass fibres | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Woven E - glass fibres in a DERAKANE (TM) matrix

Description

The micrograph shows woven E - glass fibres in a DERAKANE (TM) matrix

Subjects

composite material | glass fibres | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Unidirectional T800 carbon fibres in an MTM49 epoxy matrix.

Description

Micrograph taken perpendicular to fibre axis.

Subjects

carbon fibres | composite material | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Woven T800 carbon fibres in an MTM49 epoxy matrix

Description

The micrograph shows woven T800 carbon fibres in an MTM49 epoxy matrix.

Subjects

carbon fibres | composite material | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

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Porosity in fibre reinforced magnesium aluminosilicate ceramic

Description

The micrograph shows black areas of porosity in fibre reinforced magnesium aluminosilicate ceramic.

Subjects

ceramic | fibre | magnesium aluminosilicate | porosity | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Cracking and bridging in fibre reinforced magnesium aluminosilicate ceramic

Description

The fractograph shows extensive matrix cracking and fibres bridging an opened matrix.

Subjects

ceramic | fibre | magnesium aluminosilicate | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Fibre-matrix interfaces in a fibre reinforced magnesium aluminosilicate ceramic

Description

The micrograph shows the complex chemical reactions which arise at fibre-matrix interfaces in a fibre reinforced magnesium aluminosilicate ceramic subjected to oxidation. An approximately 1.2 micrometre thick interfacial region is seen between the matrix and the fibre. I1-4 are four distinct interlayers with different compositions within this region.

Subjects

ceramic | fibre | magnesium aluminosilicate | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Frozen stress photoelastic fringe pattern during fibre pushout

Description

The experiment indicates a more uniform of shear stress than that predicted by the shear lag model, suggesting that interfacial shear de-bonding strength values obtained from de-bonding loads on the basis of that model may be overestimates. (See 'The use of single fibre pushout testing to explore interfacial mechanisms in SiC monofilament-reinforced Ti-I. A photoelastic study of the test', Watson and Clyne, Acta metall. mater. Vol 40, No 1, pp 131-139, 1992 for more details.)

Subjects

Araldite | birefringence | composite material | fibre | load distribution | photoelasticity | polymer | polymer composite | pushout | reinforcement | residual stress | shear | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Section of a metal matrix composite (MMC)

Description

The section is transverse to the fibre plane. A preform of short fibres has been infiltrated with the aluminium melt in a press.

Subjects

alignment | alumina | composite material | fibre | infiltration | MMC | preform | reinforcement | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Section of a metal matrix composite (MMC)

Description

The section is transverse to the fibre plane. A preform of short fibres has been infiltrated with the aluminium melt in a press. The preform is visible in the lower half of the image.

Subjects

alignment | alumina | composite material | fibre | infiltration | MMC | preform | reinforcement | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Fibre fracture in a metal matrix composite

Description

Fracture in one fibre has promoted fracture in the adjacent fibres.

Subjects

alloy | alumina | composite material | fibre | fracture | infiltration | metal | MMC | preform | reinforcement | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Kevlar fibre composite fracture surface

Description

Because a relatively short beam was used, significant shear stresses existed in the beam, and failure has occurred principally by shear. In this mode, the specimen splits longitudinally along planes parallel to its neutral axis, due to shear failure within the matrix and at the weak interface between fibres and matrix. Matrix porosity (and particularly the long longitudinal voids present in this specimen), the poor wetting of fibres by the resin, and poor fibre distribution will all promote failure by shear. However, it may be that this failure mechanism has been partly inhibited by poor fibre alignment since some off-axis fibres will reinforce the matrix in shear

Subjects

alignment | composite material | epoxy | fibre | fibrillation | fracture | hackle region | Kevlar | liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) | lyotropic | polymer | polymer composite | reinforcement | shear | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Kevlar fibre composite shear surface

Description

This is an image of the shear surface in a failed composite beam. 'Hackles' of matrix are clearly visible where shear has occurred within the matrix and it is also clear that shear has occurred across the fibre/matrix interface. The fibres are for the most part totally unscathed, though some mis-aligned fibres have become caught between the shear surfaces and 'fibrillated' by rolling and bending actions. It may be that this failure mechanism has been partly inhibited by poor fibre alignment since some off-axis fibres will reinforce the matrix in shear. It will have been promoted, however, by the extensive longitudinal voids.

Subjects

alignment | composite material | epoxy | fibre | fibrillation | fracture | hackle region | Kevlar | liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) | lyotropic | polymer | polymer composite | reinforcement | shear | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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