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UCL Art Museum: 'Anatomy' Teaching Pack

Description

This resource has been uploaded as a web site zip file to be used within a browser (once unzipped, navigate to the index.html file in the folder to run the resource) and as a .elp file (allowing modification in eXe content packaging software, in addition to subsequent packaging in the desired format, e.g., IMS Content Package, Web Pages). This resource has been created as part of the JISC funded project Object Based Learning for Higher Education (OBL4HE) - a project to create a range of online educational resources for university teachers and students based around the use of museum collections and archival material for enhancing learning. To search for more of the resources created in this project, please search for the key word OBL4HE.

Subjects

body in art | anatomical illustration | engraving | chalk | mezzotint | watercolour | iron gall ink | graphite | pastel | pen | ink | pencil | paper | OBL4HE

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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MgO-C Refractory Brick

Description

This micrograph is of a specimen which has been pressed from either side during fabrication, with the bright graphite flakes appearing edge on. Compare with micrograph 194.The MgO grain is polycrystalline and porous. The anisometric microstructure means the brick properties are anisotropic and so the bricks orientation must be carefully controlled on installation. These are true composite materials using ceramic (MgO, natural graphite), metal (Si, Al additives), and polymer (phenolic resin) components.

Subjects

brick | carbon | ceramic | composite material | graphite | magnesia | refractory | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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MgO-C Refractory Brick

Description

This micrograph is of a specimen which has been pressed parallel with your nose (into the screen) during fabrication, with the bright graphite flakes appearing face on. Compare with micrograph 193.The MgO grain is polycrystalline and porous. The anisometric microstructure means the brick properties are anisotropic and so the bricks orientation must be carefully controlled on installation. These are true composite materials using ceramic (MgO, natural graphite), metal (Si, Al additives), and polymer (phenolic resin) components.

Subjects

brick | carbon | ceramic | composite material | graphite | magnesia | refractory | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 3.6, Si 2.1 (wt%), hypereutectic grey cast iron

Description

The carbon equivalent of this alloy (4.37 wt%) is greater than the eutectic composition (4.3 wt% C) so this alloy is known as a hypereutectic grey cast iron. Si has a very low solubility in cementite and therefore its presence favours the formation of graphite in preference to cementite. Therefore, upon cooling from the liquid, the primary phase to solidify is free graphite. Graphite forms directly from the melt as flakes (black) rather than dendrites. These flakes are interconnected and align themselves in the heat flow direction. Upon further cooling the remaining liquid forms initially as a eutectic mixture of austenite and cementite, known as ledeburite. The austenite within the eutectic further transforms to a mixture of pearlite and cementite. The graphite is eventually embedded in a

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | graphite | hypereutectic | iron | metal | silicon | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 3.6, Si 2.1 (wt%), hypereutectic grey cast iron

Description

The carbon equivalent of this alloy (4.37 wt%) is greater than the eutectic composition (4.3 wt% C) so this alloy is known as a hypereutectic grey cast iron. Si has a very low solubility in cementite and therefore its presence favours the formation of graphite in preference to cementite. Therefore, upon cooling from the liquid, the primary phase to solidify is free graphite. Graphite forms directly from the melt as flakes (black) rather than dendrites. These flakes are interconnected and align themselves in the heat flow direction. Upon further cooling the remaining liquid forms initially as a eutectic mixture of austenite and cementite, known as ledeburite. The austenite within the eutectic further transforms to a mixture of pearlite and cementite. The graphite is eventually embedded in a

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | graphite | hypereutectic | iron | metal | silicon | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 3.6, Si 2.1, Mg 0.07 (wt%), spheroidal graphite

Description

The addition of a small amount of Mg (0.07 wt%) significantly improves the mechanical properties of cast iron. The Mg poisons the favoured growth directions of the graphite allowing only isotropic growth and producing more equiaxed graphite. The graphite forms spheroidal graphite (black), which does not act as cracks.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | graphite | iron | isotropic | magnesium | metal | silicon | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 3.6, Si 2.1, Mg 0.07 (wt%), spheroidal graphite

Description

The addition of a small amount of Mg (0.07 wt%) significantly improves the mechanical properties of cast iron. The Mg poisons the favoured growth directions of the graphite allowing only isotropic growth and producing more equiaxed graphite. The graphite forms spheroidal graphite (black), which does not act as cracks.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | graphite | iron | isotropic | magnesium | metal | silicon | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Silal

Description

This sample shows the typical structure of silal, irons with high Si content (5.5-7.9 wt%). It is a grey cast iron alloyed with 4-6wt% Si to provide good oxidation resistance. The high Si content forms a dense, adherent iron silicate surface film, which is resistant to oxygen penetration. The flake graphite iron Silal was one of the first heat resisting cast irons developed. Spheroidal graphite Si irons have higher strength and improved ductility. The structure shows cored dendrites of ferrite with interdendritic flake graphite. A few white areas of Si carbide are also present.

Subjects

alloy | dendrite | ferrite | graphite | iron | metal | silal | silicon | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Silal

Description

This sample shows the typical structure of silal, irons with high Si content (5.5-7.9 wt%). It is a grey cast iron alloyed with 4-6wt% Si to provide good oxidation resistance. The high Si content forms a dense, adherent iron silicate surface film, which is resistant to oxygen penetration. The flake graphite iron Silal was one of the first heat resisting cast irons developed. Spheroidal graphite Si irons have higher strength and improved ductility. The structure shows cored dendrites of ferrite with interdendritic flake graphite. A few white areas of Si carbide are also present.

Subjects

alloy | dendrite | ferrite | graphite | iron | metal | silal | silicon | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Alumina-graphite brick

Description

The fused alumina ceramic grain and natural graphite flakes (seen edge on in the micrograph) are held together by a polymer-derived carbon bond and protected from oxidation by a metal (bright Si) which betters oxygen in use to form e.g. SiO2. A true composite material.

Subjects

alumina | aluminium | antioxidant | brick | carbon | ceramic | composite material | graphite | oxygen | silicon | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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MgO-C Refractory Brick

Description

This micrograph is of a specimen which has been pressed from either side during fabrication, with the bright graphite flakes appearing edge on. Compare with micrograph 194.The MgO grain is polycrystalline and porous. The anisometric microstructure means the brick properties are anisotropic and so the bricks orientation must be carefully controlled on installation. These are true composite materials using ceramic (MgO, natural graphite), metal (Si, Al additives), and polymer (phenolic resin) components.

Subjects

brick | carbon | ceramic | composite material | graphite | magnesia | refractory | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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MgO-C Refractory Brick

Description

This micrograph is of a specimen which has been pressed parallel with your nose (into the screen) during fabrication, with the bright graphite flakes appearing face on. Compare with micrograph 193.The MgO grain is polycrystalline and porous. The anisometric microstructure means the brick properties are anisotropic and so the bricks orientation must be carefully controlled on installation. These are true composite materials using ceramic (MgO, natural graphite), metal (Si, Al additives), and polymer (phenolic resin) components.

Subjects

brick | carbon | ceramic | composite material | graphite | magnesia | refractory | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 3.6, Si 2.1 (wt%), hypereutectic grey cast iron

Description

The carbon equivalent of this alloy (4.37 wt%) is greater than the eutectic composition (4.3 wt% C) so this alloy is known as a hypereutectic grey cast iron. Si has a very low solubility in cementite and therefore its presence favours the formation of graphite in preference to cementite. Therefore, upon cooling from the liquid, the primary phase to solidify is free graphite. Graphite forms directly from the melt as flakes (black) rather than dendrites. These flakes are interconnected and align themselves in the heat flow direction. Upon further cooling the remaining liquid forms initially as a eutectic mixture of austenite and cementite, known as ledeburite. The austenite within the eutectic further transforms to a mixture of pearlite and cementite. The graphite is eventually embedded in a

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | graphite | hypereutectic | iron | metal | silicon | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 3.6, Si 2.1 (wt%), hypereutectic grey cast iron

Description

The carbon equivalent of this alloy (4.37 wt%) is greater than the eutectic composition (4.3 wt% C) so this alloy is known as a hypereutectic grey cast iron. Si has a very low solubility in cementite and therefore its presence favours the formation of graphite in preference to cementite. Therefore, upon cooling from the liquid, the primary phase to solidify is free graphite. Graphite forms directly from the melt as flakes (black) rather than dendrites. These flakes are interconnected and align themselves in the heat flow direction. Upon further cooling the remaining liquid forms initially as a eutectic mixture of austenite and cementite, known as ledeburite. The austenite within the eutectic further transforms to a mixture of pearlite and cementite. The graphite is eventually embedded in a

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | graphite | hypereutectic | iron | metal | silicon | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 3.6, Si 2.1, Mg 0.07 (wt%), spheroidal graphite

Description

The addition of a small amount of Mg (0.07 wt%) significantly improves the mechanical properties of cast iron. The Mg poisons the favoured growth directions of the graphite allowing only isotropic growth and producing more equiaxed graphite. The graphite forms spheroidal graphite (black), which does not act as cracks.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | graphite | iron | isotropic | magnesium | metal | silicon | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 3.6, Si 2.1, Mg 0.07 (wt%), spheroidal graphite

Description

The addition of a small amount of Mg (0.07 wt%) significantly improves the mechanical properties of cast iron. The Mg poisons the favoured growth directions of the graphite allowing only isotropic growth and producing more equiaxed graphite. The graphite forms spheroidal graphite (black), which does not act as cracks.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | graphite | iron | isotropic | magnesium | metal | silicon | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Silal

Description

This sample shows the typical structure of silal, irons with high Si content (5.5-7.9 wt%). It is a grey cast iron alloyed with 4-6wt% Si to provide good oxidation resistance. The high Si content forms a dense, adherent iron silicate surface film, which is resistant to oxygen penetration. The flake graphite iron Silal was one of the first heat resisting cast irons developed. Spheroidal graphite Si irons have higher strength and improved ductility. The structure shows cored dendrites of ferrite with interdendritic flake graphite. A few white areas of Si carbide are also present.

Subjects

alloy | dendrite | ferrite | graphite | iron | metal | silal | silicon | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Silal

Description

This sample shows the typical structure of silal, irons with high Si content (5.5-7.9 wt%). It is a grey cast iron alloyed with 4-6wt% Si to provide good oxidation resistance. The high Si content forms a dense, adherent iron silicate surface film, which is resistant to oxygen penetration. The flake graphite iron Silal was one of the first heat resisting cast irons developed. Spheroidal graphite Si irons have higher strength and improved ductility. The structure shows cored dendrites of ferrite with interdendritic flake graphite. A few white areas of Si carbide are also present.

Subjects

alloy | dendrite | ferrite | graphite | iron | metal | silal | silicon | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Alumina-graphite brick

Description

The fused alumina ceramic grain and natural graphite flakes (seen edge on in the micrograph) are held together by a polymer-derived carbon bond and protected from oxidation by a metal (bright Si) which betters oxygen in use to form e.g. SiO2. A true composite material.

Subjects

alumina | aluminium | antioxidant | brick | carbon | ceramic | composite material | graphite | oxygen | silicon | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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