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7.347 Epigenetic Regulation of Stem Cells (MIT) 7.347 Epigenetic Regulation of Stem Cells (MIT)

Description

During development a single totipotent cell gives rise to the vast array of cell types present in the adult human body, yet each cell has essentially the same DNA sequence. As cells differentiate, distinct sets of genes must be coordinately activated and repressed, ultimately leading to a cell-type specific pattern of gene expression and a particular cell fate. In eukaryotic organisms, DNA is packaged in a complex protein super structure known as chromatin. Modification and reorganization of chromatin play a critical role in coordinating the cell-type specific gene expression programs that are required as a cell transitions from a pluripotent stem cell to a fully differentiated cell type. Epigenetics refers to such heritable changes that occur in chromatin without altering the primary DNA During development a single totipotent cell gives rise to the vast array of cell types present in the adult human body, yet each cell has essentially the same DNA sequence. As cells differentiate, distinct sets of genes must be coordinately activated and repressed, ultimately leading to a cell-type specific pattern of gene expression and a particular cell fate. In eukaryotic organisms, DNA is packaged in a complex protein super structure known as chromatin. Modification and reorganization of chromatin play a critical role in coordinating the cell-type specific gene expression programs that are required as a cell transitions from a pluripotent stem cell to a fully differentiated cell type. Epigenetics refers to such heritable changes that occur in chromatin without altering the primary DNA

Subjects

Stem cells | Stem cells | induced pluripotency | induced pluripotency | Epigenetics | Epigenetics | chromatin | chromatin | histone | histone | epigenome | epigenome | genome-wide analyses | genome-wide analyses | high-throughput sequencing technologies | high-throughput sequencing technologies | Chromatin Immunoprecipitation sequencing | Chromatin Immunoprecipitation sequencing | ncRNAs | ncRNAs | epigenetic regulation | epigenetic regulation | DNA methylation | DNA methylation | post-translational modification of histones | post-translational modification of histones | roles of chromatin-assembly modifying complexes | roles of chromatin-assembly modifying complexes | non-coding RNAs | non-coding RNAs | nuclear organization | nuclear organization | developmental fate | developmental fate | stem cell therapy | stem cell therapy

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.343 An RNA Safari: Exploring the Surprising Diversity of Mammalian Transcriptomes (MIT) 7.343 An RNA Safari: Exploring the Surprising Diversity of Mammalian Transcriptomes (MIT)

Description

The aim of this class is to introduce the exciting and often under appreciated discoveries in RNA biology by exploring the diversity of RNAs—encompassing classical molecules such as ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) as well as newer species, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs). For each new class of RNA, we will evaluate the evidence for its existence as well as for its proposed function. Students will develop both a deep understanding of the field of RNA biology and the ability to critically assess new papers in this fast-paced field.This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in The aim of this class is to introduce the exciting and often under appreciated discoveries in RNA biology by exploring the diversity of RNAs—encompassing classical molecules such as ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) as well as newer species, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs). For each new class of RNA, we will evaluate the evidence for its existence as well as for its proposed function. Students will develop both a deep understanding of the field of RNA biology and the ability to critically assess new papers in this fast-paced field.This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in

Subjects

RNA | RNA | ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) | ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) | transfer RNAs (tRNAs) | transfer RNAs (tRNAs) | messenger RNAs (mRNAs) | messenger RNAs (mRNAs) | microRNAs (miRNAs) | microRNAs (miRNAs) | long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) | long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) | circular RNAs (circRNAs) | circular RNAs (circRNAs) | high-throughput sequencing | high-throughput sequencing | snRNAs | snRNAs | pre-mRNA splicing | pre-mRNA splicing | snoRNAs | snoRNAs | regulatory molecules | regulatory molecules | siRNA | siRNA | piRNAs | piRNAs | CRISPR-associated RNAs | CRISPR-associated RNAs

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.343 An RNA Safari: Exploring the Surprising Diversity of Mammalian Transcriptomes (MIT)

Description

The aim of this class is to introduce the exciting and often under appreciated discoveries in RNA biology by exploring the diversity of RNAs—encompassing classical molecules such as ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) as well as newer species, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs). For each new class of RNA, we will evaluate the evidence for its existence as well as for its proposed function. Students will develop both a deep understanding of the field of RNA biology and the ability to critically assess new papers in this fast-paced field.This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in

Subjects

RNA | ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) | transfer RNAs (tRNAs) | messenger RNAs (mRNAs) | microRNAs (miRNAs) | long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) | circular RNAs (circRNAs) | high-throughput sequencing | snRNAs | pre-mRNA splicing | snoRNAs | regulatory molecules | siRNA | piRNAs | CRISPR-associated RNAs

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.347 Epigenetic Regulation of Stem Cells (MIT)

Description

During development a single totipotent cell gives rise to the vast array of cell types present in the adult human body, yet each cell has essentially the same DNA sequence. As cells differentiate, distinct sets of genes must be coordinately activated and repressed, ultimately leading to a cell-type specific pattern of gene expression and a particular cell fate. In eukaryotic organisms, DNA is packaged in a complex protein super structure known as chromatin. Modification and reorganization of chromatin play a critical role in coordinating the cell-type specific gene expression programs that are required as a cell transitions from a pluripotent stem cell to a fully differentiated cell type. Epigenetics refers to such heritable changes that occur in chromatin without altering the primary DNA

Subjects

Stem cells | induced pluripotency | Epigenetics | chromatin | histone | epigenome | genome-wide analyses | high-throughput sequencing technologies | Chromatin Immunoprecipitation sequencing | ncRNAs | epigenetic regulation | DNA methylation | post-translational modification of histones | roles of chromatin-assembly modifying complexes | non-coding RNAs | nuclear organization | developmental fate | stem cell therapy

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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https://ocw.mit.edu/rss/all/mit-allcourses.xml

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