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Hypoeutectic white cast iron

Description

With a carbon equivalent less than the eutectic composition a hypoeutectic white cast iron is formed. Primary austenite dendrites (dark) are first to form from the liquid. At the eutectic the remaining liquid transforms to a mixture of austenite and cementite (light) with further transformation of the austenite to ferrite and pearlite.

Subjects

alloy | austenite | cast iron | cementite | dendrite | ferrite | hypoeutectic | iron | metal | pearlite | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Hypoeutectic white cast iron

Description

With a carbon equivalent less than the eutectic composition a hypoeutectic white cast iron is formed. Primary austenite dendrites (dark) are first to form from the liquid. At the eutectic the remaining liquid transforms to a mixture of austenite and cementite (light) with further transformation of the austenite to ferrite and pearlite.

Subjects

alloy | austenite | cast iron | cementite | dendrite | ferrite | hypoeutectic | iron | metal | pearlite | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu-4.5 wt% P

Description

This is an example of a hypoeutectic alloy. On slow cooling the liquid first solidified at approximately 940C as copper rich dendrites. The composition of the remaining liquid became increasingly rich in phosphorus until it solidified as a eutectic (8.38 wt% P) at the eutectic temperature of 714C. Note that the dendrites are cored - the different contrast after etching indicated that the composition varies with position in the dendrites. This is caused by non-equilibrium solidification. The cooling rate was too rapid for equilibrium to be maintained between the solid and the liquid phases. This alloy has no practical applications. Phosphor bronzes usually contain 5 wt% Sn for solid solution strengthening with 0.2 wt% P for interstitial solution strengthening. They have high strength an

Subjects

alloy | bronze | copper | coring | dendrite | hypoeutectic | metal | phosphorus | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu-4.5 wt% P

Description

This is an example of a hypoeutectic alloy. On slow cooling the liquid first solidified at approximately 940C as copper rich dendrites. The composition of the remaining liquid became increasingly rich in phosphorus until it solidified as a eutectic (8.38 wt% P) at the eutectic temperature of 714C. Note that the dendrites are cored - the different contrast after etching indicated that the composition varies with position in the dendrites. This is caused by non-equilibrium solidification. The cooling rate was too rapid for equilibrium to be maintained between the solid and the liquid phases. This alloy has no practical applications. Phosphor bronzes usually contain 5 wt% Sn for solid solution strengthening with 0.2 wt% P for interstitial solution strengthening. They have high strength an

Subjects

alloy | bronze | copper | coring | dendrite | hypoeutectic | metal | phosphorus | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu-4.5 wt% P

Description

This is an example of a hypoeutectic alloy. On slow cooling the liquid first solidified at approximately 940C as copper rich dendrites. The composition of the remaining liquid became increasingly rich in phosphorus until it solidified as a eutectic (8.38 wt% P) at the eutectic temperature of 714C. Note that the dendrites are cored - the different contrast after etching indicated that the composition varies with position in the dendrites. This is caused by non-equilibrium solidification. The cooling rate was too rapid for equilibrium to be maintained between the solid and the liquid phases. This alloy has no practical applications. Phosphor bronzes usually contain 5 wt% Sn for solid solution strengthening with 0.2 wt% P for interstitial solution strengthening. They have high strength an

Subjects

alloy | bronze | copper | coring | dendrite | hypoeutectic | metal | phosphorus | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu-4.5 wt% P

Description

This is an example of a hypoeutectic alloy. On slow cooling the liquid first solidified at approximately 940C as copper rich dendrites. The composition of the remaining liquid became increasingly rich in phosphorus until it solidified as a eutectic (8.38 wt% P) at the eutectic temperature of 714C. Note that the dendrites are cored - the different contrast after etching indicated that the composition varies with position in the dendrites. This is caused by non-equilibrium solidification. The cooling rate was too rapid for equilibrium to be maintained between the solid and the liquid phases. This alloy has no practical applications. Phosphor bronzes usually contain 5 wt% Sn for solid solution strengthening with 0.2 wt% P for interstitial solution strengthening. They have high strength an

Subjects

alloy | bronze | copper | coring | dendrite | hypoeutectic | metal | phosphorus | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu-4.5 wt% P

Description

This is an example of a hypoeutectic alloy. On slow cooling the liquid first solidified at approximately 940C as copper rich dendrites. The composition of the remaining liquid became increasingly rich in phosphorus until it solidified as a eutectic (8.38 wt% P) at the eutectic temperature of 714C. Note that the dendrites are cored - the different contrast after etching indicated that the composition varies with position in the dendrites. This is caused by non-equilibrium solidification. The cooling rate was too rapid for equilibrium to be maintained between the solid and the liquid phases. This alloy has no practical applications. Phosphor bronzes usually contain 5 wt% Sn for solid solution strengthening with 0.2 wt% P for interstitial solution strengthening. They have high strength an

Subjects

alloy | bronze | copper | coring | dendrite | hypoeutectic | metal | phosphorus | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu-10.5 wt% P

Description

This is an example of a hypereutectic alloy. On slow cooling the liquid first solidified as copper phosphide dendrites at approximately 850C. The remaining liquid solidified as a eutectic at 714C. The copper phosphide is brittle and has cracked due to shrinkage stresses. Note that because of its narrow composition range, there is no coring in the dendrites. This sample also contains some porosity.

Subjects

alloy | bronze | copper | copper phosphide | dendrite | hypoeutectic | metal | phosphorus | porosity | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu-10.5 wt% P

Description

This is an example of a hypereutectic alloy. On slow cooling the liquid first solidified as copper phosphide dendrites at approximately 850C. The remaining liquid solidified as a eutectic at 714C. The copper phosphide is brittle and has cracked due to shrinkage stresses. Note that because of its narrow composition range, there is no coring in the dendrites. This sample also contains some porosity.

Subjects

alloy | bronze | copper | copper phosphide | dendrite | hypoeutectic | metal | phosphorus | porosity | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu-10.5 wt% P

Description

This is an example of a hypereutectic alloy. On slow cooling the liquid first solidified as copper phosphide dendrites at approximately 850C. The remaining liquid solidified as a eutectic at 714C. The copper phosphide is brittle and has cracked due to shrinkage stresses. Note that because of its narrow composition range, there is no coring in the dendrites. This sample also contains some porosity.

Subjects

alloy | bronze | copper | copper phosphide | dendrite | hypoeutectic | metal | phosphorus | porosity | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu-10.5 wt% P

Description

This is an example of a hypereutectic alloy. On slow cooling the liquid first solidified as copper phosphide dendrites at approximately 850C. The remaining liquid solidified as a eutectic at 714C. The copper phosphide is brittle and has cracked due to shrinkage stresses. Note that because of its narrow composition range, there is no coring in the dendrites. This sample also contains some porosity.

Subjects

alloy | bronze | copper | copper phosphide | dendrite | hypoeutectic | metal | phosphorus | porosity | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu-10.5 wt% P

Description

This is an example of a hypereutectic alloy. On slow cooling the liquid first solidified as copper phosphide dendrites at approximately 850C. The remaining liquid solidified as a eutectic at 714C. The copper phosphide is brittle and has cracked due to shrinkage stresses. Note that because of its narrow composition range, there is no coring in the dendrites. This sample also contains some porosity.

Subjects

alloy | bronze | copper | copper phosphide | dendrite | hypoeutectic | metal | phosphorus | porosity | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Al 75, Cu 25 (wt%), hypoeutectic alloy

Description

The micrograph shows primary Al dendrite arms (white). The dendrite trunk has been intersected at an angle by the plane of polishing to give the observed morphology. Between the dendrites is the Al - CuAl2 eutectic. Initially dendrites would have formed from the liquid, the regions between the dendrite arms known as the mushy zone transforming to a eutectic solid (L to Al + CuAl2). These two phases form cooperatively as neighbouring lamellae with the lateral diffusion of material across the growing interface. The relative amounts of the two phases (Al and CuAl2 ) within the eutectic are determined by applying the Lever Rule at the eutectic temperature.

Subjects

alloy | aluminium | copper | dendrite | hypoeutectic | lamella | metal | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Hypoeutectic white cast iron

Description

With a carbon equivalent less than the eutectic composition a hypoeutectic white cast iron is formed. Primary austenite dendrites (dark) are first to form from the liquid. At the eutectic the remaining liquid transforms to a mixture of austenite and cementite (light) with further transformation of the austenite to ferrite and pearlite.

Subjects

alloy | austenite | cast iron | cementite | dendrite | ferrite | hypoeutectic | iron | metal | pearlite | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Hypoeutectic white cast iron

Description

With a carbon equivalent less than the eutectic composition a hypoeutectic white cast iron is formed. Primary austenite dendrites (dark) are first to form from the liquid. At the eutectic the remaining liquid transforms to a mixture of austenite and cementite (light) with further transformation of the austenite to ferrite and pearlite.

Subjects

alloy | austenite | cast iron | cementite | dendrite | ferrite | hypoeutectic | iron | metal | pearlite | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu-4.5 wt% P

Description

This is an example of a hypoeutectic alloy. On slow cooling the liquid first solidified at approximately 940°C as copper rich dendrites. The composition of the remaining liquid became increasingly rich in phosphorus until it solidified as a eutectic (8.38 wt% P) at the eutectic temperature of 714°C. Note that the dendrites are cored - the different contrast after etching indicated that the composition varies with position in the dendrites. This is caused by non-equilibrium solidification. The cooling rate was too rapid for equilibrium to be maintained between the solid and the liquid phases. This alloy has no practical applications. Phosphor bronzes usually contain 5 wt% Sn for solid solution strengthening with 0.2 wt% P for interstitial solution strengthening. They have high strength an

Subjects

alloy | bronze | copper | coring | dendrite | hypoeutectic | metal | phosphorus | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu-4.5 wt% P

Description

This is an example of a hypoeutectic alloy. On slow cooling the liquid first solidified at approximately 940°C as copper rich dendrites. The composition of the remaining liquid became increasingly rich in phosphorus until it solidified as a eutectic (8.38 wt% P) at the eutectic temperature of 714°C. Note that the dendrites are cored - the different contrast after etching indicated that the composition varies with position in the dendrites. This is caused by non-equilibrium solidification. The cooling rate was too rapid for equilibrium to be maintained between the solid and the liquid phases. This alloy has no practical applications. Phosphor bronzes usually contain 5 wt% Sn for solid solution strengthening with 0.2 wt% P for interstitial solution strengthening. They have high strength an

Subjects

alloy | bronze | copper | coring | dendrite | hypoeutectic | metal | phosphorus | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Al 75, Cu 25 (wt%), hypoeutectic alloy

Description

The micrograph shows primary Al dendrite arms (white). The dendrite trunk has been intersected at an angle by the plane of polishing to give the observed morphology. Between the dendrites is the Al - CuAl2 eutectic. Initially dendrites would have formed from the liquid, the regions between the dendrite arms known as the mushy zone transforming to a eutectic solid (L to Al + CuAl2). These two phases form cooperatively as neighbouring lamellae with the lateral diffusion of material across the growing interface. The relative amounts of the two phases (Al and CuAl2 ) within the eutectic are determined by applying the Lever Rule at the eutectic temperature.

Subjects

alloy | aluminium | copper | dendrite | hypoeutectic | lamella | metal | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu-4.5 wt% P

Description

This is an example of a hypoeutectic alloy. On slow cooling the liquid first solidified at approximately 940°C as copper rich dendrites. The composition of the remaining liquid became increasingly rich in phosphorus until it solidified as a eutectic (8.38 wt% P) at the eutectic temperature of 714°C. Note that the dendrites are cored - the different contrast after etching indicated that the composition varies with position in the dendrites. This is caused by non-equilibrium solidification. The cooling rate was too rapid for equilibrium to be maintained between the solid and the liquid phases. This alloy has no practical applications. Phosphor bronzes usually contain 5 wt% Sn for solid solution strengthening with 0.2 wt% P for interstitial solution strengthening. They have high strength an

Subjects

alloy | bronze | copper | coring | dendrite | hypoeutectic | metal | phosphorus | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu-4.5 wt% P

Description

This is an example of a hypoeutectic alloy. On slow cooling the liquid first solidified at approximately 940°C as copper rich dendrites. The composition of the remaining liquid became increasingly rich in phosphorus until it solidified as a eutectic (8.38 wt% P) at the eutectic temperature of 714°C. Note that the dendrites are cored - the different contrast after etching indicated that the composition varies with position in the dendrites. This is caused by non-equilibrium solidification. The cooling rate was too rapid for equilibrium to be maintained between the solid and the liquid phases. This alloy has no practical applications. Phosphor bronzes usually contain 5 wt% Sn for solid solution strengthening with 0.2 wt% P for interstitial solution strengthening. They have high strength an

Subjects

alloy | bronze | copper | coring | dendrite | hypoeutectic | metal | phosphorus | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu-4.5 wt% P

Description

This is an example of a hypoeutectic alloy. On slow cooling the liquid first solidified at approximately 940°C as copper rich dendrites. The composition of the remaining liquid became increasingly rich in phosphorus until it solidified as a eutectic (8.38 wt% P) at the eutectic temperature of 714°C. Note that the dendrites are cored - the different contrast after etching indicated that the composition varies with position in the dendrites. This is caused by non-equilibrium solidification. The cooling rate was too rapid for equilibrium to be maintained between the solid and the liquid phases. This alloy has no practical applications. Phosphor bronzes usually contain 5 wt% Sn for solid solution strengthening with 0.2 wt% P for interstitial solution strengthening. They have high strength an

Subjects

alloy | bronze | copper | coring | dendrite | hypoeutectic | metal | phosphorus | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu-10.5 wt% P

Description

This is an example of a hypereutectic alloy. On slow cooling the liquid first solidified as copper phosphide dendrites at approximately 850°C. The remaining liquid solidified as a eutectic at 714°C. The copper phosphide is brittle and has cracked due to shrinkage stresses. Note that because of its narrow composition range, there is no coring in the dendrites. This sample also contains some porosity.

Subjects

alloy | bronze | copper | copper phosphide | dendrite | hypoeutectic | metal | phosphorus | porosity | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu-10.5 wt% P

Description

This is an example of a hypereutectic alloy. On slow cooling the liquid first solidified as copper phosphide dendrites at approximately 850°C. The remaining liquid solidified as a eutectic at 714°C. The copper phosphide is brittle and has cracked due to shrinkage stresses. Note that because of its narrow composition range, there is no coring in the dendrites. This sample also contains some porosity.

Subjects

alloy | bronze | copper | copper phosphide | dendrite | hypoeutectic | metal | phosphorus | porosity | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu-10.5 wt% P

Description

This is an example of a hypereutectic alloy. On slow cooling the liquid first solidified as copper phosphide dendrites at approximately 850°C. The remaining liquid solidified as a eutectic at 714°C. The copper phosphide is brittle and has cracked due to shrinkage stresses. Note that because of its narrow composition range, there is no coring in the dendrites. This sample also contains some porosity.

Subjects

alloy | bronze | copper | copper phosphide | dendrite | hypoeutectic | metal | phosphorus | porosity | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu-10.5 wt% P

Description

This is an example of a hypereutectic alloy. On slow cooling the liquid first solidified as copper phosphide dendrites at approximately 850°C. The remaining liquid solidified as a eutectic at 714°C. The copper phosphide is brittle and has cracked due to shrinkage stresses. Note that because of its narrow composition range, there is no coring in the dendrites. This sample also contains some porosity.

Subjects

alloy | bronze | copper | copper phosphide | dendrite | hypoeutectic | metal | phosphorus | porosity | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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