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7.346 Virus-host Interactions in Infectious Diseases (MIT) 7.346 Virus-host Interactions in Infectious Diseases (MIT)

Description

Co-evolution and adaptation between viruses and humans are often portrayed as a zero-sum biological arms race. Viruses enter host cells equipped with an array of mechanisms to evade the host defense responses and replicate. The rapid rate of mutation of viruses permits evolution of various methodologies for infection, which in turn drive development of non-specific but highly effective host mechanisms to restrict infection. This class will discuss the varied solutions each side has developed as a means for survival. We will use examples drawn from human disease-causing pathogens that contribute seriously to the global health burden, including HIV, influenza and dengue virus. Primary research papers will be discussed to help students learn to pose scientific questions and design and conduct Co-evolution and adaptation between viruses and humans are often portrayed as a zero-sum biological arms race. Viruses enter host cells equipped with an array of mechanisms to evade the host defense responses and replicate. The rapid rate of mutation of viruses permits evolution of various methodologies for infection, which in turn drive development of non-specific but highly effective host mechanisms to restrict infection. This class will discuss the varied solutions each side has developed as a means for survival. We will use examples drawn from human disease-causing pathogens that contribute seriously to the global health burden, including HIV, influenza and dengue virus. Primary research papers will be discussed to help students learn to pose scientific questions and design and conduct

Subjects

virus | virus | host | host | infection | infection | protein-protein interactions | protein-protein interactions | host mimicry | host mimicry | intra-cellular trafficking | intra-cellular trafficking | host-cell machinery | host-cell machinery | signaling pathways | signaling pathways | antiviral proteins | antiviral proteins | HIV | HIV | influenza | influenza | dengue virus | dengue virus | biotechnology | biotechnology | vaccine development | vaccine development | host sensors | host sensors | IFN production | IFN production | Secreted IFN | Secreted IFN | filoviruses | filoviruses | hCMV | hCMV | IFITM proteins | IFITM proteins

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.340 Under the Radar Screen: How Bugs Trick Our Immune Defenses (MIT) 7.340 Under the Radar Screen: How Bugs Trick Our Immune Defenses (MIT)

Description

In this course, we will explore the specific ways by which microbes defeat our immune system and the molecular mechanisms that are under attack (phagocytosis, the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway, MHC I/II antigen presentation). Through our discussion and dissection of the primary research literature, we will explore aspects of host-pathogen interactions. We will particularly emphasize the experimental techniques used in the field and how to read and understand research data. Technological advances in the fight against microbes will also be discussed, with specific examples. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about In this course, we will explore the specific ways by which microbes defeat our immune system and the molecular mechanisms that are under attack (phagocytosis, the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway, MHC I/II antigen presentation). Through our discussion and dissection of the primary research literature, we will explore aspects of host-pathogen interactions. We will particularly emphasize the experimental techniques used in the field and how to read and understand research data. Technological advances in the fight against microbes will also be discussed, with specific examples. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about

Subjects

HIV | HIV | mycobacterium tuberculosis | mycobacterium tuberculosis | malaria | malaria | influenza | influenza | immune system | immune system | pathogens | pathogens | viruses | viruses | bacteria | bacteria | parasites | parasites | microbes | microbes | phagocytosis | phagocytosis | ubiquitin/proteasome pathway | ubiquitin/proteasome pathway | MHC I/II antigen presentation | MHC I/II antigen presentation | Salmonella | Salmonella | pathogen-associated molecular patterns | pathogen-associated molecular patterns | PAMP | PAMP | Toll-like receptors | Toll-like receptors | TLR | TLR | Vaccinia virus | Vaccinia virus | Proteasome | Proteasome | Ubiquitin; deubiquinating enzymes | Ubiquitin; deubiquinating enzymes | DUB | DUB | Herpes simplex virus | Herpes simplex virus | HSV | HSV | Yersinia | Yersinia | viral budding | viral budding | Human cytomegalovirus | Human cytomegalovirus | HCMV | HCMV | Histocompatiblity | Histocompatiblity | AIDS | AIDS | Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpes virus | Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpes virus | Mixoma virus | Mixoma virus | Epstein Barr virus | Epstein Barr virus | EBV | EBV | Burkitt?s B cell lymphoma | Burkitt?s B cell lymphoma

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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How the immune system detects flu virus

Description

Dr Jan Rehwinkel talks about the role of our innate immune system in our fight against flu virus. Dr Jan Rehwinkel and his group study the bodys immune reaction to viruses such as flu and HIV 1 which affect millions of people worldwide. The aim is to impact on the management of infectious diseases and the development of vaccinations. This work also has an impact on auto-immune diseases such as Lupus. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

influenza | flu | Innate immune system | influenza | flu | Innate immune system

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Viral vectored vaccine development

Description

Professor Sarah Gilbert talks about her work on viral vectored vaccines. Professor Sarah Gilbert has been making and testing vaccines designed to induce T cell responses for ten years, chiefly using antigens from malaria and influenza. Based at the Jenner Institute, several of the vaccines developed in Professor Gilberts laboratory have progressed into Clinical Trials. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

immunology | tuberculosis and influenza | malaria | T cell | immune response | vaccine | clinical trials | immunology | tuberculosis and influenza | malaria | T cell | immune response | vaccine | clinical trials

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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How the immune system detects flu virus

Description

Dr Jan Rehwinkel talks about the role of our innate immune system in our fight against flu virus. Dr Jan Rehwinkel and his group study the bodys immune reaction to viruses such as flu and HIV 1 which affect millions of people worldwide. The aim is to impact on the management of infectious diseases and the development of vaccinations. This work also has an impact on auto-immune diseases such as Lupus. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

influenza | flu | Innate immune system | influenza | flu | Innate immune system

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Viral vectored vaccine development

Description

Professor Sarah Gilbert talks about her work on viral vectored vaccines. Professor Sarah Gilbert has been making and testing vaccines designed to induce T cell responses for ten years, chiefly using antigens from malaria and influenza. Based at the Jenner Institute, several of the vaccines developed in Professor Gilberts laboratory have progressed into Clinical Trials. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

immunology | tuberculosis and influenza | malaria | T cell | immune response | vaccine | clinical trials | immunology | tuberculosis and influenza | malaria | T cell | immune response | vaccine | clinical trials

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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6.891 Computational Evolutionary Biology (MIT) 6.891 Computational Evolutionary Biology (MIT)

Description

Why has it been easier to develop a vaccine to eliminate polio than to control influenza or AIDS? Has there been natural selection for a 'language gene'? Why are there no animals with wheels? When does 'maximizing fitness' lead to evolutionary extinction? How are sex and parasites related? Why don't snakes eat grass? Why don't we have eyes in the back of our heads? How does modern genomics illustrate and challenge the field? This course analyzes evolution from a computational, modeling, and engineering perspective. The course has extensive hands-on laboratory exercises in model-building and analyzing evolutionary data. Why has it been easier to develop a vaccine to eliminate polio than to control influenza or AIDS? Has there been natural selection for a 'language gene'? Why are there no animals with wheels? When does 'maximizing fitness' lead to evolutionary extinction? How are sex and parasites related? Why don't snakes eat grass? Why don't we have eyes in the back of our heads? How does modern genomics illustrate and challenge the field? This course analyzes evolution from a computational, modeling, and engineering perspective. The course has extensive hands-on laboratory exercises in model-building and analyzing evolutionary data.

Subjects

evolution from a computational | evolution from a computational | modeling | modeling | and engineering perspective | and engineering perspective | analyzing evolutionary data | analyzing evolutionary data | vaccine | vaccine | polio | polio | influenza | influenza | AIDS | AIDS | evolutionary extinction | evolutionary extinction | sex | sex | parasites | parasites | modern genomics | modern genomics | polio vaccine | polio vaccine | hands-on | hands-on | evolution from a computational | modeling | and engineering perspective | evolution from a computational | modeling | and engineering perspective

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Battling against Pneumonic influenza (The Queenslander Pictorial supplement, 22 February 1919) Battling against Pneumonic influenza (The Queenslander Pictorial supplement, 22 February 1919)

Description

Subjects

slq | slq | queensland | queensland | plague | plague | statelibraryofqueensland | statelibraryofqueensland | influenza | influenza | thequeenslander | thequeenslander

License

No known copyright restrictions

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Ithaca influenza epidemic workers (July 1919) Ithaca influenza epidemic workers (July 1919)

Description

Subjects

slq | slq | queensland | queensland | plague | plague | statelibraryofqueensland | statelibraryofqueensland | ithaca | ithaca | nurses | nurses | influenzaepidemic | influenzaepidemic | redhill | redhill

License

No known copyright restrictions

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6.891 Computational Evolutionary Biology (MIT)

Description

Why has it been easier to develop a vaccine to eliminate polio than to control influenza or AIDS? Has there been natural selection for a 'language gene'? Why are there no animals with wheels? When does 'maximizing fitness' lead to evolutionary extinction? How are sex and parasites related? Why don't snakes eat grass? Why don't we have eyes in the back of our heads? How does modern genomics illustrate and challenge the field? This course analyzes evolution from a computational, modeling, and engineering perspective. The course has extensive hands-on laboratory exercises in model-building and analyzing evolutionary data.

Subjects

evolution from a computational | modeling | and engineering perspective | analyzing evolutionary data | vaccine | polio | influenza | AIDS | evolutionary extinction | sex | parasites | modern genomics | polio vaccine | hands-on | evolution from a computational | modeling | and engineering perspective

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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E0000P0114

Description

Box of equine influenza vaccines

Subjects

svmsvet | equine | vaccine | vaccination | influenza | prequenza

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/

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Respiratory Infections

Description

A unit containing a series of case studies in which clinical presentations of various respiratory infections are described. The reader is required to diagnose the infection and the treatment required. A full explanation of the correct answers is provided. This is a Questionmark Perception file. The QTIXML file needs to be opened in QP Authoring Manager, converted to an assessment and exported into your own VLE.

Subjects

microbiology | ukoer | bioukoer | respiratory infections | cough | bronchitis | earache | pneumonia | influenza | tuberculosis | Biological sciences | C000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Life-threatening infections

Description

A unit containing a series of case studies in which clinical presentations of various life-threatening infections are described. The reader is required to diagnose the causative agent of the infection. A full explanation of the correct answers is provided. This is a Questionmark Perception file. The QTIXML file needs to be opened in QP Authoring Manager, converted to an assessment and exported into your own VLE.

Subjects

ukoer | bioukoer | meningitis | endocarditis | septecaemia | gangrene | clostridium | staphylococcus aureus | staphylococcus epidermidis | streptococcus | haemophilis influenzae | Biological sciences | C000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Virus Assay and Identification

Description

A unit that describes how to analyse data from a haemagglutination assay using the influenza virus. It goes on to explain how to identify an unknown strain of influenza using haemagglutin inhibition. The unit also contains some questions on general virus structure. This is a Questionmark Perception file. The QTIXML file needs to be opened in QP Authoring Manager, converted to an assessment and exported into your own VLE.

Subjects

ukoer | bioukoer | viruses | haemagglutination | haemagglutin inhibition | virus structure | influenza | Biological sciences | C000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Essentials of Medical Microbiology II - Part 3 of 4

Description

This presentation explains about infections of the heart and circulatory system, and respiratory infections. It forms part 3 of the Essentials of Medical Microbiology II suite of materials. A help file is included which should be read first.

Subjects

bioukoer | ukoer | intracellular pathogens | plague | opportunistic infection | endotoxic shock | endocarditis | tonsilitis | diphtheria | epiglottitis | influenza | middle ear infections | pneumonia | psittacosis | bronchiolitis | whooping cough | medical microbiology | heart and circulatory infection | respiratory infection | Biological sciences | C000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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iCase image - Influenza virus HA1 trimer

Description

A “ribbon” representation of the structure of influenza virus haemagglutinin HA1 based upon public domain atomic coordinates in the Protein Data Bank. Each monomer is coloured differently. The sialic acid residues to which the HA1 trimer is bound are represented as ball-and-stic atomic models with translucent VanderWaals surfaces. iCase bioukoer

Subjects

influenza | haemagglutinin | structure | sialic acid | jorumcomp10 | icase | bioukoer | ukoer | Biological sciences | C000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/uk/

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iCase image - Amantadine

Description

The structure of the anti-influenza virus drug, amantadine. iCase bioukoer

Subjects

influenza | m2 | amantadine | antiviral drug | jorumcomp10 | icase | bioukoer | ukoer | Biological sciences | C000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/uk/

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iCase image - Neutralization of haemagglutinin

Description

A “ribbon” representation of the structure of a portion of the influenza virus haemagglutinin molecule (red) in complex with the tip of the Fab region of a neutralizing antibody (grey). The VanderWaals surfaces of the two molecules are shown translucently at the zone of interaction. iCase bioukoer

Subjects

influenza | haemagglutinin | neutralizing antibody | structure | jorumcomp10 | Biological sciences | C000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/uk/

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E0000P0114

Description

Box of equine influenza vaccines

Subjects

svmsvet | equine | vaccine | vaccination | influenza | prequenza

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/

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Nottingham Vet School | FlickR

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iCase Influenza Outbreak

Description

Link to iCases software and Influenza Outbreak. This resource provides 10 - 15hrs learning for second year bioscientists. It presents a realistic problem-based scenario. Supporting materials are also available from JorumOpen. Contact weblearn@medsci.ox.ac.uk for further information.

Subjects

bioukoer | influenza | icase | problem-based learning | decision making tree | quandary | jorumcomp10 | Biological sciences | C000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/uk/

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Getting to Zero: Michaelmas Term Seminar Series 2009

Description

Achieving an end-state of "zero" has emerged as an important policy goal for a number of 21st Century challenges. The most prominent example is the "Global Zero" campaign to eliminate nuclear weapons. Yet, in a century of globalization, when the life of every individual is directly affected by a vast network of forces beyond their control, this concept has the power to inspire action on some of the most intractable problems of our time.

Subjects

simple-podcasting | tpi3 | non-proliferation | nuclear | weapons | disarm | 21school | checked1 | 2009-11-19 | 1 | smallpox | strategy | influenza | petussis | vaccine | immunization | 2009-11-26 | 2009-11-05 | 2009-10-22 | poverty | bottom-billion | 2009-10-29 | ethics | tactics | 2009-10-15 | he - medicine and dentistry|he - social studies | l200 | l252 | m900 | infectious | disease | c550 | l160 | Social studies | L000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Global Eradication of Infectious Diseases: Can 'Not Very Much' undermine the goal of 'None at All'?

Description

Despite the well-publicised success of global smallpox eradication, 'zero' remains an elusive goal for the majority of vaccine-preventable diseases, making reduced pathogen circulation, or direct protection of the vulnerable more achievable strategies. We will consider potential deleterious consequences of reduced infection transmission, in the context of diseases such as influenza and pertussis, where immunity following natural exposure may be superior to that following immunisation. Implications for vaccine design and implementation will be discussed.

Subjects

smallpox | strategy | influenza | petussis | vaccine | immunization | infectious | disease | c550 | ukoer | Social studies | L000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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6.891 Computational Evolutionary Biology (MIT)

Description

Why has it been easier to develop a vaccine to eliminate polio than to control influenza or AIDS? Has there been natural selection for a 'language gene'? Why are there no animals with wheels? When does 'maximizing fitness' lead to evolutionary extinction? How are sex and parasites related? Why don't snakes eat grass? Why don't we have eyes in the back of our heads? How does modern genomics illustrate and challenge the field? This course analyzes evolution from a computational, modeling, and engineering perspective. The course has extensive hands-on laboratory exercises in model-building and analyzing evolutionary data.

Subjects

evolution from a computational | modeling | and engineering perspective | analyzing evolutionary data | vaccine | polio | influenza | AIDS | evolutionary extinction | sex | parasites | modern genomics | polio vaccine | hands-on | evolution from a computational | modeling | and engineering perspective

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.346 Virus-host Interactions in Infectious Diseases (MIT)

Description

Co-evolution and adaptation between viruses and humans are often portrayed as a zero-sum biological arms race. Viruses enter host cells equipped with an array of mechanisms to evade the host defense responses and replicate. The rapid rate of mutation of viruses permits evolution of various methodologies for infection, which in turn drive development of non-specific but highly effective host mechanisms to restrict infection. This class will discuss the varied solutions each side has developed as a means for survival. We will use examples drawn from human disease-causing pathogens that contribute seriously to the global health burden, including HIV, influenza and dengue virus. Primary research papers will be discussed to help students learn to pose scientific questions and design and conduct

Subjects

virus | host | infection | protein-protein interactions | host mimicry | intra-cellular trafficking | host-cell machinery | signaling pathways | antiviral proteins | HIV | influenza | dengue virus | biotechnology | vaccine development | host sensors | IFN production | Secreted IFN | filoviruses | hCMV | IFITM proteins

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.340 Under the Radar Screen: How Bugs Trick Our Immune Defenses (MIT)

Description

In this course, we will explore the specific ways by which microbes defeat our immune system and the molecular mechanisms that are under attack (phagocytosis, the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway, MHC I/II antigen presentation). Through our discussion and dissection of the primary research literature, we will explore aspects of host-pathogen interactions. We will particularly emphasize the experimental techniques used in the field and how to read and understand research data. Technological advances in the fight against microbes will also be discussed, with specific examples. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about

Subjects

HIV | mycobacterium tuberculosis | malaria | influenza | immune system | pathogens | viruses | bacteria | parasites | microbes | phagocytosis | ubiquitin/proteasome pathway | MHC I/II antigen presentation | Salmonella | pathogen-associated molecular patterns | PAMP | Toll-like receptors | TLR | Vaccinia virus | Proteasome | Ubiquitin; deubiquinating enzymes | DUB | Herpes simplex virus | HSV | Yersinia | viral budding | Human cytomegalovirus | HCMV | Histocompatiblity | AIDS | Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpes virus | Mixoma virus | Epstein Barr virus | EBV | Burkitt?s B cell lymphoma

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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