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TALAT Lecture 1501: Properties, Characteristics and Alloys of Aluminium

Description

This lecture provides a survey of the aluminium alloys available to the user; it describes their various properties; it gives an insight into the choice of aluminium for a proposed application. In the context of this lecture not every individual alloy and its properties have been treated in detail, but rather divided into alloy types with reference to the most commonly used alloys. For further details on alloy properties the reader is referred to available databanks like ALUSELECT of the European Aluminium Association (EAA) or to the European and national materials standards. Good engineering background in materials, design and manufacturing processes is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | properties | selection criteria | production | industry | recycled aluminium | secondary aluminium | atomic structure | crystal structure | density | electrical conductivity | resistivity | thermal conductivity | reflectance | non-magnetic | emissivity | corrosion resistance | thermal expansion | melting temperature | latent heat | specific heat | identification | aluminium - copper alloys | aluminium - manganese alloys | aluminium - silicon alloys | aluminium - magnesium alloys | aluminium - magnesium - silicon alloys | aluminium - zinc - magnesium alloys | aluminium - zinc - magnesium - copper alloys | ingot | casting | work hardening | dispersion hardening | solid solution hardening | precipitation hardening | temper designations | non heat-treatable alloys | heat-treatable alloys | applications | mechanical properties | tensile strength | strength/weight ratio | proof stress | elastic properties | elongation | compression | bearing | shear | hardness | ductility | creep | impact strength | elevated temperatures | low temperatures | fracture characteristics | fatigue | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 1501: Properties, Characteristics and Alloys of Aluminium

Description

This lecture provides a survey of the aluminium alloys available to the user; it describes their various properties; it gives an insight into the choice of aluminium for a proposed application. In the context of this lecture not every individual alloy and its properties have been treated in detail, but rather divided into alloy types with reference to the most commonly used alloys. For further details on alloy properties the reader is referred to available databanks like ALUSELECT of the European Aluminium Association (EAA) or to the European and national materials standards. Good engineering background in materials, design and manufacturing processes is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | eaa | talat | training in aluminium application technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | properties | selection criteria | production | industry | recycled aluminium | secondary aluminium | atomic structure | crystal structure | density | electrical conductivity | resistivity | thermal conductivity | reflectance | non-magnetic | emissivity | corrosion resistance | thermal expansion | melting temperature | latent heat | specific heat | identification | aluminium - copper alloys | aluminium - manganese alloys | aluminium - silicon alloys | aluminium - magnesium alloys | aluminium - magnesium - silicon alloys | aluminium - zinc - magnesium alloys | aluminium - zinc - magnesium - copper alloys | ingot | casting | work hardening | dispersion hardening | solid solution hardening | precipitation hardening | temper designations | non heat-treatable alloys | heat-treatable alloys | applications | mechanical properties | tensile strength | strength/weight ratio | proof stress | elastic properties | elongation | compression | bearing | shear | hardness | ductility | creep | impact strength | elevated temperatures | low temperatures | fracture characteristics | fatigue | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 3.6, Si 2.1, Mg 0.07 (wt%), spheroidal graphite

Description

The addition of a small amount of Mg (0.07 wt%) significantly improves the mechanical properties of cast iron. The Mg poisons the favoured growth directions of the graphite allowing only isotropic growth and producing more equiaxed graphite. The graphite forms spheroidal graphite (black), which does not act as cracks.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | graphite | iron | isotropic | magnesium | metal | silicon | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

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Fe, C 3.6, Si 2.1, Mg 0.07 (wt%), spheroidal graphite

Description

The addition of a small amount of Mg (0.07 wt%) significantly improves the mechanical properties of cast iron. The Mg poisons the favoured growth directions of the graphite allowing only isotropic growth and producing more equiaxed graphite. The graphite forms spheroidal graphite (black), which does not act as cracks.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | graphite | iron | isotropic | magnesium | metal | silicon | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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E0000P0155

Description

Bottle of Magniject

Subjects

svmsvet | magniject | magnesium | sulphate | injection

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/

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E0000P0156

Description

Bottle of Calciject

Subjects

svmsvet | calciject | calcium | injectable | borogluconate | magnesium

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/

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E0000P0157

Description

Box of Calciject bottles

Subjects

svmsvet | calciject | calcium | borogluconate | magnesium | hypocalcaemia | injection | farm | cattle | cow

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/

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E0000P0158

Description

Caliciject bottle and box

Subjects

svmsvet | calciject | calcium | magnesium | injectable

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/

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Base material microstructure of cold-worked H32

Description

Micrograph of base material microstructure: H32 - cold-worked and stabilised to obtain 1/4 hardness. AA5083-H32 BM x500 Weck's reagent interferential contrast

Subjects

aluminium | magnesium | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Base metal microstructure of T6

Description

Micrograph of base metal. T6 - solution heat treated and artificially aged. AA6013-T6 BM x100 Keller's reagent

Subjects

aluminium | magnesium | silicon | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Extruded tube in magnesium alloy AZ91

Description

The micrograph shows microstructure of extruded tube in Magnesium alloy AZ91 in direction perpendicular to the direction of extrusion.

Subjects

aluminium | magnesium | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Microstructure of extruded tube in Magnesium alloy AZ91 in direction perpendicular to the direction of extrusion.

Description

Microstructure showing regular grains with uniformly distributed precipitates of intermetallic phase Mg17Al12.

Subjects

aluminium | magnesium | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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E0000P0155

Description

Bottle of Magniject

Subjects

svmsvet | magniject | magnesium | sulphate | injection

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/

Site sourced from

Nottingham Vet School | FlickR

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E0000P0156

Description

Bottle of Calciject

Subjects

svmsvet | calciject | calcium | injectable | borogluconate | magnesium

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/

Site sourced from

Nottingham Vet School | FlickR

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E0000P0157

Description

Box of Calciject bottles

Subjects

svmsvet | calciject | calcium | borogluconate | magnesium | hypocalcaemia | injection | farm | cattle | cow

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/

Site sourced from

Nottingham Vet School | FlickR

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E0000P0158

Description

Caliciject bottle and box

Subjects

svmsvet | calciject | calcium | magnesium | injectable

License

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Magnesia-chrome refractory brick

Description

The micrograph shows the large sintered MgO aggregate (grey) with white chromite and dark pores. In particular, small (5mm) Cr2O3 precipitates are seen in the MgO. Fine particles react to form spinel which directly bond the aggregates conferring high temperature strength.

Subjects

aluminium | bond | brick | calcium | ceramic | chromia | chromite | chromium | grain | iron | magnesia | magnesium | silicon | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Magnesia-chrome refractory brick

Description

The micrograph shows the detail of the bond system which glues the large grain particles together. In particular, small (5mm) Cr2O3 precipitates are seen in the MgO. Fine particles react to form spinel which directly bond the aggregates conferring high temperature strength.

Subjects

aluminium | brick | calcium | ceramic | chromium | iron | magnesium | silicon | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

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Wrought-grade aluminium alloy

Description

The micrograph shows Al-Mg-Fe-Si containing < 1wt.% of each solute; refined with TiB2 particles. Deformation of grain structure is due to cutting of sample with scissors. This micrograph illustrates the effect of deformation on a previously equiaxed structure. Strain causes the elongation of grains and the subsequent anodising produces 'mottled' grain colours; the oxide layer is not of constant orientation or thickness across a grain.The Barker's etch and applied electrical field produce a thick oxide layer on the grains of aluminium (anodising). When viewed in cross-polarised light, interference in the oxide layer produces colours which depend on grain orientation and oxide thickness; hence the grain structure is imaged.

Subjects

alloy | aluminium | anodising | deformation | equiaxed | iron | magnesium | metal | silicon | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Macor(TM) Machinable Glass Ceramic

Description

This glass ceramic has the "House of Cards" microstructure consisting of randomly-oriented, flexible, mica-like flakes which arrest or deflect cracks enabling free machining with standard (Black and Decker type) drills. The mica-like phase is fluoroplogopite (KMg3AlSi3O10F2).

Subjects

aluminium | ceramic | fluorophlogopite | glass | magnesium | mica | oxygen | silicate | silicon | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

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As-cast wrought-grade aluminium alloy

Description

The micrograph shows Al-Mg-Fe-Si containing < 1wt.% of each solute. No addition of grain refinement particles (e.g. TiB2). This micrograph illustrates one of the possible growth morphologies that a solidifying metal can adopt (c.f. micrograph 712). The dendritic structure is the result of instabilities in the solid-liquid interface during growth due to the rejection of solute into the liquid phase. Dendritic grains are more prevalent in alloys of high solute content and larger grain sizes.The Barker's etch and applied electrical field produce a thick oxide layer on the grains of aluminium (anodising). When viewed in cross-polarised light, interference in the oxide layer produces colours which depend on grain orientation and oxide thickness; hence the grain structure is imaged.

Subjects

alloy | aluminium | anodising | dendrite | equiaxed | iron | magnesium | metal | silicon | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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As-cast wrought-grade aluminium alloy

Description

The micrograph shows Al-Mg-Fe-Si containing < 1wt.% of each solute. Addition of TiB2 particles facilitates the formation of a fine, equiaxed grain structure (grain refinement). This micrograph illustrates one of the possible growth morphologies that a solidifying metal can adopt (c.f. micrograph 711). The grains in this structure exhibit no dendritic branching, i.e. the solid-liquid interfaces of the growing grains are smooth. When a solid grain is growing from the liquid phase, it will initially exhibit a smooth interface; such an interface can become unstable as the grain becomes larger due to rejection of solute into the liquid phase. Hence, smooth grain boundaries are associated with fine grain structures and low solute contents. The Barker's etch and applied electrical field produce

Subjects

alloy | aluminium | anodising | dendrite | equiaxed | iron | magnesium | metal | silicon | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Porosity in fibre reinforced magnesium aluminosilicate ceramic

Description

The micrograph shows black areas of porosity in fibre reinforced magnesium aluminosilicate ceramic.

Subjects

ceramic | fibre | magnesium aluminosilicate | porosity | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cracking and bridging in fibre reinforced magnesium aluminosilicate ceramic

Description

The fractograph shows extensive matrix cracking and fibres bridging an opened matrix.

Subjects

ceramic | fibre | magnesium aluminosilicate | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Magnesium alloy

Description

This RZ5 alloy is from an actual cast specimen. The billet was approximately 75mm diameter by 100mm in length. The cast billet has a characteristically rough surface, associated with the grain size of the sand used in the mould. This interaction between the cool mould and the hot casting, has an important role to play in the microstructure that develops throughout the billet. The microstructure varies as progression is made from the edge of the billet to the centre. The grains are approximately 200?m equiaxed. The grain boundary phase that is present is mainly composed of zinc and the rare earth elements and becomes sparser as the edge of the billet is approached.

Subjects

magnesium | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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