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7.014 Introductory Biology (MIT) 7.014 Introductory Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.014 focuses on the application of these fundamental principles, toward an understanding of microorganisms as geochemical agents responsible for the evolution and renewal of the biosphere and of their role in human health The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.014 focuses on the application of these fundamental principles, toward an understanding of microorganisms as geochemical agents responsible for the evolution and renewal of the biosphere and of their role in human health

Subjects

microorganisms | microorganisms | geochemistry | geochemistry | geochemical agents | geochemical agents | biosphere | biosphere | bacterial genetics | bacterial genetics | carbon metabolism | carbon metabolism | energy metabolism | energy metabolism | productivity | productivity | biogeochemical cycles | biogeochemical cycles | molecular evolution | molecular evolution | population genetics | population genetics | evolution | evolution | population growth | population growth | biology | biology | biochemistry | biochemistry | genetics | genetics | molecular biology | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell cycle | cell signaling | cell signaling | cloning | cloning | stem cells | stem cells | cancer | cancer | immunology | immunology | virology | virology | genomics | genomics | molecular medicine | molecular medicine | DNA | DNA | RNA | RNA | proteins | proteins | replication | replication | transcription | transcription | mRNA | mRNA | translation | translation | ribosome | ribosome | nervous system | nervous system | amino acids | amino acids | polypeptide chain | polypeptide chain | cell biology | cell biology | neurobiology | neurobiology | gene regulation | gene regulation | protein structure | protein structure | protein synthesis | protein synthesis | gene structure | gene structure | PCR | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum | endoplasmic reticulum | ecology | ecology | communities | communities

License

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HST.583 Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Data Acquisition and Analysis (MIT) HST.583 Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Data Acquisition and Analysis (MIT)

Description

This team taught, multidisciplinary course covers the fundamentals of magnetic resonance imaging relevant to the conduct and interpretation of human brain mapping studies. The challenges inherent in advancing our knowledge about brain function using fMRI are presented first to put the work in context. The course then provides in depth coverage of the physics of image formation, mechanisms of image contrast, and the physiological basis for image signals. Parenchymal and cerebrovascular neuroanatomy and application of sophisticated structural analysis algorithms for segmentation and registration of functional data are discussed. Additional topics include fMRI experimental design including block design, event related and exploratory data analysis methods, building and applying statistical mod This team taught, multidisciplinary course covers the fundamentals of magnetic resonance imaging relevant to the conduct and interpretation of human brain mapping studies. The challenges inherent in advancing our knowledge about brain function using fMRI are presented first to put the work in context. The course then provides in depth coverage of the physics of image formation, mechanisms of image contrast, and the physiological basis for image signals. Parenchymal and cerebrovascular neuroanatomy and application of sophisticated structural analysis algorithms for segmentation and registration of functional data are discussed. Additional topics include fMRI experimental design including block design, event related and exploratory data analysis methods, building and applying statistical mod

Subjects

medical lab | medical lab | medical technology | medical technology | magnetic resonance imaging | magnetic resonance imaging | fMRI | fMRI | signal processing | signal processing | human brain mapping | human brain mapping | function | function | image formation physics | image formation physics | metabolism | metabolism | psychology | psychology | image signals | image signals | parenchymal | parenchymal | cerebrovascular neuroanatomy | cerebrovascular neuroanatomy | functional data analysis | functional data analysis | experimental design | experimental design | statistical models | statistical models | human subjects | human subjects | informed consent | informed consent | institutional review board requirements | institutional review board requirements | safety | safety | medical | medical | brain scan | brain scan

License

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7.342 Personal Genomics and Medicine: What's in Your Genome? (MIT) 7.342 Personal Genomics and Medicine: What's in Your Genome? (MIT)

Description

Human genome sequencing has revolutionized our understanding of disease susceptibility, drug metabolism and human ancestry. This course will explore how these advances have been made possible by revolutionary new sequencing methodologies that have decreased costs and increased throughput of genome analysis, making it possible to examine genetic correlates for a variety of biological processes and disorders. The course will combine discussions of primary scientific research papers with hands-on data analysis and small group presentations. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a Human genome sequencing has revolutionized our understanding of disease susceptibility, drug metabolism and human ancestry. This course will explore how these advances have been made possible by revolutionary new sequencing methodologies that have decreased costs and increased throughput of genome analysis, making it possible to examine genetic correlates for a variety of biological processes and disorders. The course will combine discussions of primary scientific research papers with hands-on data analysis and small group presentations. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a

Subjects

genome sequencing | genome sequencing | genome analysis | genome analysis | disease susceptibility | disease susceptibility | drug metabolism | drug metabolism | human ancestry | human ancestry | mitochondrial DNA | mitochondrial DNA | tyrosine kinase inhibitors | tyrosine kinase inhibitors | BCR-ABL gene fusion | BCR-ABL gene fusion | PCSK9 inhibitors | PCSK9 inhibitors | hypercholesterolemia | hypercholesterolemia | genetic testing | genetic testing | next generation sequencing | next generation sequencing | Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) | Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) | copy number variations (CNVs) | copy number variations (CNVs) | genome-wide association studies (GWAS) | genome-wide association studies (GWAS) | Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) | Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) | mosaics | mosaics | chimeras | chimeras | bioinformatics | bioinformatics

License

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20.201 Mechanisms of Drug Actions (MIT) 20.201 Mechanisms of Drug Actions (MIT)

Description

This course addresses the scientific basis for the development of new drugs. The first half of the semester begins with an overview of the drug discovery process, followed by fundamental principles of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, metabolism, and the mechanisms by which drugs cause therapeutic and toxic responses. The second half of the semester applies those principles to case studies and literature discussions of current problems with specific drugs, drug classes, and therapeutic targets. This course addresses the scientific basis for the development of new drugs. The first half of the semester begins with an overview of the drug discovery process, followed by fundamental principles of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, metabolism, and the mechanisms by which drugs cause therapeutic and toxic responses. The second half of the semester applies those principles to case studies and literature discussions of current problems with specific drugs, drug classes, and therapeutic targets.

Subjects

drugs | drugs | medicine | medicine | pharmaceutical | pharmaceutical | pharmacology | pharmacology | toxicology | toxicology | drug actions | drug actions | therapeutics | therapeutics | histology | histology | pathophysiology | pathophysiology | drug therapy | drug therapy | drug transporters | drug transporters | drug metabolism | drug metabolism | drug toxicity | drug toxicity | drug development | drug development | uptake | uptake | transport | transport | case study | case study | biochemistry | biochemistry | Pharmacokinetics | Pharmacokinetics | Pharmacogenetics | Pharmacogenetics | Omeprazole | Omeprazole | antibiotics | antibiotics | Oncology | Oncology | Statins | Statins | Sarilumab | Sarilumab | cystic fibrosis | cystic fibrosis

License

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20.104J Chemicals in the Environment: Toxicology and Public Health (BE.104J) (MIT) 20.104J Chemicals in the Environment: Toxicology and Public Health (BE.104J) (MIT)

Description

This course addresses the challenges of defining a relationship between exposure to environmental chemicals and human disease. Course topics include epidemiological approaches to understanding disease causation; biostatistical methods; evaluation of human exposure to chemicals, and their internal distribution, metabolism, reactions with cellular components, and biological effects; and qualitative and quantitative health risk assessment methods used in the U.S. as bases for regulatory decision-making. Throughout the term, students consider case studies of local and national interest. This course addresses the challenges of defining a relationship between exposure to environmental chemicals and human disease. Course topics include epidemiological approaches to understanding disease causation; biostatistical methods; evaluation of human exposure to chemicals, and their internal distribution, metabolism, reactions with cellular components, and biological effects; and qualitative and quantitative health risk assessment methods used in the U.S. as bases for regulatory decision-making. Throughout the term, students consider case studies of local and national interest.

Subjects

biostatistics | biostatistics | risk | risk | risk analysis | risk analysis | risk factor | risk factor | environmental agent | environmental agent | environetics | environetics | cause and effect | cause and effect | pollution | pollution | statistical analysis | statistical analysis | toxic | toxic | genetics | genetics | disease | disease | health | health | EPA | EPA | metabolism | metabolism | endocrine | endocrine | immunity | immunity | uncertainty | uncertainty | mortality | mortality | death rate | death rate | prediction | prediction | 20.104 | 20.104 | 1.081 | 1.081 | ESD.053 | ESD.053 | BE.104J | BE.104J | BE.104 | BE.104

License

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9.530 Cellular and Molecular Computation (MIT) 9.530 Cellular and Molecular Computation (MIT)

Description

Life as an emergent property of networks of chemical reactions involving proteins and nucleic acids. Mathematical theories of metabolism, gene regulation, signal transduction, chemotaxis, excitability, motility, mitosis, development, and immunity. Applications to directed molecular evolution, DNA computing, and metabolic and genetic engineering. Life as an emergent property of networks of chemical reactions involving proteins and nucleic acids. Mathematical theories of metabolism, gene regulation, signal transduction, chemotaxis, excitability, motility, mitosis, development, and immunity. Applications to directed molecular evolution, DNA computing, and metabolic and genetic engineering.

Subjects

emergent | emergent | network | network | chemical reactions | chemical reactions | proteins | proteins | nucleic acids | nucleic acids | metabolism | metabolism | gene regulation | gene regulation | signal transduction | signal transduction | chemotaxis | chemotaxis | excitability | excitability | motility | motility | mitosis | mitosis | development | development | immunity | immunity | molecular evolution | molecular evolution | DNA computing | DNA computing | metabolic | metabolic | genetic engineering | genetic engineering | Neural networks | Neural networks

License

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20.420J Biomolecular Kinetics and Cellular Dynamics (BE.420J) (MIT) 20.420J Biomolecular Kinetics and Cellular Dynamics (BE.420J) (MIT)

Description

This subject deals primarily with kinetic and equilibrium mathematical models of biomolecular interactions, as well as the application of these quantitative analyses to biological problems across a wide range of levels of organization, from individual molecular interactions to populations of cells. This subject deals primarily with kinetic and equilibrium mathematical models of biomolecular interactions, as well as the application of these quantitative analyses to biological problems across a wide range of levels of organization, from individual molecular interactions to populations of cells.

Subjects

receptor | receptor | ligand | ligand | signaling | signaling | enzyme | enzyme | binding | binding | hybridization | hybridization | cell | cell | dynamics | dynamics | metabolism | metabolism | regulation | regulation | kinetics | kinetics | 20.420 | 20.420 | 10.410J | 10.410J | 10.538 | 10.538 | BE.420J | BE.420J | BE.420 | BE.420

License

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Essentials of Medical Microbiology III - Part 2 of 2

Description

This presentation explains how to treat bacterial infections and covers the mode of action and use of antibiotics, inhibitors of nucleic acid metabolism, RNA metabolism and protein synthesis inhibitors, and concludes with information on antifungal and antiviral drugs. Included is a help file which should be read first.

Subjects

microbiology | medical microbiology | antimicrobial chemotherapy | cidal | static | drug interactions | cell wall inhibitors | nucleic acid metabolism | rna metabolism | protein synthesis inhibitors | antifungal | antiviral | bioukoer | ukoer | Biological sciences | C000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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7.014 Introductory Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.014 focuses on the application of these fundamental principles, toward an understanding of microorganisms as geochemical agents responsible for the evolution and renewal of the biosphere and of their role in human health

Subjects

microorganisms | geochemistry | geochemical agents | biosphere | bacterial genetics | carbon metabolism | energy metabolism | productivity | biogeochemical cycles | molecular evolution | population genetics | evolution | population growth | biology | biochemistry | genetics | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell signaling | cloning | stem cells | cancer | immunology | virology | genomics | molecular medicine | DNA | RNA | proteins | replication | transcription | mRNA | translation | ribosome | nervous system | amino acids | polypeptide chain | cell biology | neurobiology | gene regulation | protein structure | protein synthesis | gene structure | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum | ecology | communities

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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HST.583 Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Data Acquisition and Analysis (MIT) HST.583 Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Data Acquisition and Analysis (MIT)

Description

This team taught, multidisciplinary course covers the fundamentals of magnetic resonance imaging relevant to the conduct and interpretation of human brain mapping studies. The challenges inherent in advancing our knowledge about brain function using fMRI are presented first to put the work in context. The course then provides in depth coverage of the physics of image formation, mechanisms of image contrast, and the physiological basis for image signals. Parenchymal and cerebrovascular neuroanatomy and application of sophisticated structural analysis algorithms for segmentation and registration of functional data are discussed. Additional topics include fMRI experimental design including block design, event related and exploratory data analysis methods, building and applying statistical mod This team taught, multidisciplinary course covers the fundamentals of magnetic resonance imaging relevant to the conduct and interpretation of human brain mapping studies. The challenges inherent in advancing our knowledge about brain function using fMRI are presented first to put the work in context. The course then provides in depth coverage of the physics of image formation, mechanisms of image contrast, and the physiological basis for image signals. Parenchymal and cerebrovascular neuroanatomy and application of sophisticated structural analysis algorithms for segmentation and registration of functional data are discussed. Additional topics include fMRI experimental design including block design, event related and exploratory data analysis methods, building and applying statistical mod

Subjects

medical imaging | medical imaging | medical lab | medical lab | medical technology | medical technology | magnetic resonance imaging | magnetic resonance imaging | fMRI | fMRI | signal processing | signal processing | human brain mapping | human brain mapping | function | function | image formation physics | image formation physics | metabolism | metabolism | psychology | psychology | image signals | image signals | parenchymal | parenchymal | cerebrovascular neuroanatomy | cerebrovascular neuroanatomy | functional data analysis | functional data analysis | experimental design | experimental design | statistical models | statistical models | human subjects | human subjects | informed consent | informed consent | institutional review board requirements | institutional review board requirements | safety | safety | medical | medical | brain scan | brain scan

License

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HST.583 Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Data Acquisition and Analysis (MIT) HST.583 Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Data Acquisition and Analysis (MIT)

Description

This team-taught multidisciplinary course provides information relevant to the conduct and interpretation of human brain mapping studies. It begins with in-depth coverage of the physics of image formation, mechanisms of image contrast, and the physiological basis for image signals. Parenchymal and cerebrovascular neuroanatomy and application of sophisticated structural analysis algorithms for segmentation and registration of functional data are discussed. Additional topics include: fMRI experimental design including block design, event related and exploratory data analysis methods, and building and applying statistical models for fMRI data; and human subject issues including informed consent, institutional review board requirements and safety in the high field environment. Additional Facul This team-taught multidisciplinary course provides information relevant to the conduct and interpretation of human brain mapping studies. It begins with in-depth coverage of the physics of image formation, mechanisms of image contrast, and the physiological basis for image signals. Parenchymal and cerebrovascular neuroanatomy and application of sophisticated structural analysis algorithms for segmentation and registration of functional data are discussed. Additional topics include: fMRI experimental design including block design, event related and exploratory data analysis methods, and building and applying statistical models for fMRI data; and human subject issues including informed consent, institutional review board requirements and safety in the high field environment. Additional Facul

Subjects

medical imaging | medical imaging | medical lab | medical lab | medical technology | medical technology | magnetic resonance imaging | magnetic resonance imaging | MRI | MRI | fMRI | fMRI | signal processing | signal processing | human brain mapping | human brain mapping | function | function | image formation physics | image formation physics | metabolism | metabolism | psychology | psychology | physiology | physiology | image signals | image signals | image processing | image processing | parenchymal | parenchymal | cerebrovascular neuroanatomy | cerebrovascular neuroanatomy | neurology | neurology | functional data analysis | functional data analysis | experimental design | experimental design | statistical models | statistical models | human subjects | human subjects | informed consent | informed consent | institutional review board requirements | institutional review board requirements | safety | safety | medical | medical | brain scan | brain scan | brain imaging | brain imaging | DTI | DTI | vision | vision

License

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BE.104J Chemicals in the Environment: Toxicology and Public Health (MIT) BE.104J Chemicals in the Environment: Toxicology and Public Health (MIT)

Description

This course addresses the challenges of defining a relationship between exposure to environmental chemicals and human disease. Course topics include epidemiological approaches to understanding disease causation; biostatistical methods; evaluation of human exposure to chemicals, and their internal distribution, metabolism, reactions with cellular components, and biological effects; and qualitative and quantitative health risk assessment methods used in the U.S. as bases for regulatory decision-making. Throughout the term, students consider case studies of local and national interest. This course addresses the challenges of defining a relationship between exposure to environmental chemicals and human disease. Course topics include epidemiological approaches to understanding disease causation; biostatistical methods; evaluation of human exposure to chemicals, and their internal distribution, metabolism, reactions with cellular components, and biological effects; and qualitative and quantitative health risk assessment methods used in the U.S. as bases for regulatory decision-making. Throughout the term, students consider case studies of local and national interest.

Subjects

biostatistics | biostatistics | risk | risk | risk analysis | risk analysis | risk factor | risk factor | environmental agent | environmental agent | environetics | environetics | cause and effect | cause and effect | pollution | pollution | statistical analysis | statistical analysis | toxic | toxic | genetics | genetics | disease | disease | health | health | EPA | EPA | metabolism | metabolism | endocrine | endocrine | immunity | immunity | uncertainty | uncertainty | mortality | mortality | death rate | death rate | prediction | prediction

License

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BE.420J Biomolecular Kinetics and Cellular Dynamics (MIT) BE.420J Biomolecular Kinetics and Cellular Dynamics (MIT)

Description

This subject deals primarily with kinetic and equilibrium mathematical models of biomolecular interactions, as well as the application of these quantitative analyses to biological problems across a wide range of levels of organization, from individual molecular interactions to populations of cells. This subject deals primarily with kinetic and equilibrium mathematical models of biomolecular interactions, as well as the application of these quantitative analyses to biological problems across a wide range of levels of organization, from individual molecular interactions to populations of cells.

Subjects

receptor | receptor | ligand | ligand | signaling | signaling | enzyme | enzyme | binding | binding | hybridization | hybridization | cell | cell | dynamics | dynamics | metabolism | metabolism | regulation | regulation | kinetics | kinetics | BE.420 | BE.420 | 10.538J | 10.538J | 10.538 | 10.538

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10.442 Biochemical Engineering (MIT) 10.442 Biochemical Engineering (MIT)

Description

This course focuses on the interaction of chemical engineering, biochemistry, and microbiology. Mathematical representations of microbial systems are featured among lecture topics. Kinetics of growth, death, and metabolism are also covered. Continuous fermentation, agitation, mass transfer, and scale-up in fermentation systems, and enzyme technology round out the subject material. This course focuses on the interaction of chemical engineering, biochemistry, and microbiology. Mathematical representations of microbial systems are featured among lecture topics. Kinetics of growth, death, and metabolism are also covered. Continuous fermentation, agitation, mass transfer, and scale-up in fermentation systems, and enzyme technology round out the subject material.

Subjects

chemical engineering | chemical engineering | biochemistry | biochemistry | microbiology | microbiology | mathematical representations of microbial systems | mathematical representations of microbial systems | kinetics of growth | kinetics of growth | kinetics of death | kinetics of death | kinetics of metabolism | kinetics of metabolism | continuous fermentation | continuous fermentation | agitation | agitation | mass transfer | mass transfer | scale-up in fermentation systems | scale-up in fermentation systems | enzyme technology | enzyme technology

License

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Cancer Metabolism

Description

Dr Patrick Pollard tells us about his research on cancer metabolism. Cancer cells produce energy predominately by a high rate of glycolysis. It has been suggested that this change in metabolism is a fundamental cause of cancer. Dr Patrick Pollard aims to elucidate the alternative metabolic strategies used by cancer cells to proliferate, even under conditions of stress. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

renal cancer | hypoxia | fumarate hydratase | kidney | cancer metabolism | renal cancer | hypoxia | fumarate hydratase | kidney | cancer metabolism

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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HST.151 Principles of Pharmacology (MIT) HST.151 Principles of Pharmacology (MIT)

Description

The object of the course is to teach students an approach to the study of pharmacologic agents. It is not intended to be a review of the pharmacopoeia. The focus is on the basic principles of biophysics, biochemistry and physiology, as related to the mechanisms of drug action, biodistribution and metabolism. The course consists of lectures and student-led case discussions. Topics covered include: mechanisms of drug action, dose-response relations, pharmacokinetics, drug delivery systems, drug metabolism, toxicity of pharmacological agents, drug interaction and substance abuse. Selected agents and classes of agents are examined in detail. Lecturers Prof. Keith Baker Dr. Mark Dershwitz Harold Demonaco Dr. Daniel Kohane Dr. Donald Kufe Prof. Robert Langer Dr. Robert Lees Dr. Robert Rubin The object of the course is to teach students an approach to the study of pharmacologic agents. It is not intended to be a review of the pharmacopoeia. The focus is on the basic principles of biophysics, biochemistry and physiology, as related to the mechanisms of drug action, biodistribution and metabolism. The course consists of lectures and student-led case discussions. Topics covered include: mechanisms of drug action, dose-response relations, pharmacokinetics, drug delivery systems, drug metabolism, toxicity of pharmacological agents, drug interaction and substance abuse. Selected agents and classes of agents are examined in detail. Lecturers Prof. Keith Baker Dr. Mark Dershwitz Harold Demonaco Dr. Daniel Kohane Dr. Donald Kufe Prof. Robert Langer Dr. Robert Lees Dr. Robert Rubin

Subjects

health care | health care | pharmacology | pharmacology | pharmacologic agents | pharmacologic agents | medical | medical | pre-clinical | pre-clinical | biophysics | biophysics | biochemistry | biochemistry | physiology related to drug action | physiology related to drug action | interaction | interaction | distribution | distribution | metabolism | metabolism | toxicity | toxicity

License

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Metabolism of Fatty Acids

Description

Dr Barbara Fielding talks about her research on the metabolism of fatty acids. Dr Barbara Fielding believes that nutritional advice should be based on a thorough understanding of metabolic responses to food ingestion, and that it is important to investigate the metabolism of dietary fat after both single and multiple meals, as is customary daily behaviour in Western societies. Ultimately, this will help to make specific dietary recommendations. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

obesity | fat metabolism | diabetes | obesity | fat metabolism | diabetes

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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20.201 Mechanisms of Drug Actions (MIT) 20.201 Mechanisms of Drug Actions (MIT)

Description

This course covers the chemical and biological analysis of the metabolism and distribution of drugs, toxins and chemicals in animals and humans, and the mechanism by which they cause therapeutic and toxic responses. Metabolism and toxicity as a basis for drug development is also covered. This course covers the chemical and biological analysis of the metabolism and distribution of drugs, toxins and chemicals in animals and humans, and the mechanism by which they cause therapeutic and toxic responses. Metabolism and toxicity as a basis for drug development is also covered.

Subjects

pharmacology | pharmacology | toxicology | toxicology | drug actions | drug actions | therapeutics | therapeutics | histology | histology | pathophysiology | pathophysiology | drug therapy | drug therapy | drug transporters | drug transporters | drug metabolism | drug metabolism | drug toxicity | drug toxicity | drup development | drup development | uptake | uptake | transport | transport

License

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7.342 Sweet Discoveries: Unraveling the Complex World of Sugars in Health and Disease (MIT) 7.342 Sweet Discoveries: Unraveling the Complex World of Sugars in Health and Disease (MIT)

Description

Glycans, which are complex assemblies of sugars, are the most prevalent class of macromolecules, surpassing nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. Glycans are essential for life, as they are a required energy source, provide protection against cellular stresses and shape cellular structure. During this course, we will explore the many roles glycans play in human health and disease. For example, we will learn about the healthy glycosylation patterns of many mammalian proteins and the dynamic changes that glycan structures undergo during early development and cancer metastasis, the influence of dietary carbohydrates on glycan metabolism, and the role of densely glycosylated proteins involved in HIV infectivity. Concurrently, we will learn about the chemical and biological techniques used to det Glycans, which are complex assemblies of sugars, are the most prevalent class of macromolecules, surpassing nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. Glycans are essential for life, as they are a required energy source, provide protection against cellular stresses and shape cellular structure. During this course, we will explore the many roles glycans play in human health and disease. For example, we will learn about the healthy glycosylation patterns of many mammalian proteins and the dynamic changes that glycan structures undergo during early development and cancer metastasis, the influence of dietary carbohydrates on glycan metabolism, and the role of densely glycosylated proteins involved in HIV infectivity. Concurrently, we will learn about the chemical and biological techniques used to det

Subjects

Glycans | Glycans | glycobiology | glycobiology | glycosylation patterns | glycosylation patterns | glycoproteins | glycoproteins | glycan metabolism | glycan metabolism | glycosylated proteins | glycosylated proteins | protein-glycan interactions | protein-glycan interactions | high-throughput glycan arrays | high-throughput glycan arrays | O-glycans | O-glycans | N-linked glycosylation | N-linked glycosylation | glycosyl-amino acids | glycosyl-amino acids | Metabolic glycan labeling | Metabolic glycan labeling | synthetic antigens | synthetic antigens

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Human Physiology

Description

Physiology is the study of the processes of the body. This course is about the unconscious mechanics of living; the student will look at each organ system in detail and then discuss the ways in which the systems interact in order to maintain the body at an optimal state. Metabolism and homeostasis—or the maintenance of the body at a set, optimal level—will be the primary themes. This free course may be completed online at any time. See course site for detailed overview and learning outcomes. (Biology 304)

Subjects

biology | physiology | anatomy | muscular system | nervous system | structural system | endocrine system | cardiovascular system | respiratory system | urinary system | digestive system | metabolism | reproductive system | immune system | enzymes | cellular respiration | cellular metabolism | Biological sciences | C000

License

Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/

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12.491 Biogeochemistry of Sulfur (MIT) 12.491 Biogeochemistry of Sulfur (MIT)

Description

This course is designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current research around sulfur biogeochemistry and astrobiology. This course is designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current research around sulfur biogeochemistry and astrobiology.

Subjects

biogeochemistry | biogeochemistry | astrobiology | astrobiology | sulfur isotope | sulfur isotope | sulfur cycles | sulfur cycles | organic diagenesis | organic diagenesis | sulfur isotope biosignatures | sulfur isotope biosignatures | sulfidic oceans | sulfidic oceans | sulfur metabolisms | sulfur metabolisms

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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2.797J Molecular, Cellular, and Tissue Biomechanics (MIT) 2.797J Molecular, Cellular, and Tissue Biomechanics (MIT)

Description

This course develops and applies scaling laws and the methods of continuum mechanics to biomechanical phenomena over a range of length scales. Topics include structure of tissues and the molecular basis for macroscopic properties; chemical and electrical effects on mechanical behavior; cell mechanics, motility and adhesion; biomembranes; biomolecular mechanics and molecular motors. The class also examines experimental methods for probing structures at the tissue, cellular, and molecular levels. This course develops and applies scaling laws and the methods of continuum mechanics to biomechanical phenomena over a range of length scales. Topics include structure of tissues and the molecular basis for macroscopic properties; chemical and electrical effects on mechanical behavior; cell mechanics, motility and adhesion; biomembranes; biomolecular mechanics and molecular motors. The class also examines experimental methods for probing structures at the tissue, cellular, and molecular levels.

Subjects

molecular mechanics | molecular mechanics | tissue mechanics | tissue mechanics | cell mechanics | cell mechanics | molecular electromechanics | molecular electromechanics | electromechanical and physiochemical properties of tissues | electromechanical and physiochemical properties of tissues | physical regulation | physical regulation | cellular metabolism | cellular metabolism | tissue-level deformation | tissue-level deformation | muscle constriction | muscle constriction

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.014 Introductory Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.014 focuses on the application of these fundamental principles, toward an understanding of microorganisms as geochemical agents responsible for the evolution and renewal of the biosphere and of their role in human health

Subjects

microorganisms | geochemistry | geochemical agents | biosphere | bacterial genetics | carbon metabolism | energy metabolism | productivity | biogeochemical cycles | molecular evolution | population genetics | evolution | population growth | biology | biochemistry | genetics | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell signaling | cloning | stem cells | cancer | immunology | virology | genomics | molecular medicine | DNA | RNA | proteins | replication | transcription | mRNA | translation | ribosome | nervous system | amino acids | polypeptide chain | cell biology | neurobiology | gene regulation | protein structure | protein synthesis | gene structure | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum | ecology | communities

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Cancer Metabolism

Description

Dr Patrick Pollard tells us about his research on cancer metabolism. Cancer cells produce energy predominately by a high rate of glycolysis. It has been suggested that this change in metabolism is a fundamental cause of cancer. Dr Patrick Pollard aims to elucidate the alternative metabolic strategies used by cancer cells to proliferate, even under conditions of stress. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

renal cancer | hypoxia | fumarate hydratase | kidney | cancer metabolism | renal cancer | hypoxia | fumarate hydratase | kidney | cancer metabolism

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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HST.151 Principles of Pharmacology (MIT) HST.151 Principles of Pharmacology (MIT)

Description

The objective of this course is to present a conceptual approach to the study of pharmacological agents. Emphasis is on the principles that determine drug actions and disposition. The course is not intended to be a review of the pharmacopeia nor to replace discussions of specific relevant drugs in the organ systems Health Sciences and Technology pathophysiology courses. The objective of this course is to present a conceptual approach to the study of pharmacological agents. Emphasis is on the principles that determine drug actions and disposition. The course is not intended to be a review of the pharmacopeia nor to replace discussions of specific relevant drugs in the organ systems Health Sciences and Technology pathophysiology courses.

Subjects

health care | health care | pharmacology | pharmacology | pharmacologic agents | pharmacologic agents | medical | medical | pre-clinical | pre-clinical | biophysics | biophysics | biochemistry | biochemistry | physiology related to drug action | physiology related to drug action | interaction | interaction | distribution | distribution | metabolism | metabolism | toxicity | toxicity

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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