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Initial microstructures for C-Mn steels.

Description

CORE-Materials posted a photo: The image shows typical optical micrographs of the initial microstructures for (a) C-Mn steel with carbon contents of 0.35 wt pct - C35 and (b) C-Mn steel with carbon contents of 0.45 wt pct - C45. The microstructures consist of ferrite (F -white) and pearlite (P - dark )mixture with different phase volume fractions . Courtesy of V.I. Savran, Delft University of Technology; Y. van Leeuwen, the Nuclear Safety Department, The Hague; D.N. Hanlon, Corus Research, Ijmuiden; C. Kwakernaak, Delft University of Technology; W.G. Sloof, Delft University of Technology; J. Sietsma, Delft University of Technology.

Subjects

steel ferrite micrograph carbonsteel pearlite opticalmicrography

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Zn, cold rolled - mechanical twins

Description

This sample was cold rolled. Zinc has a hexagonal structure so it contains only two independent slip systems. However, for slip to occur, five slip systems are required so zinc does not undergo general plasticity. Instead it forms mechanical twins as an alternative to dislocation motion to accommodate the deformation.

Subjects

alloy | mechanical twins | metal | twinning | zinc | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Fe, C 0.15 (wt%) steel, quenched.

Description

A low carbon steel quenched in order to produce martensitic plates.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | quenching | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Tensile failure surface of a carbon fibre composite

Description

This is from the region of the fracture surface which was in tension. The fibres show clean, brittle fracture surfaces (with no fibrillation or distortion and little distortion of the matrix) and have broken at varying lengths and hence some stick out while others have left holes in the matrix. This is indicative of fibre pull-out having occurred after an initial failure of the matrix, followed by failure of the fibres themselves. This is a toughening mechanism in fibre reinforced composites. It is also involved in composite crack stopping properties; each fibre has briefly slowed the progress of the crack by opening it up along the weak fibre-matrix interface and hence blunting the crack tip. The crack therefore advances relatively slowly, with much lateral meandering.

Subjects

alignment | carbon | carbon fibres | CFC | composite material | epoxy | fibre | fracture | neutral axis | polymer composite | pull-out | reinforcement | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Oven-to-tableware

Description

Oven-to-tableware ceramics have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and therefore a high resistance to thermal shock, which makes them suitable for use at a wide range of temperatures.

Subjects

ceramic | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

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Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 65, Zn 35 (wt%) B4 brass, chill cast

Description

An good example of dendritic solidification, which occurs when the solidification front becomes unstable with respect to small perturbations. This results in the growth of the perturbations, producing dendrites (from the Greek for tree). Interdendritic β phase and purple-grey ZnO inclusions.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | dendrite | metal | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

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A medium carbon low alloyed structural steel

Description

The steel sample was etched in 4% picral solution first and revealed the presence of pearlite and carbides distinctly. Further tint etching in SMB resulted in the straw coloured martensite to appear as a band. Retained austenite is appearing as very fine white particles. The bainite is appearing as bluish-black background between the martensite constituents. Coarse dark grains are pearlite. Microhardness measurements and SEM studies further proved the constituents identity. Conventional nital etching is not successful in delineating all the micro-constituents so distinctly.

Subjects

alloy | metal | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

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Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 0.2 (wt%), explosively deformed - mechanical twins

Description

This sample was explosively deformed so that there was insufficient time for dislocation motion to occur. Hence, mechanical twins are produced despite the b.c.c. structure of mild steel.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | mechanical twins | metal | steel | twinning | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Fe, C 0.15 (wt%) steel, quenched.

Description

A low carbon steel quenched in order to produce martensitic plates.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | quenching | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Kevlar fibre composite fracture surface

Description

Because a relatively short beam was used, significant shear stresses existed in the beam, and failure has occurred principally by shear. In this mode, the specimen splits longitudinally along planes parallel to its neutral axis, due to shear failure within the matrix and at the weak interface between fibres and matrix. Matrix porosity (and particularly the long longitudinal voids present in this specimen), the poor wetting of fibres by the resin, and poor fibre distribution will all promote failure by shear. However, it may be that this failure mechanism has been partly inhibited by poor fibre alignment since some off-axis fibres will reinforce the matrix in shear

Subjects

alignment | composite material | epoxy | fibre | fibrillation | fracture | hackle region | Kevlar | liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) | lyotropic | polymer | polymer composite | reinforcement | shear | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Oven-to-tableware

Description

Oven-to-tableware ceramics have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and therefore a high resistance to thermal shock, which makes them suitable for use at a wide range of temperatures.

Subjects

ceramic | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 55, Zn 45 (wt%) brass, rapidly cooled

Description

Brasses with greater than 40% zinc usually consist of β primary dendrites surrounded by α phase. The lack of such a microstructure in this sample indicates that the cooling rate during casting was sufficiently rapid that dendrites were unable to form and consequently the microstructure consists entirely of β phase.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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TRIP steel annealed at 775°C for 5 mins and then hold at 400°C for 150s for austenite stabilization

Description

The steel microstructure reveals clearly the retained austenite as white, martensite as straw-coloured constituents, bainite can be identified with needle-shaped austenites (there is no carbide present due to the addition of Si). Many martensite-austenite constituents can be found in the microstructure which is revealed because of the tint etching. This is not possible with any other reported ethants/etching techniques for TRIP steels. The microstructure does not show presence of any carbides.

Subjects

alloy | bainite | metal | retained austenite | trip steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

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Fe, C 0.2 (wt%), explosively deformed - mechanical twins

Description

This sample was explosively deformed so that there was insufficient time for dislocation motion to occur. Hence, mechanical twins are produced despite the b.c.c. structure of mild steel.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | mechanical twins | metal | steel | twinning | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Fe, C 0.15 (wt%) steel, quenched.

Description

A low carbon steel quenched in order to produce martensitic plates.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | quenching | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Kevlar fibre composite shear surface

Description

This is an image of the shear surface in a failed composite beam. 'Hackles' of matrix are clearly visible where shear has occurred within the matrix and it is also clear that shear has occurred across the fibre/matrix interface. The fibres are for the most part totally unscathed, though some mis-aligned fibres have become caught between the shear surfaces and 'fibrillated' by rolling and bending actions. It may be that this failure mechanism has been partly inhibited by poor fibre alignment since some off-axis fibres will reinforce the matrix in shear. It will have been promoted, however, by the extensive longitudinal voids.

Subjects

alignment | composite material | epoxy | fibre | fibrillation | fracture | hackle region | Kevlar | liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) | lyotropic | polymer | polymer composite | reinforcement | shear | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Oven-to-tableware

Description

Oven-to-tableware ceramics have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and therefore a high resistance to thermal shock, which makes them suitable for use at a wide range of temperatures.

Subjects

ceramic | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 55, Zn 45 (wt%) brass, rapidly cooled

Description

Brasses with greater than 40% zinc usually consist of β primary dendrites surrounded by α phase. The lack of such a microstructure in this sample indicates that the cooling rate during casting was sufficiently rapid that dendrites were unable to form and consequently the microstructure consists entirely of β phase.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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TRIP steel annealed at 775°C for 5 mins and then hold at 400°C for 40s for austenite stabilization

Description

The microstructure shows martensite (straw-coloured), retained austenite (white) and some M-A constituents. Martensite volume fraction is higher than the steel which was hold for 150s at 400°C and cooled. Since the austenite is low in C-content for such a low holding time at 400°C, most of the austenite is transformed to martensite during cooling from 400°C to room temperature.

Subjects

alloy | bainite | metal | retained austenite | trip steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, Ni 30, C 0.3 (wt%), quenched - martensite plates

Description

This sample was quenched to -80 C to give a metastable martensitic microstructure. The martensite plates show a lenticular morphology as the material attempts to shear as it transforms but is unable to open up voids at the grain boundaries. The plates form in a similar way to mechanical twins but the shear processes lead to changes in crystal structure as well as crystallographic orientation.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | metastable | nickel | quenching | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Pearlitic malleable cast iron

Description

A cast iron with a relatively low carbon content. The sample has been normalised at 900 C for 72 hours in order to refine the grain size. The microstructure consists of pearlite with graphite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | iron | metal | normalising | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Kevlar fibre composite shear surface

Description

This is an image of the shear surface in a failed composite beam. 'Hackles' of matrix are clearly visible where shear has occurred within the matrix and it is also clear that shear has occurred across the fibre/matrix interface. The fibres are for the most part totally unscathed, though some mis-aligned fibres have become caught between the shear surfaces and 'fibrillated' by rolling and bending actions. It may be that this failure mechanism has been partly inhibited by poor fibre alignment since some off-axis fibres will reinforce the matrix in shear. It will have been promoted, however, by the extensive longitudinal voids.

Subjects

alignment | composite material | epoxy | fibre | fibrillation | fracture | hackle region | Kevlar | liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) | lyotropic | polymer | polymer composite | reinforcement | shear | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Oven-to-tableware

Description

Oven-to-tableware ceramics have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and therefore a high resistance to thermal shock, which makes them suitable for use at a wide range of temperatures.

Subjects

ceramic | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 55, Zn 45 (wt%) brass, rapidly cooled

Description

Brasses with greater than 40% zinc usually consist of β primary dendrites surrounded by α phase. The lack of such a microstructure in this sample indicates that the cooling rate during casting was sufficiently rapid that dendrites were unable to form and consequently the microstructure consists entirely of β phase.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, Ni 30, C 0.3 (wt%), quenched - martensite plates

Description

This sample was quenched to -80 C to give a metastable martensitic microstructure. The martensite plates show a lenticular morphology as the material attempts to shear as it transforms but is unable to open up voids at the grain boundaries. The plates form in a similar way to mechanical twins but the shear processes lead to changes in crystal structure as well as crystallographic orientation.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | metastable | nickel | quenching | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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