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24.973 Advanced Semantics (MIT) 24.973 Advanced Semantics (MIT)

Description

This course is the second of the three parts of our graduate introduction to semantics. The others are 24.970 Introduction to Semantics and 24.954 Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory. Like the other courses, this one is not meant as an overview of the field and its current developments. Our aim is to help you to develop the ability for semantic analysis, and we think that exploring a few topics in detail together with hands-on practical work is more effective than offering a bird's-eye view of everything. Once you have gained some experience in doing semantic analysis, reading around in the many recent handbooks and in current issues of major journals and attending our seminars and colloquia will give you all you need to prosper. Because we want to focus, we need to make difficult choices as This course is the second of the three parts of our graduate introduction to semantics. The others are 24.970 Introduction to Semantics and 24.954 Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory. Like the other courses, this one is not meant as an overview of the field and its current developments. Our aim is to help you to develop the ability for semantic analysis, and we think that exploring a few topics in detail together with hands-on practical work is more effective than offering a bird's-eye view of everything. Once you have gained some experience in doing semantic analysis, reading around in the many recent handbooks and in current issues of major journals and attending our seminars and colloquia will give you all you need to prosper. Because we want to focus, we need to make difficult choices as

Subjects

semantics | semantics | logic | logic | meaning | meaning | syntactic systems | syntactic systems | generative grammar | generative grammar | displacement | displacement | intensional semantics | intensional semantics | Hintikka's idea | Hintikka's idea | accessibility relations | accessibility relations | modality | modality | quantificational theory of modality | quantificational theory of modality | material implication analysis | material implication analysis | strict implication analysis | strict implication analysis | tense | tense | conditionals | conditionals | progressive | progressive | perfect | perfect | de re | de re | de dicto | de dicto | raised subjects | raised subjects | scope paradox | scope paradox | overt world variables | overt world variables | restrictors | restrictors | syntax movement | syntax movement | wh-movement | wh-movement | DP | DP | VP | VP

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.910 Topics in Linguistics Theory (MIT) 24.910 Topics in Linguistics Theory (MIT)

Description

I realize that "Modes of Assertion" is a rather cryptic title for the course. What we will explore are ways of modulating the force of an assertion. This will engage us in formal semantics and pragmatics, the theory of speech acts and performative utterances, and quite a bit of empirical work on a not-too-well understood complex of data. "It is obvious that he made a big mistake." If you're like me you didn't feel much of a difference. But now see what happens when you embed the two sentences: "We have to fire him, because he obviously made a big mistake." "We have to fire him, because it is obvious that he made a big mistake." One of the two examples is unremarkable, the other suggests that the reason he needs to be fired is not that he made a big I realize that "Modes of Assertion" is a rather cryptic title for the course. What we will explore are ways of modulating the force of an assertion. This will engage us in formal semantics and pragmatics, the theory of speech acts and performative utterances, and quite a bit of empirical work on a not-too-well understood complex of data. "It is obvious that he made a big mistake." If you're like me you didn't feel much of a difference. But now see what happens when you embed the two sentences: "We have to fire him, because he obviously made a big mistake." "We have to fire him, because it is obvious that he made a big mistake." One of the two examples is unremarkable, the other suggests that the reason he needs to be fired is not that he made a big

Subjects

linguistic theory | linguistic theory | semantics | semantics | typology | typology | preformatics | preformatics | modality | modality | evidentiality | evidentiality | embedded assertions | embedded assertions | modes of assertion | modes of assertion | modulation | modulation | force | force | formal semantics | formal semantics | pragmatics | pragmatics | speech acts | speech acts | performative utterances | performative utterances | language constructions | language constructions | English | English | German | German | Quechua | Quechua | Tibetan | Tibetan | evidentiality marking | evidentiality marking | epistemic modality | epistemic modality | performatives | performatives | evidentials | evidentials | direct evidentiality | direct evidentiality | indirect evidentiality | indirect evidentiality | conditionals | conditionals | Faller?s ideas | Faller?s ideas | best possible grounds | best possible grounds

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.244 Modal Logic (MIT) 24.244 Modal Logic (MIT)

Description

Modal logic is the logic of necessity and possibility, and by extension of analogously paired notions like validity and consistency, obligation and permission, the known and the not-ruled-out. This a first course in the area. A solid background in first-order logic is essential. Topics to be covered include (some or all of) the main systems of propositional modal logic, Kripkean "possible world" semantics, strict implication, contingent identity, intensional objects, counterpart theory, the logic of actuality, and deontic and / or epistemic logic. The emphasis will be more on technical methods and results than philosophical applications. Modal logic is the logic of necessity and possibility, and by extension of analogously paired notions like validity and consistency, obligation and permission, the known and the not-ruled-out. This a first course in the area. A solid background in first-order logic is essential. Topics to be covered include (some or all of) the main systems of propositional modal logic, Kripkean "possible world" semantics, strict implication, contingent identity, intensional objects, counterpart theory, the logic of actuality, and deontic and / or epistemic logic. The emphasis will be more on technical methods and results than philosophical applications.

Subjects

W. V. Quine's modal logic | W. V. Quine's modal logic | Lewis's S1 and S2 | Lewis's S1 and S2 | propositional modal logic | propositional modal logic | completeness | completeness | frames and models | frames and models | tense logic | tense logic | combining modality and tense | combining modality and tense | epistemic logic | epistemic logic | quantified modal logic | quantified modal logic

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.954 Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory (MIT) 24.954 Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory (MIT)

Description

The course introduces formal theories of context-dependency, presupposition, implicature, context-change, focus and topic. Special emphasis is on the division of labor between semantics and pragmatics. It also covers applications to the analysis of quantification, definiteness, presupposition projection, conditionals and modality, anaphora, questions and answers. The course introduces formal theories of context-dependency, presupposition, implicature, context-change, focus and topic. Special emphasis is on the division of labor between semantics and pragmatics. It also covers applications to the analysis of quantification, definiteness, presupposition projection, conditionals and modality, anaphora, questions and answers.

Subjects

context-dependency | context-dependency | presupposition | presupposition | implicature | implicature | context-change | context-change | focus | focus | topic | topic | semantics | semantics | pragmatics | pragmatics | quantification | quantification | definiteness | definiteness | presupposition projection | presupposition projection | conditionals | conditionals | modality | modality | anaphora | anaphora | questions | questions | answers | answers

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.921 Special Topics in Linguistics: Genericity (MIT) 24.921 Special Topics in Linguistics: Genericity (MIT)

Description

This course will investigate the semantics of generic sentences, i.e., sentences that are used to talk about habits, tendencies, dispositions, or kinds. For instance: Dogs are good pets. The giant panda is an endangered species. A soccer player makes lots of money. Mary smokes after dinner. This machine crushes oranges. This is a half-semester course. This course will investigate the semantics of generic sentences, i.e., sentences that are used to talk about habits, tendencies, dispositions, or kinds. For instance: Dogs are good pets. The giant panda is an endangered species. A soccer player makes lots of money. Mary smokes after dinner. This machine crushes oranges. This is a half-semester course.

Subjects

semantics of generic sentences | semantics of generic sentences | modality | modality | adverbial quantifiers | adverbial quantifiers | semantics of aspect | semantics of aspect

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.954 Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory (MIT) 24.954 Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory (MIT)

Description

The course introduces formal theories of context-dependency, presupposition, implicature, context-change, focus and topic. Special emphasis is on the division of labor between semantics and pragmatics. It also covers applications to the analysis of quantification, definiteness, presupposition projection, conditionals and modality, anaphora, questions and answers. The course introduces formal theories of context-dependency, presupposition, implicature, context-change, focus and topic. Special emphasis is on the division of labor between semantics and pragmatics. It also covers applications to the analysis of quantification, definiteness, presupposition projection, conditionals and modality, anaphora, questions and answers.

Subjects

context-dependency | context-dependency | presupposition | presupposition | implicature | implicature | context-change | context-change | focus and topic | focus and topic | division of labor | division of labor | semantics | semantics | pragmatics | pragmatics | quantification | quantification | definiteness | definiteness | presupposition projection | presupposition projection | conditionals | conditionals | modality | modality | anaphora | anaphora

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.973 Advanced Semantics (MIT)

Description

This course is the second of the three parts of our graduate introduction to semantics. The others are 24.970 Introduction to Semantics and 24.954 Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory. Like the other courses, this one is not meant as an overview of the field and its current developments. Our aim is to help you to develop the ability for semantic analysis, and we think that exploring a few topics in detail together with hands-on practical work is more effective than offering a bird's-eye view of everything. Once you have gained some experience in doing semantic analysis, reading around in the many recent handbooks and in current issues of major journals and attending our seminars and colloquia will give you all you need to prosper. Because we want to focus, we need to make difficult choices as

Subjects

semantics | logic | meaning | syntactic systems | generative grammar | displacement | intensional semantics | Hintikka's idea | accessibility relations | modality | quantificational theory of modality | material implication analysis | strict implication analysis | tense | conditionals | progressive | perfect | de re | de dicto | raised subjects | scope paradox | overt world variables | restrictors | syntax movement | wh-movement | DP | VP

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.910 Topics in Linguistics Theory (MIT)

Description

I realize that "Modes of Assertion" is a rather cryptic title for the course. What we will explore are ways of modulating the force of an assertion. This will engage us in formal semantics and pragmatics, the theory of speech acts and performative utterances, and quite a bit of empirical work on a not-too-well understood complex of data. "It is obvious that he made a big mistake." If you're like me you didn't feel much of a difference. But now see what happens when you embed the two sentences: "We have to fire him, because he obviously made a big mistake." "We have to fire him, because it is obvious that he made a big mistake." One of the two examples is unremarkable, the other suggests that the reason he needs to be fired is not that he made a big

Subjects

linguistic theory | semantics | typology | preformatics | modality | evidentiality | embedded assertions | modes of assertion | modulation | force | formal semantics | pragmatics | speech acts | performative utterances | language constructions | English | German | Quechua | Tibetan | evidentiality marking | epistemic modality | performatives | evidentials | direct evidentiality | indirect evidentiality | conditionals | Faller?s ideas | best possible grounds

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.910 Topics in Linguistics Theory (MIT)

Description

I realize that "Modes of Assertion" is a rather cryptic title for the course. What we will explore are ways of modulating the force of an assertion. This will engage us in formal semantics and pragmatics, the theory of speech acts and performative utterances, and quite a bit of empirical work on a not-too-well understood complex of data. "It is obvious that he made a big mistake." If you're like me you didn't feel much of a difference. But now see what happens when you embed the two sentences: "We have to fire him, because he obviously made a big mistake." "We have to fire him, because it is obvious that he made a big mistake." One of the two examples is unremarkable, the other suggests that the reason he needs to be fired is not that he made a big

Subjects

linguistic theory | semantics | typology | preformatics | modality | evidentiality | embedded assertions | modes of assertion | modulation | force | formal semantics | pragmatics | speech acts | performative utterances | language constructions | English | German | Quechua | Tibetan | evidentiality marking | epistemic modality | performatives | evidentials | direct evidentiality | indirect evidentiality | conditionals | Faller?s ideas | best possible grounds

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.954 Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory (MIT) 24.954 Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory (MIT)

Description

Formal theories of context-dependency, presupposition, implicature, context-change, focus and topic. Special emphasis on the division of labor between semantics and pragmatics. Applications to the analysis of quantification, definiteness, presupposition projection, conditionals and modality, anaphora, questions and answers. Formal theories of context-dependency, presupposition, implicature, context-change, focus and topic. Special emphasis on the division of labor between semantics and pragmatics. Applications to the analysis of quantification, definiteness, presupposition projection, conditionals and modality, anaphora, questions and answers.

Subjects

context-dependency | context-dependency | presupposition | presupposition | implicature | implicature | context-change | context-change | focus | focus | topic | topic | semantics | semantics | pragmatics | pragmatics | quantification | quantification | definiteness | definiteness | presupposition projection | presupposition projection | conditionals | conditionals | modality | modality | anaphora | anaphora | questions | questions | answers | answers

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.954 Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory (MIT)

Description

Formal theories of context-dependency, presupposition, implicature, context-change, focus and topic. Special emphasis on the division of labor between semantics and pragmatics. Applications to the analysis of quantification, definiteness, presupposition projection, conditionals and modality, anaphora, questions and answers.

Subjects

context-dependency | presupposition | implicature | context-change | focus | topic | semantics | pragmatics | quantification | definiteness | presupposition projection | conditionals | modality | anaphora | questions | answers

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.954 Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory (MIT)

Description

The course introduces formal theories of context-dependency, presupposition, implicature, context-change, focus and topic. Special emphasis is on the division of labor between semantics and pragmatics. It also covers applications to the analysis of quantification, definiteness, presupposition projection, conditionals and modality, anaphora, questions and answers.

Subjects

context-dependency | presupposition | implicature | context-change | focus | topic | semantics | pragmatics | quantification | definiteness | presupposition projection | conditionals | modality | anaphora | questions | answers

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.921 Special Topics in Linguistics: Genericity (MIT)

Description

This course will investigate the semantics of generic sentences, i.e., sentences that are used to talk about habits, tendencies, dispositions, or kinds. For instance: Dogs are good pets. The giant panda is an endangered species. A soccer player makes lots of money. Mary smokes after dinner. This machine crushes oranges. This is a half-semester course.

Subjects

semantics of generic sentences | modality | adverbial quantifiers | semantics of aspect

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.954 Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory (MIT)

Description

The course introduces formal theories of context-dependency, presupposition, implicature, context-change, focus and topic. Special emphasis is on the division of labor between semantics and pragmatics. It also covers applications to the analysis of quantification, definiteness, presupposition projection, conditionals and modality, anaphora, questions and answers.

Subjects

context-dependency | presupposition | implicature | context-change | focus and topic | division of labor | semantics | pragmatics | quantification | definiteness | presupposition projection | conditionals | modality | anaphora

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.244 Modal Logic (MIT)

Description

Modal logic is the logic of necessity and possibility, and by extension of analogously paired notions like validity and consistency, obligation and permission, the known and the not-ruled-out. This a first course in the area. A solid background in first-order logic is essential. Topics to be covered include (some or all of) the main systems of propositional modal logic, Kripkean "possible world" semantics, strict implication, contingent identity, intensional objects, counterpart theory, the logic of actuality, and deontic and / or epistemic logic. The emphasis will be more on technical methods and results than philosophical applications.

Subjects

W. V. Quine's modal logic | Lewis's S1 and S2 | propositional modal logic | completeness | frames and models | tense logic | combining modality and tense | epistemic logic | quantified modal logic

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.954 Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory (MIT)

Description

The course introduces formal theories of context-dependency, presupposition, implicature, context-change, focus and topic. Special emphasis is on the division of labor between semantics and pragmatics. It also covers applications to the analysis of quantification, definiteness, presupposition projection, conditionals and modality, anaphora, questions and answers.

Subjects

context-dependency | presupposition | implicature | context-change | focus and topic | division of labor | semantics | pragmatics | quantification | definiteness | presupposition projection | conditionals | modality | anaphora

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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