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Pearlitic malleable cast iron

Description

A cast iron with a relatively low carbon content. The sample has been normalised at 900 C for 72 hours in order to refine the grain size. The microstructure consists of pearlite with graphite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | iron | metal | normalising | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Pearlitic malleable cast iron

Description

A cast iron with a relatively low carbon content. The sample has been normalised at 900 C for 72 hours in order to refine the grain size. The microstructure consists of pearlite with graphite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | iron | metal | normalising | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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http://core.materials.ac.uk/rss/doitpoms_images.xml

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Pearlitic malleable cast iron

Description

A cast iron with a relatively low carbon content. The sample has been normalised at 900 C for 72 hours in order to refine the grain size. The microstructure consists of pearlite with graphite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | iron | metal | normalising | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Pearlitic malleable cast iron

Description

A cast iron with a relatively low carbon content. Upon cooling the austenite transforms to pearlite at the eutectoid temperature, leaving a microstructure of pearlite and graphite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | iron | metal | normalising | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Pearlitic malleable cast iron

Description

A cast iron with a relatively low carbon content. Upon cooling the austenite transforms to pearlite at the eutectoid temperature, leaving a microstructure of pearlite and graphite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | iron | metal | normalising | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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White cast iron, annealed to precipitate out carbon

Description

A cast iron with a relatively low carbon content. The sample has been normalised at 900 C for 72 hours. This causes the carbon in the pearlite to precipitate out, leaving graphite in a ferritic matrix.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | iron | metal | normalising | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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White cast iron, annealed to precipitate out carbon

Description

A cast iron with a relatively low carbon content. The sample has been normalised at 900 C for 72 hours. This causes the carbon in the pearlite to precipitate out, leaving graphite in a ferritic matrix.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | iron | metal | normalising | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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As cast white cast iron

Description

As cast white iron with microstructure consisting of cementite, pearlite and transformed ledeburite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | iron | metal | normalising | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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As cast white cast iron

Description

As cast white iron with microstructure consisting of cementite, pearlite and transformed ledeburite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | iron | metal | normalising | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Normalised low carbon steel, showing directionality

Description

Wrought iron contains a very low amount of carbon. The resulting microstructure is therefore virtually all of the ferrite phase, since upon reaching the eutectic temperature virtually all of the austenite will have transformed to ferrite. The remainder of the microstructure consists of stringers of slag, which are unaffected by normalisation.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | directionality | iron | metal | normalising | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Normalised low carbon steel, showing directionality

Description

Wrought iron contains a very low amount of carbon. The resulting microstructure is therefore virtually all of the ferrite phase, since upon reaching the eutectic temperature virtually all of the austenite will have transformed to ferrite. The remainder of the microstructure consists of stringers of slag, which are unaffected by normalisation.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | directionality | iron | metal | normalising | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Normalised low carbon manganese steel, showing directionality

Description

Low carbon steel with a microstructure consisting mostly of ferrite. Manganese is added to steel to remove oxygen and sulphur. It causes a reduction in the resulting grain size and hence the steel is tougher and stronger. This sample has been normalised, recrystallising the ferrite. The pearlite is unable to do this and consequently retains its directionality.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | directionality | iron | metal | normalising | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Normalised low carbon manganese steel, showing directionality

Description

Low carbon steel with a microstructure consisting mostly of ferrite. Manganese is added to steel to remove oxygen and sulphur. It causes a reduction in the resulting grain size and hence the steel is tougher and stronger. This sample has been normalised, recrystallising the ferrite. The pearlite is unable to do this and consequently retains its directionality.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | directionality | iron | metal | normalising | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Normalised low carbon manganese steel, taken transverse to directionality

Description

Low carbon steel with a microstructure consisting mostly of ferrite. Manganese is added to steel to remove oxygen and sulphur. It causes a reduction in the resulting grain size and hence the steel is tougher and stronger. This sample has been normalised, recrystallising the ferrite. This micrograph has been taken transverse to the directionality and hence the directionality present in the pearlite is not apparent

Subjects

alloy | carbon | directionality | iron | metal | normalising | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Normalised low carbon manganese steel, taken transverse to directionality

Description

Low carbon steel with a microstructure consisting mostly of ferrite. Manganese is added to steel to remove oxygen and sulphur. It causes a reduction in the resulting grain size and hence the steel is tougher and stronger. This sample has been normalised, recrystallising the ferrite. This micrograph has been taken transverse to the directionality and hence the directionality present in the carbide is not apparent

Subjects

alloy | carbon | directionality | iron | metal | normalising | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Normalised carbon steel

Description

Low carbon steel with a microstructure consisting mostly of ferrite with the darker pearlite regions around the ferrite grains. Upon cooling the steel the ferrite forms initially, either on austenite grain boundaries or inclusions. This causes carbon to be partitioned into the austenite. Eventually the remaining austenite will be at the eutectoid condition and the transformation to pearlite will then take place. This sample has been normalised, removing the directionality caused by casting

Subjects

alloy | carbon | eutectoid reaction | iron | metal | normalising | pearlite | recrystallisation | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 1.3 (wt%) steel, normalised at 1050°C

Description

An example of a hypereutectoid steel (one that has a carbon composition above that of the eutectic). Upon cooling from the austenite field, the first phase to form is cementite on the austenite grain boundaries. This partitions iron and at the eutectic composition pearlite is formed from the remaining enriched austenite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | hypereutectoid | iron | metal | normalising | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 1.3 (wt%) steel, normalised at 1050°C

Description

An example of a hypereutectoid steel (one that has a carbon composition above that of the eutectic). Upon cooling from the austenite field, the first phase to form is cementite on the austenite grain boundaries. This partitions iron and at the eutectic composition pearlite is formed from the remaining enriched austenite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | hypereutectoid | iron | metal | normalising | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 1.3 (wt%) steel, normalised at 1050°C

Description

An example of a hypereutectoid steel (one that has a carbon composition above that of the eutectic). Upon cooling from the austenite field, the first phase to form is cementite on the austenite grain boundaries. This partitions iron and at the eutectic composition pearlite is formed from the remaining enriched austenite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | hypereutectoid | iron | metal | normalising | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 1.3 (wt%) steel, annealed at 1000°C

Description

An example of a hypereutectoid steel (one that has a carbon composition above that of the eutectic). Upon cooling from the austenite field, the first phase to form is cementite on the austenite grain boundaries. This partitions iron and at the eutectic composition pearlite is formed from the remaining enriched austenite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | hypereutectoid | iron | metal | normalising | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 1.3 (wt%) steel, annealed at 1000°C

Description

An example of a hypereutectoid steel (one that has a carbon composition above that of the eutectic). Upon cooling from the austenite field, the first phase to form is cementite on the austenite grain boundaries. This partitions iron and at the eutectic composition pearlite is formed from the remaining enriched austenite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | hypereutectoid | iron | metal | normalising | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 1.3 (wt%) steel, annealed at 1000°C

Description

An example of a hypereutectoid steel (one that has a carbon composition above that of the eutectic). Upon cooling from the austenite field, the first phase to form is cementite on the austenite grain boundaries. This partitions iron and at the eutectic composition pearlite is formed from the remaining enriched austenite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | hypereutectoid | iron | metal | normalising | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 1 (wt%) steel, normalised hypereutectoid

Description

An example of a hypereutectoid steel (one that has a carbon composition above that of the eutectic). Upon cooling from the austenite field, the first phase to form is cementite on the austenite grain boundaries. This partitions iron and at the eutectic composition pearlite is formed from the remaining enriched austenite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | hypereutectoid | iron | metal | normalising | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 1 (wt%) steel, normalised hypereutectoid

Description

An example of a hypereutectoid steel (one that has a carbon composition above that of the eutectic). Upon cooling from the austenite field, the first phase to form is cementite on the austenite grain boundaries. This partitions iron and at the eutectic composition pearlite is formed from the remaining enriched austenite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | hypereutectoid | iron | metal | normalising | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 1.1 (wt%) steel, normalised hypereutectoid

Description

An example of a hypereutectoid steel (one that has a carbon composition above that of the eutectic). Upon cooling from the austenite field, the first phase to form is cementite on the austenite grain boundaries. This partitions iron and at the eutectic composition pearlite is formed from the remaining enriched austenite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | hypereutectoid | iron | metal | normalising | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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