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7.340 Immune Evasion: How Sneaky Pathogens Avoid Host Surveillance (MIT) 7.340 Immune Evasion: How Sneaky Pathogens Avoid Host Surveillance (MIT)

Description

Every infection consists of a battle between the invading pathogen and the resisting host. To be successful, a pathogen must escape the many defenses of the host immune system until it can replicate and spread to another host. A pathogen must prevent one of three stages of immune function: detection, activation, or effector function. Examples of disease-specific immune evasion and the mechanisms used by pathogens to prevail over their hosts' immune systems are discussed. Also considered is what these host-pathogen interactions reveal about the normal function of the immune system and basic cell biological processes, such as protein maturation and degradation. Every infection consists of a battle between the invading pathogen and the resisting host. To be successful, a pathogen must escape the many defenses of the host immune system until it can replicate and spread to another host. A pathogen must prevent one of three stages of immune function: detection, activation, or effector function. Examples of disease-specific immune evasion and the mechanisms used by pathogens to prevail over their hosts' immune systems are discussed. Also considered is what these host-pathogen interactions reveal about the normal function of the immune system and basic cell biological processes, such as protein maturation and degradation.

Subjects

immunology | immunology | immune system | immune system | immune evasion | immune evasion | pathogen | pathogen | effector function | effector function | infections | infections | Human cytomegalovirus | Human cytomegalovirus | Human Immunodeficiency Virus | Human Immunodeficiency Virus | CD4 cells | CD4 cells | CD8 cells | CD8 cells | T cells | T cells | surace receptors | surace receptors | cell lysis | cell lysis | host-pathogen interactions | host-pathogen interactions | host surveillance | host surveillance | antibodies | antibodies | MHC class I | MHC class I | blood-borne pathogens | blood-borne pathogens | macrophages | macrophages | phagocytosis | phagocytosis | endocytosis | endocytosis | degradation | degradation | antigen | antigen | apoptosis | apoptosis | cytokines | cytokines | immune response | immune response

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7.340 Unusual Biology: The Science of Emerging Pathogens (MIT) 7.340 Unusual Biology: The Science of Emerging Pathogens (MIT)

Description

Infectious diseases represent a serious global public health problem. They have the potential to kill millions of people, whether they emerge naturally as outbreaks or pandemics, or deliberately through bioterrorism. Some examples of diseases caused by emerging pathogens are the Bubonic Plague, Toxoplasmosis, African Sleeping Sickness, and Chagas Disease. Each day, infectious disease scientists serve on the front lines protecting us from such threats. In this course students will learn how to design and critique experiments through the discussion of primary research articles that explore the molecular basis of disease caused by emerging pathogens. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students w Infectious diseases represent a serious global public health problem. They have the potential to kill millions of people, whether they emerge naturally as outbreaks or pandemics, or deliberately through bioterrorism. Some examples of diseases caused by emerging pathogens are the Bubonic Plague, Toxoplasmosis, African Sleeping Sickness, and Chagas Disease. Each day, infectious disease scientists serve on the front lines protecting us from such threats. In this course students will learn how to design and critique experiments through the discussion of primary research articles that explore the molecular basis of disease caused by emerging pathogens. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students w

Subjects

pathogens | pathogens | Infectious diseases | Infectious diseases | parasite | parasite | host cell | host cell | gene expression | gene expression | Toxoplasma rhoptry protein 16 (ROP16) | Toxoplasma rhoptry protein 16 (ROP16) | Toxoplasma gondii | Toxoplasma gondii | STAT6 | STAT6 | Plasmodium falciparum | Plasmodium falciparum | malaria | malaria | RON8 | RON8 | Trypanosoma cruzi | Trypanosoma cruzi | Chagas disease | Chagas disease | Listeria monocytogenes | Listeria monocytogenes | Leishmaniasis | Leishmaniasis | Francisella | Francisella | pathogen proliferation | pathogen proliferation

License

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7.343 Sophisticated Survival Skills of Simple Microorganisms (MIT) 7.343 Sophisticated Survival Skills of Simple Microorganisms (MIT)

Description

In this course, we will discuss the microbial physiology and genetics of stress responses in aquatic ecosystems, astrobiology, bacterial pathogenesis and other environments. We will learn about classical and novel methods utilized by researchers to uncover bacterial mechanisms induced under both general and environment-specific stresses. Finally, we will compare and contrast models for bacterial stress responses to gain an understanding of distinct mechanisms of survival and of why there are differences among bacterial genera. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly In this course, we will discuss the microbial physiology and genetics of stress responses in aquatic ecosystems, astrobiology, bacterial pathogenesis and other environments. We will learn about classical and novel methods utilized by researchers to uncover bacterial mechanisms induced under both general and environment-specific stresses. Finally, we will compare and contrast models for bacterial stress responses to gain an understanding of distinct mechanisms of survival and of why there are differences among bacterial genera. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly

Subjects

microbial physiology | microbial physiology | genetics | genetics | stress | stress | astrobiology | astrobiology | pathogenesis | pathogenesis | Escherichia coli | Escherichia coli | cyanobacteria | cyanobacteria | bleaching | bleaching | deprivation | deprivation | chlorosis | chlorosis | pollutants | pollutants | methylobacteria | methylobacteria | pathogen | pathogen | reactive oxygen species | reactive oxygen species | infection | infection | superoxides | superoxides | phage | phage | Deinococcus | Deinococcus | Raman spectroscopy | Raman spectroscopy

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7.340 Under the Radar Screen: How Bugs Trick Our Immune Defenses (MIT) 7.340 Under the Radar Screen: How Bugs Trick Our Immune Defenses (MIT)

Description

In this course, we will explore the specific ways by which microbes defeat our immune system and the molecular mechanisms that are under attack (phagocytosis, the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway, MHC I/II antigen presentation). Through our discussion and dissection of the primary research literature, we will explore aspects of host-pathogen interactions. We will particularly emphasize the experimental techniques used in the field and how to read and understand research data. Technological advances in the fight against microbes will also be discussed, with specific examples. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about In this course, we will explore the specific ways by which microbes defeat our immune system and the molecular mechanisms that are under attack (phagocytosis, the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway, MHC I/II antigen presentation). Through our discussion and dissection of the primary research literature, we will explore aspects of host-pathogen interactions. We will particularly emphasize the experimental techniques used in the field and how to read and understand research data. Technological advances in the fight against microbes will also be discussed, with specific examples. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about

Subjects

HIV | HIV | mycobacterium tuberculosis | mycobacterium tuberculosis | malaria | malaria | influenza | influenza | immune system | immune system | pathogens | pathogens | viruses | viruses | bacteria | bacteria | parasites | parasites | microbes | microbes | phagocytosis | phagocytosis | ubiquitin/proteasome pathway | ubiquitin/proteasome pathway | MHC I/II antigen presentation | MHC I/II antigen presentation | Salmonella | Salmonella | pathogen-associated molecular patterns | pathogen-associated molecular patterns | PAMP | PAMP | Toll-like receptors | Toll-like receptors | TLR | TLR | Vaccinia virus | Vaccinia virus | Proteasome | Proteasome | Ubiquitin; deubiquinating enzymes | Ubiquitin; deubiquinating enzymes | DUB | DUB | Herpes simplex virus | Herpes simplex virus | HSV | HSV | Yersinia | Yersinia | viral budding | viral budding | Human cytomegalovirus | Human cytomegalovirus | HCMV | HCMV | Histocompatiblity | Histocompatiblity | AIDS | AIDS | Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpes virus | Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpes virus | Mixoma virus | Mixoma virus | Epstein Barr virus | Epstein Barr virus | EBV | EBV | Burkitt?s B cell lymphoma | Burkitt?s B cell lymphoma

License

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Immunology basics Immunology basics

Description

This is a module framework. It can be viewed online or downloaded as a zip file. As taught Autumn semester 2009 Infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The body fights infection through the functions of the immune system, whose power has been harnessed by the development of vaccination (immunisation). Suitable for study at: Undergraduate levels 1 and 2. Dr Ian Todd, School of Molecular Medical Sciences Dr Ian Todd is Associate Professor & Reader in Cellular Immunopathology at The University of Nottingham. After reading Biochemistry at The University of Oxford, he carried out research for his PhD in Immunology at University College London. He then undertook post-doctoral research at The Oregon Health Sciences University and The Middlesex Hospital Medica This is a module framework. It can be viewed online or downloaded as a zip file. As taught Autumn semester 2009 Infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The body fights infection through the functions of the immune system, whose power has been harnessed by the development of vaccination (immunisation). Suitable for study at: Undergraduate levels 1 and 2. Dr Ian Todd, School of Molecular Medical Sciences Dr Ian Todd is Associate Professor & Reader in Cellular Immunopathology at The University of Nottingham. After reading Biochemistry at The University of Oxford, he carried out research for his PhD in Immunology at University College London. He then undertook post-doctoral research at The Oregon Health Sciences University and The Middlesex Hospital Medica

Subjects

UNow | UNow | UKOER | UKOER | Immunology | Immunology | Introduction to immunology | Introduction to immunology | Recognition of extracellular pathogens | Recognition of extracellular pathogens | Defence against extracellular pathogens | Defence against extracellular pathogens | T cell-mediated immunity | T cell-mediated immunity | Helper T cells and cytokines | Helper T cells and cytokines | Immunity to viruses | Immunity to viruses

License

Except for third party materials (materials owned by someone other than The University of Nottingham) and where otherwise indicated, the copyright in the content provided in this resource is owned by The University of Nottingham and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike UK 2.0 Licence (BY-NC-SA) Except for third party materials (materials owned by someone other than The University of Nottingham) and where otherwise indicated, the copyright in the content provided in this resource is owned by The University of Nottingham and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike UK 2.0 Licence (BY-NC-SA)

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7.340 Immune Evasion: How Sneaky Pathogens Avoid Host Surveillance (MIT)

Description

Every infection consists of a battle between the invading pathogen and the resisting host. To be successful, a pathogen must escape the many defenses of the host immune system until it can replicate and spread to another host. A pathogen must prevent one of three stages of immune function: detection, activation, or effector function. Examples of disease-specific immune evasion and the mechanisms used by pathogens to prevail over their hosts' immune systems are discussed. Also considered is what these host-pathogen interactions reveal about the normal function of the immune system and basic cell biological processes, such as protein maturation and degradation.

Subjects

immunology | immune system | immune evasion | pathogen | effector function | infections | Human cytomegalovirus | Human Immunodeficiency Virus | CD4 cells | CD8 cells | T cells | surace receptors | cell lysis | host-pathogen interactions | host surveillance | antibodies | MHC class I | blood-borne pathogens | macrophages | phagocytosis | endocytosis | degradation | antigen | apoptosis | cytokines | immune response

License

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7.01SC Fundamentals of Biology (MIT) 7.01SC Fundamentals of Biology (MIT)

Description

Fundamentals of Biology focuses on the basic principles of biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, and recombinant DNA. These principles are necessary to understanding the basic mechanisms of life and anchor the biological knowledge that is required to understand many of the challenges in everyday life, from human health and disease to loss of biodiversity and environmental quality. Fundamentals of Biology focuses on the basic principles of biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, and recombinant DNA. These principles are necessary to understanding the basic mechanisms of life and anchor the biological knowledge that is required to understand many of the challenges in everyday life, from human health and disease to loss of biodiversity and environmental quality.

Subjects

amino acids | amino acids | carboxyl group | carboxyl group | amino group | amino group | side chains | side chains | polar | polar | hydrophobic | hydrophobic | primary structure | primary structure | secondary structure | secondary structure | tertiary structure | tertiary structure | quaternary structure | quaternary structure | x-ray crystallography | x-ray crystallography | alpha helix | alpha helix | beta sheet | beta sheet | ionic bond | ionic bond | non-polar bond | non-polar bond | van der Waals interactions | van der Waals interactions | proton gradient | proton gradient | cyclic photophosphorylation | cyclic photophosphorylation | sunlight | sunlight | ATP | ATP | chlorophyll | chlorophyll | chlorophyll a | chlorophyll a | electrons | electrons | hydrogen sulfide | hydrogen sulfide | biosynthesis | biosynthesis | non-cyclic photophosphorylation | non-cyclic photophosphorylation | photosystem II | photosystem II | photosystem I | photosystem I | cyanobacteria | cyanobacteria | chloroplast | chloroplast | stroma | stroma | thylakoid membrane | thylakoid membrane | Genetics | Genetics | Mendel | Mendel | Mendel's Laws | Mendel's Laws | cloning | cloning | restriction enzymes | restriction enzymes | vector | vector | insert DNA | insert DNA | ligase | ligase | library | library | E.Coli | E.Coli | phosphatase | phosphatase | yeast | yeast | transformation | transformation | ARG1 gene | ARG1 gene | ARG1 mutant yeast | ARG1 mutant yeast | yeast wild-type | yeast wild-type | cloning by complementation | cloning by complementation | Human Beta Globin gene | Human Beta Globin gene | protein tetramer | protein tetramer | vectors | vectors | antibodies | antibodies | human promoter | human promoter | splicing | splicing | mRNA | mRNA | cDNA | cDNA | reverse transcriptase | reverse transcriptase | plasmid | plasmid | electrophoresis | electrophoresis | DNA sequencing | DNA sequencing | primer | primer | template | template | capillary tube | capillary tube | laser detector | laser detector | human genome project | human genome project | recombinant DNA | recombinant DNA | clone | clone | primer walking | primer walking | subcloning | subcloning | computer assembly | computer assembly | shotgun sequencing | shotgun sequencing | open reading frame | open reading frame | databases | databases | polymerase chain reaction (PCR) | polymerase chain reaction (PCR) | polymerase | polymerase | nucleotides | nucleotides | Thermus aquaticus | Thermus aquaticus | Taq polymerase | Taq polymerase | thermocycler | thermocycler | resequencing | resequencing | in vitro fertilization | in vitro fertilization | pre-implantation diagnostics | pre-implantation diagnostics | forensics | forensics | genetic engineering | genetic engineering | DNA sequences | DNA sequences | therapeutic proteins | therapeutic proteins | E. coli | E. coli | disease-causing mutations | disease-causing mutations | cleavage of DNA | cleavage of DNA | bacterial transformation | bacterial transformation | recombinant DNA revolution | recombinant DNA revolution | biotechnology industry | biotechnology industry | Robert Swanson | Robert Swanson | toxin gene | toxin gene | pathogenic bacterium | pathogenic bacterium | biomedical research | biomedical research | S. Pyogenes | S. Pyogenes | origin of replication | origin of replication

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7.13 Experimental Microbial Genetics (MIT) 7.13 Experimental Microbial Genetics (MIT)

Description

In this class, students engage in independent research projects to probe various aspects of the physiology of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14, an opportunistic pathogen isolated from the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Students use molecular genetics to examine survival in stationary phase, antibiotic resistance, phase variation, toxin production, and secondary metabolite production. Projects aim to discover the molecular basis for these processes using both classical and cutting-edge techniques. These include plasmid manipulation, genetic complementation, mutagenesis, PCR, DNA sequencing, enzyme assays, and gene expression studies. Instruction and practice in written and oral communication are also emphasized. WARNING NOTICE The experiments described in these materials In this class, students engage in independent research projects to probe various aspects of the physiology of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14, an opportunistic pathogen isolated from the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Students use molecular genetics to examine survival in stationary phase, antibiotic resistance, phase variation, toxin production, and secondary metabolite production. Projects aim to discover the molecular basis for these processes using both classical and cutting-edge techniques. These include plasmid manipulation, genetic complementation, mutagenesis, PCR, DNA sequencing, enzyme assays, and gene expression studies. Instruction and practice in written and oral communication are also emphasized. WARNING NOTICE The experiments described in these materials

Subjects

microbiology | microbiology | genetics | genetics | pseudomonas | pseudomonas | bacteria | bacteria | genes | genes | pathogen | pathogen | mutagenesis | mutagenesis | PCR | PCR | DNA sequencing | DNA sequencing | enzyme assays | enzyme assays | gene expression | gene expression | molecular genetics | molecular genetics | plasmid manipulation | plasmid manipulation | genetic complementation | genetic complementation | laboratory | laboratory | protocol | protocol | vector | vector | mutant | mutant | cystic fibrosis | cystic fibrosis

License

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7.343 The Radical Consequences of Respiration: Reactive Oxygen Species in Aging and Disease (MIT) 7.343 The Radical Consequences of Respiration: Reactive Oxygen Species in Aging and Disease (MIT)

Description

This course will start with a survey of basic oxygen radical biochemistry followed by a discussion of the mechanisms of action of cellular as well as dietary antioxidants. After considering the normal physiological roles of oxidants, we will examine the effects of elevated ROS and a failure of cellular redox capacity on the rate of organismal and cellular aging as well as on the onset and progression of several major diseases that are often age-related. Topics will include ROS-induced effects on stem cell regeneration, insulin resistance, heart disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. The role of antioxidants in potential therapeutic strategies for modulating ROS levels will also be discussed. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology D This course will start with a survey of basic oxygen radical biochemistry followed by a discussion of the mechanisms of action of cellular as well as dietary antioxidants. After considering the normal physiological roles of oxidants, we will examine the effects of elevated ROS and a failure of cellular redox capacity on the rate of organismal and cellular aging as well as on the onset and progression of several major diseases that are often age-related. Topics will include ROS-induced effects on stem cell regeneration, insulin resistance, heart disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. The role of antioxidants in potential therapeutic strategies for modulating ROS levels will also be discussed. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology D

Subjects

reactive oxygen species | reactive oxygen species | oxygen | oxygen | ROS | ROS | energy | energy | mitochondria | mitochondria | cell signaling | cell signaling | anti-pathogen | anti-pathogen | oxidative damage | oxidative damage | oncogene | oncogene | antioxidant | antioxidant | insulin resistance | insulin resistance | diabetes | diabetes | stem cell | stem cell | neurodegenerative | neurodegenerative | ischemic | ischemic | ATP | ATP | pathways | pathways | NADPH | NADPH | nox | nox | psd | psd | programmed cell death | programmed cell death | apoptosis | apoptosis | hsc | hsc | hematopoietic | hematopoietic

License

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7.345 Evolution of the Immune System (MIT) 7.345 Evolution of the Immune System (MIT)

Description

In this course, evolutionary pathways that have led to the development of innate and adaptive immunity are analyzed, the conserved and unique features of the immune response from bacteria to higher vertebrates is traced, and factors, such as adaptive changes in pathogens that have shaped the evolution of immune system are identified.This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. In this course, evolutionary pathways that have led to the development of innate and adaptive immunity are analyzed, the conserved and unique features of the immune response from bacteria to higher vertebrates is traced, and factors, such as adaptive changes in pathogens that have shaped the evolution of immune system are identified.This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting.

Subjects

immune system | immune system | immunology | immunology | evolution of immune system | evolution of immune system | immune defence | immune defence | phagocytosis | phagocytosis | innate immunity | innate immunity | adaptive immunity | adaptive immunity | immunological memory | immunological memory | immune response | immune response | defence mechanisms | defence mechanisms | pathogens | pathogens | self discrimination | self discrimination | non-self discrimination | non-self discrimination | recognition | recognition | immune receptors | immune receptors | antigen | antigen

License

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9.458 Parkinson's Disease Workshop (MIT) 9.458 Parkinson's Disease Workshop (MIT)

Description

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive, degenerative disease of the brain that produces movement disorders and deficits in executive functions, working memory, visuospatial functions, and internal control of attention. It is named after James Parkinson (1755-1824), the English neurologist who described the first case. This six-week summer workshop explored different aspects of PD, including clinical characteristics, structural neuroimaging, neuropathology, genetics, and cognitive function (mental status, cognitive control processes, working memory, and long-term declarative memory).  The workshop did not take up the topics of motor control, nondeclarative memory, or treatment.  Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive, degenerative disease of the brain that produces movement disorders and deficits in executive functions, working memory, visuospatial functions, and internal control of attention. It is named after James Parkinson (1755-1824), the English neurologist who described the first case. This six-week summer workshop explored different aspects of PD, including clinical characteristics, structural neuroimaging, neuropathology, genetics, and cognitive function (mental status, cognitive control processes, working memory, and long-term declarative memory).  The workshop did not take up the topics of motor control, nondeclarative memory, or treatment. 

Subjects

Parkinson's disease | Parkinson's disease | chronic progressive degenerative disease | chronic progressive degenerative disease | central nervous system | central nervous system | movement disorders | movement disorders | executive functions | executive functions | working memory | working memory | visuospatial functions | visuospatial functions | internal control of attention | internal control of attention | James Parkinson | James Parkinson | neurologist | neurologist | pathogenic mechanisms | pathogenic mechanisms | positron emission tomography (PET) | positron emission tomography (PET) | structural and functional high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) | structural and functional high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

License

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Immunology basics

Description

Learning. Important Copyright Information: All images, tables and figures in this resource were reproduced from 'Lecture Notes Immunology' April 2010, 6th Edition, published by Wiley-Blackwell and with full permission of the co-author and faculty member, Dr Ian Todd. No image, table or figure in this resource can be reproduced without prior permission from publishers Wiley-Blackwell.

Subjects

ukoer | immunology | immunology basics | introduction to immunology | recognition of extracellular pathogens | defence against extracellular pathogens | t cell-mediated immunity | helper t cells and cytokines | immunity to viruses | Subjects allied to medicine | B000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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7.341 Designer Immunity: Lessons in Engineering the Immune System (MIT) 7.341 Designer Immunity: Lessons in Engineering the Immune System (MIT)

Description

The immune system is one of the most complex and powerful of human body systems. It is highly dynamic and flexible, yet strictly regulates homeostasis and protects our bodies from both foreign and self-derived challenges. As basic understanding of immune function is growing, researchers are rapidly designing clever and diverse strategies to manipulate immunology to improve human health. In this course, we will explore important advances rooted in engineering principles to harness the power of the immune system, focusing on how engineering has fueled or inspired research concerning (1) vaccines, (2) immunotherapies, and (3) systems immunology. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an The immune system is one of the most complex and powerful of human body systems. It is highly dynamic and flexible, yet strictly regulates homeostasis and protects our bodies from both foreign and self-derived challenges. As basic understanding of immune function is growing, researchers are rapidly designing clever and diverse strategies to manipulate immunology to improve human health. In this course, we will explore important advances rooted in engineering principles to harness the power of the immune system, focusing on how engineering has fueled or inspired research concerning (1) vaccines, (2) immunotherapies, and (3) systems immunology. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an

Subjects

immune system | immune system | immunoengineering | immunoengineering | vaccines | vaccines | immunotherapies | immunotherapies | systems immunology | systems immunology | multivariate profiling | multivariate profiling | regulatory network analyses | regulatory network analyses | vaccine design | vaccine design | immunomodulation | immunomodulation | autoimmunity | autoimmunity | vaccine carriers | vaccine carriers | tolerogenic particle vaccines | tolerogenic particle vaccines | pathogen-mimicking | pathogen-mimicking | lipid nanoparticle vaccines | lipid nanoparticle vaccines

License

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7.347 Living Dangerously: How the Immune System Maintains Peace with Trillions of Commensal Bacteria while Preventing Pathogenic Invasions (MIT) 7.347 Living Dangerously: How the Immune System Maintains Peace with Trillions of Commensal Bacteria while Preventing Pathogenic Invasions (MIT)

Description

In this course, we will examine how the immune system acts to destroy pathogenic invaders while tolerating colonization by necessary commensal bacteria. As a counterpoint, we will also explore sophisticated strategies that help some bacteria evade our immune system. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Advanced Undergraduate Seminars are postdoctoral scientists with a strong interest in teaching. In this course, we will examine how the immune system acts to destroy pathogenic invaders while tolerating colonization by necessary commensal bacteria. As a counterpoint, we will also explore sophisticated strategies that help some bacteria evade our immune system. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Advanced Undergraduate Seminars are postdoctoral scientists with a strong interest in teaching.

Subjects

commensal bacteria | commensal bacteria | mucosal epithelia | mucosal epithelia | host-pathogen interactions | host-pathogen interactions | immunology | immunology | GTPase | GTPase | cell signaling | cell signaling | bacterial toxins | bacterial toxins | Campylobacter | Campylobacter | Salmonella | Salmonella | E. coli | E. coli | strain O157:H17 | gut microbiome | dysbiosis | autoimmune diseases | strain O157:H17 | gut microbiome | dysbiosis | autoimmune diseases

License

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7.340 Unusual Biology: The Science of Emerging Pathogens (MIT)

Description

Infectious diseases represent a serious global public health problem. They have the potential to kill millions of people, whether they emerge naturally as outbreaks or pandemics, or deliberately through bioterrorism. Some examples of diseases caused by emerging pathogens are the Bubonic Plague, Toxoplasmosis, African Sleeping Sickness, and Chagas Disease. Each day, infectious disease scientists serve on the front lines protecting us from such threats. In this course students will learn how to design and critique experiments through the discussion of primary research articles that explore the molecular basis of disease caused by emerging pathogens. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students w

Subjects

pathogens | Infectious diseases | parasite | host cell | gene expression | Toxoplasma rhoptry protein 16 (ROP16) | Toxoplasma gondii | STAT6 | Plasmodium falciparum | malaria | RON8 | Trypanosoma cruzi | Chagas disease | Listeria monocytogenes | Leishmaniasis | Francisella | pathogen proliferation

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.343 Sophisticated Survival Skills of Simple Microorganisms (MIT)

Description

In this course, we will discuss the microbial physiology and genetics of stress responses in aquatic ecosystems, astrobiology, bacterial pathogenesis and other environments. We will learn about classical and novel methods utilized by researchers to uncover bacterial mechanisms induced under both general and environment-specific stresses. Finally, we will compare and contrast models for bacterial stress responses to gain an understanding of distinct mechanisms of survival and of why there are differences among bacterial genera. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly

Subjects

microbial physiology | genetics | stress | astrobiology | pathogenesis | Escherichia coli | cyanobacteria | bleaching | deprivation | chlorosis | pollutants | methylobacteria | pathogen | reactive oxygen species | infection | superoxides | phage | Deinococcus | Raman spectroscopy

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.340 Under the Radar Screen: How Bugs Trick Our Immune Defenses (MIT)

Description

In this course, we will explore the specific ways by which microbes defeat our immune system and the molecular mechanisms that are under attack (phagocytosis, the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway, MHC I/II antigen presentation). Through our discussion and dissection of the primary research literature, we will explore aspects of host-pathogen interactions. We will particularly emphasize the experimental techniques used in the field and how to read and understand research data. Technological advances in the fight against microbes will also be discussed, with specific examples. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about

Subjects

HIV | mycobacterium tuberculosis | malaria | influenza | immune system | pathogens | viruses | bacteria | parasites | microbes | phagocytosis | ubiquitin/proteasome pathway | MHC I/II antigen presentation | Salmonella | pathogen-associated molecular patterns | PAMP | Toll-like receptors | TLR | Vaccinia virus | Proteasome | Ubiquitin; deubiquinating enzymes | DUB | Herpes simplex virus | HSV | Yersinia | viral budding | Human cytomegalovirus | HCMV | Histocompatiblity | AIDS | Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpes virus | Mixoma virus | Epstein Barr virus | EBV | Burkitt?s B cell lymphoma

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Evolution and pathogenicity of viruses

Description

Professor Peter Simmonds studies the epidemiology, evolution and emergence of a wide range of human pathogenic viruses. RNA viruses are major pathogens that represent the majority of new viruses emerging over time. They are particularly good at evading the host's response to infection. A better understanding of the interaction between virus and host can lead to a better control of viral infections. Recent discoveries on viral genome composition and structure might allow us to manipulate this interaction and generate new, safer vaccines. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

viruses | pathology | Epidemiology | pathogens | genome | viral infections | viruses | pathology | Epidemiology | pathogens | genome | viral infections

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Computation and genetics

Description

Resistance to drugs in bacteria can be aquired by swapping genes between individual bacteria. Computer programs developed by Dr Iqbal enable doctors to predict which antibiotics will be met with drug resistance, enabling the selection of the right drug. BIOINFORMATICS & PATHOGEN GENOMICS Dr Zamin Iqbal studies the DNA of bacteria and parasites, and compares the genomes of individual pathogens to track the spread of antibiotic resistance. Pathogens accumulate small genetic changes over time, and by tracking these changes, it is possible to map the spread of an infection. This enables better surveillance of pathogen evolution, within a host, within a hospital and across the world. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

computational | genetics | bioinformatics | pathogens | drug resistance | DNA | antibiotic resistance | computational | genetics | bioinformatics | pathogens | drug resistance | DNA | antibiotic resistance

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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7.345 Evolution of the Immune System (MIT)

Description

In this course, evolutionary pathways that have led to the development of innate and adaptive immunity are analyzed, the conserved and unique features of the immune response from bacteria to higher vertebrates is traced, and factors, such as adaptive changes in pathogens that have shaped the evolution of immune system are identified.This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting.

Subjects

immune system | immunology | evolution of immune system | immune defence | phagocytosis | innate immunity | adaptive immunity | immunological memory | immune response | defence mechanisms | pathogens | self discrimination | non-self discrimination | recognition | immune receptors | antigen

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Essentials of Medical Microbiology I - Part 2 of 2

Description

This resource provides an introduction into Medical Microbiology and should be used in conjunction with Part 1 - Part 1 of 1. The unit comprises factors that affect the spread of infection and a detailed description of the human commensal microbiota. A help file is included and should be read first.

Subjects

human commensal microbiota | pathogens | cycle of infection | horizontal spread | vertical spread | exogenous infection | endogenous infection | blood-borne infection | bioukoer | ukoer | Biological sciences | C000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Essentials of Medical Microbiology II - Part 3 of 4

Description

This presentation explains about infections of the heart and circulatory system, and respiratory infections. It forms part 3 of the Essentials of Medical Microbiology II suite of materials. A help file is included which should be read first.

Subjects

bioukoer | ukoer | intracellular pathogens | plague | opportunistic infection | endotoxic shock | endocarditis | tonsilitis | diphtheria | epiglottitis | influenza | middle ear infections | pneumonia | psittacosis | bronchiolitis | whooping cough | medical microbiology | heart and circulatory infection | respiratory infection | Biological sciences | C000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Chilled Food Association and fresh produce

Description

An introductory slide presentation about the Chilled Food Association, their aims, objectives and recent activities. Also covers issues around food safety and hygiene.

Subjects

chilled foods | food and drink | food production | fresh produce | standards | chilled food association | pathogens | food safety | WM : Food / Drink / Tobacco (Industrial) | NE : Baking/Dairy/Food and Drink Processing | None

License

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ Chilled Food Association Chilled Food Association

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Infection and immunity

Description

In this free course, Infection and immunity, you will be introduced to infectious diseases and to the biological agents that invade our bodies and cause them: pathogens. You will also learn about the immune system, the human body?s vital defence against pathogens. Along the way you will learn about the scientific method and how it has helped scientists understand pathogens and aid the prevention of infectious disease. But the challenge is ongoing. Pathogens are everywhere and come in all shapes and sizes. As you will see, the fight against infectious disease remains critical for global health today. First published on Thu, 13 Oct 2016 as Infection and immunity. To find out more visit The Open University's Openlearn website. Creative-Commons 2016

Subjects

Health | Sports & Psychology | Public Health | Health | SDK100_1 | skills for study | infection | immunity | immune system | global health | pathogens

License

Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence - see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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7.347 Living Dangerously: How the Immune System Maintains Peace with Trillions of Commensal Bacteria while Preventing Pathogenic Invasions (MIT)

Description

In this course, we will examine how the immune system acts to destroy pathogenic invaders while tolerating colonization by necessary commensal bacteria. As a counterpoint, we will also explore sophisticated strategies that help some bacteria evade our immune system. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Advanced Undergraduate Seminars are postdoctoral scientists with a strong interest in teaching.

Subjects

commensal bacteria | mucosal epithelia | host-pathogen interactions | immunology | GTPase | cell signaling | bacterial toxins | Campylobacter | Salmonella | E. coli | strain O157:H17 | gut microbiome | dysbiosis | autoimmune diseases

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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