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Initial microstructures for C-Mn steels.

Description

CORE-Materials posted a photo: The image shows typical optical micrographs of the initial microstructures for (a) C-Mn steel with carbon contents of 0.35 wt pct - C35 and (b) C-Mn steel with carbon contents of 0.45 wt pct - C45. The microstructures consist of ferrite (F -white) and pearlite (P - dark )mixture with different phase volume fractions . Courtesy of V.I. Savran, Delft University of Technology; Y. van Leeuwen, the Nuclear Safety Department, The Hague; D.N. Hanlon, Corus Research, Ijmuiden; C. Kwakernaak, Delft University of Technology; W.G. Sloof, Delft University of Technology; J. Sietsma, Delft University of Technology.

Subjects

steel ferrite micrograph carbonsteel pearlite opticalmicrography

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Fe, C 0.8 (wt%), eutectoid transformation - pearlite (coarse)

Description

This steel is of the eutectoid composition. Once the temperature is lowered below the eutectoid temperature the steel becomes simultaneously supersaturated with both ferrite and cementite. A eutectoid transformation results (? to ? + Fe3C). The resultant microstructure, known as pearlite, comprises lamellae of cementite (dark) embedded in ferrite (white). The platelets are parallel to each other and do not follow a specific crystallographic direction.Each pearlite colony is made up of a number of subgrains. Thus each pearlite colony consists of two interpenetrating single crystals having an orientation relationship with respect to each other and with respect to the austenite grain they grow from, but not with respect to the austenite grain they have grown into. Changes in the apparent in

Subjects

alloy | austenite | carbon | cementite | eutectoid reaction | ferrite | iron | lamella | metal | pearlite | steel | supercooling | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Fe, C 0.8 (wt%), eutectoid transformation - pearlite (coarse)

Description

This steel is of the eutectoid composition. Once the temperature is lowered below the eutectoid temperature the steel becomes simultaneously supersaturated with both ferrite and cementite. A eutectoid transformation results (? to ? + Fe3C). The resultant microstructure, known as pearlite, comprises lamellae of cementite (dark) embedded in ferrite (white). The platelets are parallel to each other and do not follow a specific crystallographic direction.Each pearlite colony is made up of a number of subgrains. Thus each pearlite colony consists of two interpenetrating single crystals having an orientation relationship with respect to each other and with respect to the austenite grain they grow from, but not with respect to the austenite grain they have grown into. Changes in the apparent in

Subjects

alloy | austenite | carbon | cementite | eutectoid reaction | ferrite | iron | lamella | metal | pearlite | steel | supercooling | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Fe, C 0.8 (wt%), eutectoid transformation - pearlite (coarse)

Description

This steel is of the eutectoid composition. Once the temperature is lowered below the eutectoid temperature the steel becomes simultaneously supersaturated with both ferrite and cementite. A eutectoid transformation results (? to ? + Fe3C). The resultant microstructure, known as pearlite, comprises lamellae of cementite (dark) embedded in ferrite (white). The platelets are parallel to each other and do not follow a specific crystallographic direction. Each pearlite colony is made up of a number of subgrains. Thus each pearlite colony consists of two interpenetrating single crystals having an orientation relationship with respect to each other and with respect to the austenite grain they grow from, but not with respect to the austenite grain they have grown into. Changes in the apparent

Subjects

alloy | austenite | carbon | cementite | eutectoid reaction | ferrite | iron | lamella | metal | pearlite | steel | supercooling | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Fe, C 0.1 (wt%), hypoeutectoid alloy

Description

This is a hypoeutectoid alloy, which has been air cooled from the austenite phase field at 950 °C. The first solid to form is proeutectoid ferrite, its morphology being determined by the cooling rate. At slow cooling rates (furnace cooling) there is sufficient time for the carbon rejected from the austenite to diffuse and equilibrium solidification occurs. With faster cooling the microstructure also depends on the original austenite grain size.Fast cooling and large grain size favours ferrite forming as Widmanstätten side plates from the grain boundaries. Small grain sizes imply a high number of nuclei and hence the ferrite grows as grain boundary allotriomorphs. In this case air cooling is sufficiently slow to produce allotriomorphic ferrite. The majority of the austenite has changed to

Subjects

allotriomorph | alloy | austenite | carbon | ferrite | hypoeutectoid | iron | metal | pearlite | proeutectoid steel | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Fe, C 0.1 (wt%), hypoeutectoid alloy

Description

This is a hypoeutectoid alloy, which has been air cooled from the austenite phase field at 950 °C. The first solid to form is proeutectoid ferrite, its morphology being determined by the cooling rate. At slow cooling rates (furnace cooling) there is sufficient time for the carbon rejected from the austenite to diffuse and equilibrium solidification occurs. With faster cooling the microstructure also depends on the original austenite grain size.Fast cooling and large grain size favours ferrite forming as Widmanstätten side plates from the grain boundaries. Small grain sizes imply a high number of nuclei and hence the ferrite grows as grain boundary allotriomorphs. In this case air cooling is sufficiently slow to produce allotriomorphic ferrite. The majority of the austenite has changed to

Subjects

allotriomorph | alloy | austenite | carbon | ferrite | hypoeutectoid | iron | metal | pearlite | proeutectoid steel | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Fe, C 0.1 (wt%), hypoeutectoid alloy

Description

This SEM image shows that the ferrite phase in the pearlite has been selectively etched compared to the cementite. The cementite phase appears to protrude from the surface. Within the pearlite region there are several colonies in different orientations, indicating that the pearlite nucleated on grains of the primary ferrite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cementite | ferrite | hypoeutectoid | iron | metal | pearlite | proeutectoid steel | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Fe, C 0.1 (wt%), hypoeutectoid alloy

Description

This SEM image of a pearlite region in the microstructure shown in micrograph no 19 shows that the ferrite phase in the pearlite has been selectively etched compared to the cementite. The cementite phase appears to protrude from the surface. Within such A pearlite region there are several colonies in different orientations, indicating that the pearlite nucleated on grains of the primary ferrite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cementite | ferrite | hypoeutectoid | iron | metal | pearlite | proeutectoid steel | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Fe, C 1.0 (wt%), hypereutectoid alloy

Description

This secondary electron SEM image shows the cementite delineating prior austenite grain boundaries with a thin layer. The amount of proeutectoid phase is very low, with the majority of the area being taken by the pearlite eutectoid. Again each pearlite cell has a different orientation with the ferrite phase being selectively etched.

Subjects

alloy | austenite | carbon | cementite | ferrite | hypereutectoid | iron | metal | pearlite | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Fe, C 1.0 (wt%), hypereutectoid alloy

Description

This secondary electron SEM image shows the cementite delineating prior austenite grain boundaries with a thin layer. The amount of proeutectoid phase is very low, with the majority of the area being taken by the pearlite eutectoid. Again each pearlite cell has a different orientation with the ferrite phase being selectively etched.

Subjects

alloy | austenite | carbon | cementite | ferrite | hypereutectoid | iron | metal | pearlite | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Hypoeutectic white cast iron

Description

With a carbon equivalent less than the eutectic composition a hypoeutectic white cast iron is formed. Primary austenite dendrites (dark) are first to form from the liquid. At the eutectic the remaining liquid transforms to a mixture of austenite and cementite (light) with further transformation of the austenite to ferrite and pearlite.

Subjects

alloy | austenite | cast iron | cementite | dendrite | ferrite | hypoeutectic | iron | metal | pearlite | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Hypoeutectic white cast iron

Description

With a carbon equivalent less than the eutectic composition a hypoeutectic white cast iron is formed. Primary austenite dendrites (dark) are first to form from the liquid. At the eutectic the remaining liquid transforms to a mixture of austenite and cementite (light) with further transformation of the austenite to ferrite and pearlite.

Subjects

alloy | austenite | cast iron | cementite | dendrite | ferrite | hypoeutectic | iron | metal | pearlite | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Normalised low carbon manganese steel, taken transverse to directionality

Description

Low carbon steel with a microstructure consisting mostly of ferrite with the darker pearlite surrounding the lighter ferrite. This sample has been normalised, recrystallising the ferrite. The pearlite is unable to do this and consequently retains its directionality.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | eutectoid reaction | iron | metal | pearlite | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Normalised low carbon manganese steel, taken transverse to directionality

Description

Low carbon steel with a microstructure consisting mostly of ferrite with the darker pearlite surrounding the lighter ferrite. This sample has been normalised, recrystallising the ferrite. The pearlite is unable to do this and consequently retains its directionality.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | eutectoid reaction | iron | metal | pearlite | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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As cast carbon steel

Description

Low carbon steel with a microstructure consisting mostly of ferrite with the darker pearlite regions around the ferrite grains. Upon cooling the steel the ferrite forms initially, either on austenite grain boundaries or inclusions. This causes carbon to be partitioned into the austenite. Eventually the remaining austenite will be at the eutectoid condition and the transformation to pearlite will then take place.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | eutectoid reaction | iron | metal | pearlite | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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As cast carbon steel

Description

Low carbon steel with a microstructure consisting mostly of ferrite with the darker pearlite regions around the ferrite grains. Upon cooling the steel the ferrite forms initially, either on austenite grain boundaries or inclusions. This causes carbon to be partitioned into the austenite. Eventually the remaining austenite will be at the eutectoid condition and the transformation to pearlite will then take place.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | eutectoid reaction | iron | metal | pearlite | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Normalised carbon steel

Description

Low carbon steel with a microstructure consisting mostly of ferrite with the darker pearlite regions around the ferrite grains. Upon cooling the steel the ferrite forms initially, either on austenite grain boundaries or inclusions. This causes carbon to be partitioned into the austenite. Eventually the remaining austenite will be at the eutectoid condition and the transformation to pearlite will then take place. This sample has been normalised, removing the directionality caused by casting

Subjects

alloy | carbon | eutectoid reaction | iron | metal | normalising | pearlite | recrystallisation | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Normalised carbon steel

Description

Low carbon steel with a microstructure consisting mostly of ferrite with the darker pearlite regions around the ferrite grains. Upon cooling the steel the ferrite forms initially, either on austenite grain boundaries or inclusions. This causes carbon to be partitioned into the austenite. Eventually the remaining austenite will be at the eutectoid condition and the transformation to pearlite will then take place. This sample has been normalised, removing the directionality caused by casting.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | eutectoid reaction | iron | metal | pearlite | recrystallisation | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Normalised carbon steel

Description

Low carbon steel with a microstructure consisting mostly of ferrite with the darker pearlite regions around the ferrite grains. Upon cooling the steel the ferrite forms initially, either on austenite grain boundaries or inclusions. This causes carbon to be partitioned into the austenite. Eventually the remaining austenite will be at the eutectoid condition and the transformation to pearlite will then take place.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | eutectoid reaction | iron | metal | pearlite | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Normalised carbon steel

Description

Low carbon steel with a microstructure consisting mostly of ferrite with the darker pearlite regions around the ferrite grains. Upon cooling the steel the ferrite forms initially, either on austenite grain boundaries or inclusions. This causes carbon to be partitioned into the austenite. Eventually the remaining austenite will be at the eutectoid condition and the transformation to pearlite will then take place.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | eutectoid reaction | iron | metal | pearlite | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Normalised carbon steel

Description

Low carbon steel with a microstructure consisting mostly of ferrite with the darker pearlite regions around the ferrite grains. Upon cooling the steel the ferrite forms initially, either on austenite grain boundaries or inclusions. This causes carbon to be partitioned into the austenite. Eventually the remaining austenite will be at the eutectoid condition and the transformation to pearlite will then take place. Micrograph was taken transverse to direction of casting, therefore no directionality is seen.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | eutectoid reaction | iron | metal | pearlite | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Normalised carbon steel

Description

Low carbon steel with a microstructure consisting mostly of ferrite with the darker pearlite regions around the ferrite grains. Upon cooling the steel the ferrite forms initially, either on austenite grain boundaries or inclusions. This causes carbon to be partitioned into the austenite. Eventually the remaining austenite will be at the eutectoid condition and the transformation to pearlite will then take place.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | eutectoid reaction | iron | metal | pearlite | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Normalised steel

Description

A hypoeutectoid alloy steel, normalised, producing a microstructure of allotriomorphic ferrite nucleated on the prior austenite grain boundaries, with the remainder pearlite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | hypoeutectoid | iron | metal | pearlite | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Normalised steel

Description

A hypoeutectoid alloy steel, normalised, producing a microstructure of allotriomorphic ferrite nucleated on the prior austenite grain boundaries, with the remainder pearlite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | hypoeutectoid | iron | metal | pearlite | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Normalised steel

Description

A hypoeutectoid alloy steel, normalised, producing a microstructure of allotriomorphic ferrite nucleated on the prior austenite grain boundaries, with the remainder pearlite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | hypoeutectoid | iron | metal | pearlite | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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