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Ethics and politics

Description

Moral and Political Philosophy: how should we live? What constitutes a just state? Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

political philosophy | philosophy | ethical philosophy | political philosophy | philosophy | ethical philosophy

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Ethics and politics

Description

Moral and Political Philosophy: how should we live? What constitutes a just state? Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

political philosophy | philosophy | ethical philosophy | political philosophy | philosophy | ethical philosophy

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SP.2H3 Ancient Philosophy and Mathematics (MIT) SP.2H3 Ancient Philosophy and Mathematics (MIT)

Description

Western philosophy and theoretical mathematics were born together, and the cross-fertilization of ideas in the two disciplines was continuously acknowledged throughout antiquity. In this course, we read works of ancient Greek philosophy and mathematics, and investigate the way in which ideas of definition, reason, argument and proof, rationality and irrationality, number, quality and quantity, truth, and even the idea of an idea were shaped by the interplay of philosophic and mathematical inquiry. Western philosophy and theoretical mathematics were born together, and the cross-fertilization of ideas in the two disciplines was continuously acknowledged throughout antiquity. In this course, we read works of ancient Greek philosophy and mathematics, and investigate the way in which ideas of definition, reason, argument and proof, rationality and irrationality, number, quality and quantity, truth, and even the idea of an idea were shaped by the interplay of philosophic and mathematical inquiry.

Subjects

mathematics | mathematics | geometry | geometry | history | history | philosophy | philosophy | Greek philosophy | Greek philosophy | Plato | Plato | Euclid | Euclid | Aristotle | Aristotle | Rene Descartes | Rene Descartes | Nicomachus | Nicomachus | Francis Bacon | Francis Bacon | number | number | irrational number | irrational number | ratio | ratio | ethics | ethics | logos | logos | logic | logic | ancient knowing | ancient knowing | modern knowing | modern knowing | Greek conception of number | Greek conception of number | idea of number | idea of number | courage | courage | justice | justice | pursuit of truth | pursuit of truth | truth as a surd | truth as a surd

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.400 Proseminar in Philosophy I (MIT) 24.400 Proseminar in Philosophy I (MIT)

Description

This course is an intensive seminar on the foundations of analytic philosophy for first-year graduate students. A large selection of classic texts, such as Frege's Foundations of Arithmetic, Russell's Problems of Philosophy, and Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations, is covered in this course. This course is an intensive seminar on the foundations of analytic philosophy for first-year graduate students. A large selection of classic texts, such as Frege's Foundations of Arithmetic, Russell's Problems of Philosophy, and Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations, is covered in this course.

Subjects

philosophy | philosophy | Frege | Frege | Meinong | Meinong | Russell | Russell | On Denoting | On Denoting | Theory of Objects | Theory of Objects | Brentano | Brentano | Husserl | Husserl | Wittgenstein | Wittgenstein | Tractatus | Tractatus | Moore | Moore | Principia Ethica | Principia Ethica | intrinsic value | intrinsic value | common sense | common sense | Ayer | Ayer | language | language | truth | truth | logic | logic | Ryle | Ryle | concept of mind | concept of mind | Austin | Austin | Sense and Sensibilia | Sense and Sensibilia | Foundations of Empirical Knowledge | Foundations of Empirical Knowledge | analytic philosophy | analytic philosophy

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Combining freedom and diversity: the challenge of religious difference Combining freedom and diversity: the challenge of religious difference

Description

Legal philosopher Martha Nussbaum gave the 2013 Dahrendorf Lecture, exploring how to live with religious diversity. Team instructions: poor audio quality - is there a way to improve this? Legal philosopher Martha Nussbaum gave the 2013 Dahrendorf Lecture, exploring how to live with religious diversity. Team instructions: poor audio quality - is there a way to improve this?

Subjects

politics | politics | law | law | philosophy | philosophy | free speech | free speech | politics | law | philosophy | free speech | politics | law | philosophy | free speech

License

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9.69 Foundations of Cognition (MIT) 9.69 Foundations of Cognition (MIT)

Description

Advances in cognitive science have resolved, clarified, and sometimes complicated some of the great questions of Western philosophy: what is the structure of the world and how do we come to know it; does everyone represent the world the same way; what is the best way for us to act in the world. Specific topics include color, objects, number, categories, similarity, inductive inference, space, time, causality, reasoning, decision-making, morality and consciousness. Readings and discussion include a brief philosophical history of each topic and focus on advances in cognitive and developmental psychology, computation, neuroscience, and related fields. At least one subject in cognitive science, psychology, philosophy, linguistics, or artificial intelligence is required. An additional project i Advances in cognitive science have resolved, clarified, and sometimes complicated some of the great questions of Western philosophy: what is the structure of the world and how do we come to know it; does everyone represent the world the same way; what is the best way for us to act in the world. Specific topics include color, objects, number, categories, similarity, inductive inference, space, time, causality, reasoning, decision-making, morality and consciousness. Readings and discussion include a brief philosophical history of each topic and focus on advances in cognitive and developmental psychology, computation, neuroscience, and related fields. At least one subject in cognitive science, psychology, philosophy, linguistics, or artificial intelligence is required. An additional project i

Subjects

cognitive science | cognitive science | Western philosophy | Western philosophy | structure | structure | color | color | objects | objects | number | number | similarity | similarity | inductive inference | inductive inference | space | space | time | time | reasoning | reasoning | decision-making | decision-making | morality | morality | consciousness | consciousness | development | development | psychology | psychology | computation | computation | neuroscience | neuroscience | philosophy | philosophy | linguistics | linguistics | artificial intelligence | artificial intelligence

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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SP.2H3 Ancient Philosophy and Mathematics (MIT) SP.2H3 Ancient Philosophy and Mathematics (MIT)

Description

Western philosophy and theoretical mathematics were born together, and the cross-fertilization of ideas in the two disciplines was continuously acknowledged throughout antiquity. In this course, we read works of ancient Greek philosophy and mathematics, and investigate the way in which ideas of definition, reason, argument and proof, rationality and irrationality, number, quality and quantity, truth, and even the idea of an idea were shaped by the interplay of philosophic and mathematical inquiry. Western philosophy and theoretical mathematics were born together, and the cross-fertilization of ideas in the two disciplines was continuously acknowledged throughout antiquity. In this course, we read works of ancient Greek philosophy and mathematics, and investigate the way in which ideas of definition, reason, argument and proof, rationality and irrationality, number, quality and quantity, truth, and even the idea of an idea were shaped by the interplay of philosophic and mathematical inquiry.

Subjects

mathematics | mathematics | geometry | geometry | history | history | philosophy | philosophy | Greek philosophy | Greek philosophy | Plato | Plato | Euclid | Euclid | Aristotle | Aristotle | Rene Descartes | Rene Descartes | Nicomachus | Nicomachus | Francis Bacon | Francis Bacon

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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ES.SP.2H3 Ancient Philosophy and Mathematics (MIT) ES.SP.2H3 Ancient Philosophy and Mathematics (MIT)

Description

Western philosophy and theoretical mathematics were born together, and the cross-fertilization of ideas in the two disciplines was continuously acknowledged throughout antiquity. In this course, we read works of ancient Greek philosophy and mathematics, and investigate the way in which ideas of definition, reason, argument and proof, rationality and irrationality, number, quality and quantity, truth, and even the idea of an idea were shaped by the interplay of philosophic and mathematical inquiry. Western philosophy and theoretical mathematics were born together, and the cross-fertilization of ideas in the two disciplines was continuously acknowledged throughout antiquity. In this course, we read works of ancient Greek philosophy and mathematics, and investigate the way in which ideas of definition, reason, argument and proof, rationality and irrationality, number, quality and quantity, truth, and even the idea of an idea were shaped by the interplay of philosophic and mathematical inquiry.

Subjects

mathematics | mathematics | geometry | geometry | history | history | philosophy | philosophy | Greek philosophy | Greek philosophy | Plato | Plato | Euclid | Euclid | Aristotle | Aristotle | Rene Descartes | Rene Descartes | Nicomachus | Nicomachus | Francis Bacon | Francis Bacon | number | number | irrational number | irrational number | ratio | ratio | ethics | ethics | logos | logos | logic | logic | ancient knowing | ancient knowing | modern knowing | modern knowing | Greek conception of number | Greek conception of number | idea of number | idea of number | courage | courage | justice | justice | pursuit of truth | pursuit of truth | truth as a surd | truth as a surd

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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9.69 Foundations of Cognition (MIT) 9.69 Foundations of Cognition (MIT)

Description

Advances in cognitive science have resolved, clarified, and sometimes complicated some of the great questions of Western philosophy: what is the structure of the world and how do we come to know it; does everyone represent the world the same way; what is the best way for us to act in the world. Specific topics include color, objects, number, categories, similarity, inductive inference, space, time, causality, reasoning, decision-making, morality and consciousness. Readings and discussion include a brief philosophical history of each topic and focus on advances in cognitive and developmental psychology, computation, neuroscience, and related fields. At least one subject in cognitive science, psychology, philosophy, linguistics, or artificial intelligence is required. An additional project i Advances in cognitive science have resolved, clarified, and sometimes complicated some of the great questions of Western philosophy: what is the structure of the world and how do we come to know it; does everyone represent the world the same way; what is the best way for us to act in the world. Specific topics include color, objects, number, categories, similarity, inductive inference, space, time, causality, reasoning, decision-making, morality and consciousness. Readings and discussion include a brief philosophical history of each topic and focus on advances in cognitive and developmental psychology, computation, neuroscience, and related fields. At least one subject in cognitive science, psychology, philosophy, linguistics, or artificial intelligence is required. An additional project i

Subjects

cognitive science | cognitive science | Western philosophy | Western philosophy | structure | structure | color | color | objects | objects | number | number | similarity | similarity | inductive inference | inductive inference | space | space | time | time | reasoning | reasoning | decision-making | decision-making | morality | morality | consciousness | consciousness | development | development | psychology | psychology | computation | computation | neuroscience | neuroscience | philosophy | philosophy | linguistics | linguistics | artificial intelligence | artificial intelligence

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.400 Proseminar in Philosophy I (MIT) 24.400 Proseminar in Philosophy I (MIT)

Description

An intensive seminar on the foundations of analytic philosophy for first-year graduate students. A large selection of classic texts, from Frege's Foundations of Arithmetic to Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations, is covered in this course. An intensive seminar on the foundations of analytic philosophy for first-year graduate students. A large selection of classic texts, from Frege's Foundations of Arithmetic to Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations, is covered in this course.

Subjects

philosophy | philosophy | Frege | Frege | Russell | Russell | Wittgenstein | Wittgenstein | Moore | Moore | Ayer | Ayer | Tarski | Tarski | Austin | Austin | analytic philosophy | analytic philosophy | truth | truth | language | language | logic | logic | logical positivism | logical positivism

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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A Platonic Theory of Truthmaking

Description

Berman (St Louis Univ.) lays out and defends a platonic explanation of non-modal and modal truths using Forms as their truthmakers. He argues that this platonic theory is parsimonious, naturalistic, and ontologically serious. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

philosophy | metaphysics | ontology | ancient philosophy | philosophy | metaphysics | ontology | ancient philosophy

License

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Objective and Subjective Powers and Dispositions

Description

Kistler (Sorbonne) introduces a distinction between powers and dispositions: A 'multi-track disposition' manifests itself in different ways Mi in different triggering circumstances Ti. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

philosophy | metaphysics | ontology | ancient philosophy | philosophy | metaphysics | ontology | ancient philosophy

License

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Limitations of Power

Description

Bird (Bristol) warns against overextending the case for a powers ontology, arguing that it cannot answer typical questions outside fundamental metaphysics, for example concerning the analysis of causal statements. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

philosophy | metaphysics | ontology | ancient philosophy | philosophy | metaphysics | ontology | ancient philosophy

License

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s Two Triangles

Description

Mumford (Nottingham) argues that although superior to a stimulus-response model, Martin's mutual manifestation model must be amended to resemble less mereological composition and more causation. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

philosophy | metaphysics | ontology | ancient philosophy | philosophy | metaphysics | ontology | ancient philosophy

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Identity, Individuality and Discernibility

Description

Ladyman (Bristol) explains the recent debates about the Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles and results about weak discernibility. He considers their implications for structuralism and the light they shed on ontological dependence. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

philosophy | metaphysics | ontology | ancient philosophy | philosophy | metaphysics | ontology | ancient philosophy

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1. Do Metaphors Have a Non-Literal Meaning?

Description

James Grant, Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Oxford, introduces some of the key concepts in discussions of metaphor in the philosophy of language. He then discusses Donald Davidson's very influential and very controversial paper, 'What Metaphors Mean'. Davidson argues that a metaphor means exactly what the words of the sentence mean when taken literally, and nothing more.

Subjects

philosophy | language | metaphor | davidson | philosophy of language | ukoer | philosophy | language | metaphor | davidson | philosophy of language

License

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Relational vs. Constituent Ontologies

Description

Van Inwagen (Notre Dame) argues that relational ontologies (denying properties can be constituents of particulars) are preferable to constituent ontologies (holding properties are constituents of the particulars that have them). Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

philosophy | metaphysics | ontology | ancient philosophy | philosophy | metaphysics | ontology | ancient philosophy

License

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2. What Gives Metaphors the Content They Have?

Description

James Grant, Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Oxford, discusses different theories about what gives metaphors the special meaning or content they have.

Subjects

philosophy | language | metaphor | davidson | philosophy of language | ukoer | philosophy | language | metaphor | davidson | philosophy of language

License

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Is causation a relation?

Description

Jacobs (St. Louis Univ.) explores the view that between a substance and its power, on one hand, and the result of the substance manifesting its power, there is no relation at all. Thus, causal, relational truths have non-relational ontological grounds. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

philosophy | metaphysics | ontology | ancient philosophy | philosophy | metaphysics | ontology | ancient philosophy

License

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3. Speaking in Metaphor and Paraphrasing Metaphor

Description

James Grant, Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Oxford, discusses the question of how we succeed in communicating to others with metaphor. He also examines the question of whether all metaphors can be paraphrased.

Subjects

philosophy | language | metaphor | philosophy of language | ukoer | philosophy | language | metaphor | philosophy of language

License

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4. Metaphor and Art

Description

James Grant, Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Oxford, discusses the use of metaphor to describe music and other artworks. He discusses Christopher Peacocke's views on the expression of emotion in music, as well as Roger Scruton's view that hearing music involves metaphor.

Subjects

philosophy | language | metaphor | philosophy of language | art. scruton | peacocke | ukoer | philosophy | language | metaphor | philosophy of language | art. scruton | peacocke

License

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Processes and Powers

Description

John Dupré (Exeter) gives a talk for the Power Structuralism in Ancient Ontologies podcast series Abstract: This talk will explore the implications for a metaphysics of powers of the replacement of a substance ontology with a process ontology. I take a process to be an entity that must be active in some way to exist and I argue that processes are more fundamental than things: things are temporary and partial stabilisations in a flux of process. Can the activities that sustain processes be understood as the exercise of powers? Can the interactions between processes be treated similarly as the exercises of powers by processes? Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

philosophy | ancient philosophy | power | processes | ontology | philosophy | ancient philosophy | power | processes | ontology

License

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Powers: Necessity and Neighbourhoods

Description

Neil Williams (Buffalo University) gives a talk for the Power Structuralism in Ancient Ontologies podcast series Abstract; The typical understanding of powers?according to which they have their effects necessarily?has recently come under attack. The threat of imagined counterfactual scenarios (wherein the power is exercised but the characteristic manifestation does not ensue) has led some to question the traditional picture, and prompted others to give it up entirely. But this defection has been too hasty: that exercising powers produce their manifestations necessarily ranks highly among the most attractive features of the powers metaphysic, and should not be discarded lightly. Moreover, the arguments against necessity are founded upon assumptions that the friend of powers is at libert Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

philosophy | ancient philosophy | ontology | philosophy | ancient philosophy | ontology

License

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ES.2H3 Ancient Philosophy and Mathematics (MIT) ES.2H3 Ancient Philosophy and Mathematics (MIT)

Description

Western philosophy and theoretical mathematics were born together, and the cross-fertilization of ideas in the two disciplines was continuously acknowledged throughout antiquity. In this course, we read works of ancient Greek philosophy and mathematics, and investigate the way in which ideas of definition, reason, argument and proof, rationality and irrationality, number, quality and quantity, truth, and even the idea of an idea were shaped by the interplay of philosophic and mathematical inquiry. Western philosophy and theoretical mathematics were born together, and the cross-fertilization of ideas in the two disciplines was continuously acknowledged throughout antiquity. In this course, we read works of ancient Greek philosophy and mathematics, and investigate the way in which ideas of definition, reason, argument and proof, rationality and irrationality, number, quality and quantity, truth, and even the idea of an idea were shaped by the interplay of philosophic and mathematical inquiry.

Subjects

mathematics | mathematics | geometry | geometry | history | history | philosophy | philosophy | Greek philosophy | Greek philosophy | Plato | Plato | Euclid | Euclid | Aristotle | Aristotle | Rene Descartes | Rene Descartes | Nicomachus | Nicomachus | Francis Bacon | Francis Bacon | number | number | irrational number | irrational number | ratio | ratio | ethics | ethics | logos | logos | logic | logic | ancient knowing | ancient knowing | modern knowing | modern knowing | Greek conception of number | Greek conception of number | idea of number | idea of number | courage | courage | justice | justice | pursuit of truth | pursuit of truth | truth as a surd | truth as a surd

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.500 Topics in Philosophy of Mind: Mental Content (MIT) 24.500 Topics in Philosophy of Mind: Mental Content (MIT)

Description

Propositions are everywhere in the philosophy of mind. Believing, hoping, and intending (for example) are said to be "propositional attitudes", mental states that involve relations to propositions. The seminar will examine issues at the heart of the dispute between the proposition-aficionados and their detractors. The course will be divided into five parts, covering: (1) de se thought; (2) propositions; (3) knowing how; (4) perceptual content; (5) the knowledge argument. Propositions are everywhere in the philosophy of mind. Believing, hoping, and intending (for example) are said to be "propositional attitudes", mental states that involve relations to propositions. The seminar will examine issues at the heart of the dispute between the proposition-aficionados and their detractors. The course will be divided into five parts, covering: (1) de se thought; (2) propositions; (3) knowing how; (4) perceptual content; (5) the knowledge argument.

Subjects

philosophy | philosophy | mental state | mental state | propositions | propositions | propositional attitudes | propositional attitudes | de se thought | de se thought | knowing how | knowing how | perceptual content | perceptual content | knowledge argument | knowledge argument | perception | perception | nonconceptual content | nonconceptual content | indexical | indexical | philosophy of mind | philosophy of mind | logic | logic

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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