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3-point bending under a circular polariscope of annealed polycarbonate bar

Description

Annealed, polycarbonate bar undergoing 3-point bending under a circular polariscope, From TLP: Introduction to photoelasticity, http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/doitpoms/tlplib/photoelasticity/index.html

Subjects

photoelasticity | bending | polycarbonate | doitpoms | university of cambridge | video | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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3-point bending under a circular polariscope of annealed polycarbonate bar, close up

Description

Close up of annealed, polycarbonate bar undergoing 3-point bending under a circular polariscope. From TLP: Introduction to photoelasticity, http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/doitpoms/tlplib/photoelasticity/index.html

Subjects

photoelasticity | bending | polycarbonate | doitpoms | university of cambridge | video | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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3-point bending under a circular polariscope of annealed polycarbonate bar with a notch

Description

Annealed, polycarbonate bar with a notch undergoing 3-point bending under a circular polariscope. From TLP: Introduction to photoelasticity, http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/doitpoms/tlplib/photoelasticity/index.html

Subjects

photoelasticity | bending | polycarbonate | doitpoms | university of cambridge | video | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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3-point bending under a circular polariscope of annealed polycarbonate bar with hole

Description

Annealed, polycarbonate bar with hole undergoing 3-point bending under a circular polariscope. From TLP: Introduction to photoelasticity, http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/doitpoms/tlplib/photoelasticity/index.html

Subjects

photoelasticity | bending | polycarbonate | doitpoms | university of cambridge | video | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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4-point bending under a circular polariscope of annealed polycarbonate bar

Description

Annealed bar undergoing 4-point bending under a circular polariscope, From TLP: Introduction to photoelasticity, http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/doitpoms/tlplib/photoelasticity/index.html

Subjects

photoelasticity | bending | polycarbonate | doitpoms | university of cambridge | video | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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4-point bending under a circular polariscope of annealed polycarbonate bar, close up

Description

Close up of annealed, polycarbonate bar undergoing 4-point bending under a circular polariscope. From TLP: Introduction to photoelasticity, http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/doitpoms/tlplib/photoelasticity/index.html

Subjects

photoelasticity | bending | polycarbonate | doitpoms | university of cambridge | video | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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4-point bending under a circular polariscope of annealed polycarbonate bar with a notch

Description

Annealed, polycarbonate bar with notch undergoing 4-point bending under a circular polariscope. From TLP: Introduction to photoelasticity, http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/doitpoms/tlplib/photoelasticity/index.html

Subjects

photoelasticity | bending | polycarbonate | doitpoms | university of cambridge | video | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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4-point bending under a circular polariscope of annealed polycarbonate bar with hole

Description

Annealed, polycarbonate bar with hole undergoing 4-point bending under a circular polariscope. From TLP: Introduction to photoelasticity, http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/doitpoms/tlplib/photoelasticity/index.html

Subjects

photoelasticity | bending | polycarbonate | doitpoms | university of cambridge | video | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Shear bands in stressed polycarbonate

Description

Yielding in glassy polymers often proceeds by a small sheared region propagating through the material. These patterns can be used in the stress analysis of fracture processes. In addition, the colours in the image are the result of birefringence and relate to the strain-induced alignment of the polycarbonate molecules. Because the specimen is below the glass transition temperature of PC (145 °C), the material will relax when the stress is removed and there will be no residual alignment.

Subjects

craze | polycarbonate (pc) | polymer | shear bands | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Strain-induced birefringence in a notched polycarbonate bar

Description

The colours in the image are the result of birefringence and relate to the strain-induced alignment of the polycarbonate molecules. Because the specimen is below the glass transition temperature of PC (145 °C), the material will relax when the stress is removed and there will be no residual alignment. The colours reveal the pattern of stress concentration around the notch.

Subjects

bending | birefringence | polycarbonate (pc) | polymer | stress | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Strain-induced birefringence in a polycarbonate bar

Description

The colours in the image are the result of birefringence and relate to the strain-induced alignment of the polycarbonate molecules. Because the specimen is below the glass transition temperature of PC (145 °C), the material will relax when the stress is removed and there will be no residual alignment. The colours reveal the pattern of stress concentration around the points of contact with the rig, with a neutral axis along the centre and opposite values of birefringence on either side.

Subjects

bending | birefringence | polycarbonate (pc) | polymer | stress | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Remnants of crazes on a polycarbonate fracture surface

Description

The fracture surface shows fibrils of oriented polymer which are the remnants of crazes. Crazes are both a precursor to cracking and a toughening mechanism in stressed polymers. They only form when a certain critical tensile stress has been attained and form perpendicular to the largest tensile principal stress. They are very fine crack-like projections from the fracture surface but are bridged by even finer material, giving approximately 50% voids. It is these fibrils which interfere with light in an otherwise transparent polymer to make the crazing visible as a whitening of the strained material. It is the remnants of these fibrils which are visible on this fracture surface.

Subjects

craze | craze remnants | fibril | fracture | polycarbonate (pc) | polymer | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Crazing near a fracture surface in polycarbonate

Description

The fracture surface shows fibrils of oriented polymer which are the remnants of crazes. Crazes are both a precursor to cracking and a toughening mechanism in stressed polymers. They only form when a certain critical tensile stress has been attained and form perpendicular to the largest tensile principal stress. They are very fine crack-like projections from the fracture surface but are bridged by even finer material, giving approximately 50% voids. It is these fibrils which interfere with light in an otherwise transparent polymer to make the crazing visible as a whitening of the strained material. The surface ridging, parallel to the principal stress, is a consequence of strain-induced crystallisation during the cold drawing of the polycarbonate.

Subjects

craze | fibril | fracture | polycarbonate (pc) | polymer | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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The tip of a craze in polycarbonate

Description

Fibrils of oriented polymer are visible in the tip of the remnant of a craze near a fracture surface in a fractured specimen of polycarbonate. Crazes are both a precursor to cracking and a toughening mechanism in stressed polymers. They only form when a certain critical tensile stress has been attained and form perpendicular to the largest tensile principal stress. They are very fine crack-like projections from the fracture surface but are bridged by even finer material, giving approximately 50% voids. It is these fibrils which interfere with light in an otherwise transparent polymer to make the crazing visible as a whitening of the strained material.

Subjects

craze | fibril | polycarbonate (pc) | polymer | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Ductile tearing near a fracture surface in polycarbonate

Description

The fracture surface is dominated by ductile tearing, and also shows linear voids with fine transverse filaments. These are the remnants of crazes which act both as a precursor to cracking and as a toughening mechanism. In some areas, more angular brittle fracture surfaces are also apparent. The fine-scale ridging of the surface, parallel to the principal stress direction (which is approximately vertical) morphology is the result of fibrous crystals being induced by cold-drawing.

Subjects

craze | ductile | ductile tearing | fibril | fracture | polycarbonate (pc) | polymer | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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3-point bending under a circular polariscope of annealed polycarbonate bar

Description

Annealed, polycarbonate bar undergoing 3-point bending under a circular polariscope, From TLP: Introduction to photoelasticity, http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/doitpoms/tlplib/photoelasticity/index.html

Subjects

photoelasticity | bending | polycarbonate | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | video | corematerials | ukoer

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3-point bending under a circular polariscope of annealed polycarbonate bar, close up

Description

Close up of annealed, polycarbonate bar undergoing 3-point bending under a circular polariscope. From TLP: Introduction to photoelasticity, http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/doitpoms/tlplib/photoelasticity/index.html

Subjects

photoelasticity | bending | polycarbonate | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | video | corematerials | ukoer

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3-point bending under a circular polariscope of annealed polycarbonate bar with a notch

Description

Annealed, polycarbonate bar with a notch undergoing 3-point bending under a circular polariscope. From TLP: Introduction to photoelasticity, http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/doitpoms/tlplib/photoelasticity/index.html

Subjects

photoelasticity | bending | polycarbonate | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | video | corematerials | ukoer

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3-point bending under a circular polariscope of annealed polycarbonate bar with hole

Description

Annealed, polycarbonate bar with hole undergoing 3-point bending under a circular polariscope. From TLP: Introduction to photoelasticity, http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/doitpoms/tlplib/photoelasticity/index.html

Subjects

photoelasticity | bending | polycarbonate | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | video | corematerials | ukoer

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4-point bending under a circular polariscope of annealed polycarbonate bar

Description

Annealed bar undergoing 4-point bending under a circular polariscope, From TLP: Introduction to photoelasticity, http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/doitpoms/tlplib/photoelasticity/index.html

Subjects

photoelasticity | bending | polycarbonate | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | video | corematerials | ukoer

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4-point bending under a circular polariscope of annealed polycarbonate bar, close up

Description

Close up of annealed, polycarbonate bar undergoing 4-point bending under a circular polariscope. From TLP: Introduction to photoelasticity, http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/doitpoms/tlplib/photoelasticity/index.html

Subjects

photoelasticity | bending | polycarbonate | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | video | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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4-point bending under a circular polariscope of annealed polycarbonate bar with a notch

Description

Annealed, polycarbonate bar with notch undergoing 4-point bending under a circular polariscope. From TLP: Introduction to photoelasticity, http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/doitpoms/tlplib/photoelasticity/index.html

Subjects

photoelasticity | bending | polycarbonate | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | video | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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4-point bending under a circular polariscope of annealed polycarbonate bar with hole

Description

Annealed, polycarbonate bar with hole undergoing 4-point bending under a circular polariscope. From TLP: Introduction to photoelasticity, http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/doitpoms/tlplib/photoelasticity/index.html

Subjects

photoelasticity | bending | polycarbonate | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | video | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Shear bands in stressed polycarbonate

Description

Yielding in glassy polymers often proceeds by a small sheared region propagating through the material. These patterns can be used in the stress analysis of fracture processes. In addition, the colours in the image are the result of birefringence and relate to the strain-induced alignment of the polycarbonate molecules. Because the specimen is below the glass transition temperature of PC (145 C), the material will relax when the stress is removed and there will be no residual alignment.

Subjects

craze | polycarbonate (PC) | polymer | shear bands | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

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Strain-induced birefringence in a notched polycarbonate bar

Description

The colours in the image are the result of birefringence and relate to the strain-induced alignment of the polycarbonate molecules. Because the specimen is below the glass transition temperature of PC (145 C), the material will relax when the stress is removed and there will be no residual alignment. The colours reveal the pattern of stress concentration around the notch.

Subjects

bending | birefringence | polycarbonate (PC) | polymer | stress | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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