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10.569 Synthesis of Polymers (MIT) 10.569 Synthesis of Polymers (MIT)

Description

Studies synthesis of polymeric materials, emphasizing interrelationships of chemical pathways, process conditions, and microarchitecture of molecules produced. Chemical pathways include traditional approaches such as anionic polymerization, radical condensation, and ring-opening polymerizations. Other techniques are discussed, including stable free radical polymerizations and atom transfer free radical polymerizations (ARTP), catalytic approaches to well-defined architectures, and polymer functionalization in bulk and at surfaces. Process conditions include bulk, solution, emulsion, suspension, gas phase, and batch vs. continuous fluidized bed. Microarchitecture includes tacticity, molecular-weight distribution, sequence distributions in copolymers, errors in chains such as branches, head- Studies synthesis of polymeric materials, emphasizing interrelationships of chemical pathways, process conditions, and microarchitecture of molecules produced. Chemical pathways include traditional approaches such as anionic polymerization, radical condensation, and ring-opening polymerizations. Other techniques are discussed, including stable free radical polymerizations and atom transfer free radical polymerizations (ARTP), catalytic approaches to well-defined architectures, and polymer functionalization in bulk and at surfaces. Process conditions include bulk, solution, emulsion, suspension, gas phase, and batch vs. continuous fluidized bed. Microarchitecture includes tacticity, molecular-weight distribution, sequence distributions in copolymers, errors in chains such as branches, head-

Subjects

polymer synthesis | polymer synthesis | step growth polymerization | step growth polymerization | free radical chain polymerization | free radical chain polymerization | anionic polymerization | anionic polymerization | cationic polymerization | cationic polymerization | ring-opening polymerization | ring-opening polymerization | ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) | ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) | atom transfer free radical polymerization (ATRP) | atom transfer free radical polymerization (ATRP) | functionalization | functionalization | stable free radical polymerization | stable free radical polymerization | dendrimers | dendrimers | Kevlar | Kevlar | Nylon | Nylon | Teflon | Teflon | DuPont | DuPont | hydrogen bonding | hydrogen bonding | initiators | initiators | iniferter | iniferter | ionic polymerizatioin | ionic polymerizatioin | organic chemistry | organic chemistry | inorganic chemistry | inorganic chemistry | emulsion polymerization | emulsion polymerization | Rempp | Rempp | Merrill | Merrill

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10.467 Polymer Science Laboratory (MIT) 10.467 Polymer Science Laboratory (MIT)

Description

Experiments in this class are broadly aimed at acquainting students with the range of properties of polymers, methods of synthesis, and physical chemistry. Some examples of laboratory work include solution polymerization of acrylamide, bead polymerization of divinylbenzene, and interfacial polymerization of nylon 6,10. Evaluation of networks by tensile and swelling experiments, rheology of polymer solutions and suspensions, and physical properties of natural and silicone rubber are also covered. Experiments in this class are broadly aimed at acquainting students with the range of properties of polymers, methods of synthesis, and physical chemistry. Some examples of laboratory work include solution polymerization of acrylamide, bead polymerization of divinylbenzene, and interfacial polymerization of nylon 6,10. Evaluation of networks by tensile and swelling experiments, rheology of polymer solutions and suspensions, and physical properties of natural and silicone rubber are also covered.

Subjects

polymers | polymers | polymer laboratory | polymer laboratory | polymer experiments | polymer experiments | properties of polymers | properties of polymers | methods of polymer synthesis | methods of polymer synthesis | physical chemistry | physical chemistry | solution polymerization of acrylamide | solution polymerization of acrylamide | bead polymerization of divinylbenzene | bead polymerization of divinylbenzene | interfacial polymerization of nylon 6 | interfacial polymerization of nylon 6 | 10 | 10 | evaluation of networks by tensile and swelling experiments | evaluation of networks by tensile and swelling experiments | rheology of polymer solutions and suspensions | rheology of polymer solutions and suspensions | physical properties of natural and silicone rubber | physical properties of natural and silicone rubber

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10.569 Synthesis of Polymers (MIT)

Description

Studies synthesis of polymeric materials, emphasizing interrelationships of chemical pathways, process conditions, and microarchitecture of molecules produced. Chemical pathways include traditional approaches such as anionic polymerization, radical condensation, and ring-opening polymerizations. Other techniques are discussed, including stable free radical polymerizations and atom transfer free radical polymerizations (ARTP), catalytic approaches to well-defined architectures, and polymer functionalization in bulk and at surfaces. Process conditions include bulk, solution, emulsion, suspension, gas phase, and batch vs. continuous fluidized bed. Microarchitecture includes tacticity, molecular-weight distribution, sequence distributions in copolymers, errors in chains such as branches, head-

Subjects

polymer synthesis | step growth polymerization | free radical chain polymerization | anionic polymerization | cationic polymerization | ring-opening polymerization | ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) | atom transfer free radical polymerization (ATRP) | functionalization | stable free radical polymerization | dendrimers | Kevlar | Nylon | Teflon | DuPont | hydrogen bonding | initiators | iniferter | ionic polymerizatioin | organic chemistry | inorganic chemistry | emulsion polymerization | Rempp | Merrill

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10.467 Polymer Science Laboratory (MIT)

Description

Experiments in this class are broadly aimed at acquainting students with the range of properties of polymers, methods of synthesis, and physical chemistry. Some examples of laboratory work include solution polymerization of acrylamide, bead polymerization of divinylbenzene, and interfacial polymerization of nylon 6,10. Evaluation of networks by tensile and swelling experiments, rheology of polymer solutions and suspensions, and physical properties of natural and silicone rubber are also covered.

Subjects

polymers | polymer laboratory | polymer experiments | properties of polymers | methods of polymer synthesis | physical chemistry | solution polymerization of acrylamide | bead polymerization of divinylbenzene | interfacial polymerization of nylon 6 | 10 | evaluation of networks by tensile and swelling experiments | rheology of polymer solutions and suspensions | physical properties of natural and silicone rubber

License

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Biomaterials Chemistry (MIT) Biomaterials Chemistry (MIT)

Description

This course covers principles of materials chemistry common to organic materials ranging from biological polypeptides to engineered block copolymers. Topics include molecular structure, polymer synthesis reactions, protein-protein interactions, multifunctional organic materials including polymeric nanoreactors, conducting polymers and virus-mediated biomineralization. WARNING NOTICE The experiments described in these materials are potentially hazardous and require a high level of safety training, special facilities and equipment, and supervision by appropriate individuals. You bear the sole responsibility, liability, and risk for the implementation of such safety procedures and measures. MIT shall have no responsibility, liability, or risk for the content or implementation of any of the ma This course covers principles of materials chemistry common to organic materials ranging from biological polypeptides to engineered block copolymers. Topics include molecular structure, polymer synthesis reactions, protein-protein interactions, multifunctional organic materials including polymeric nanoreactors, conducting polymers and virus-mediated biomineralization. WARNING NOTICE The experiments described in these materials are potentially hazardous and require a high level of safety training, special facilities and equipment, and supervision by appropriate individuals. You bear the sole responsibility, liability, and risk for the implementation of such safety procedures and measures. MIT shall have no responsibility, liability, or risk for the content or implementation of any of the ma

Subjects

polymeric nanoreactors | polymeric nanoreactors | virus-mediated biomineralization | virus-mediated biomineralization | conducting polymers | conducting polymers | biomaterials chemistry | biomaterials chemistry | organic materials | organic materials | polypeptides | polypeptides | block copolymers | block copolymers | polymer synthesis | polymer synthesis

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7.01SC Fundamentals of Biology (MIT) 7.01SC Fundamentals of Biology (MIT)

Description

Fundamentals of Biology focuses on the basic principles of biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, and recombinant DNA. These principles are necessary to understanding the basic mechanisms of life and anchor the biological knowledge that is required to understand many of the challenges in everyday life, from human health and disease to loss of biodiversity and environmental quality. Fundamentals of Biology focuses on the basic principles of biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, and recombinant DNA. These principles are necessary to understanding the basic mechanisms of life and anchor the biological knowledge that is required to understand many of the challenges in everyday life, from human health and disease to loss of biodiversity and environmental quality.

Subjects

amino acids | amino acids | carboxyl group | carboxyl group | amino group | amino group | side chains | side chains | polar | polar | hydrophobic | hydrophobic | primary structure | primary structure | secondary structure | secondary structure | tertiary structure | tertiary structure | quaternary structure | quaternary structure | x-ray crystallography | x-ray crystallography | alpha helix | alpha helix | beta sheet | beta sheet | ionic bond | ionic bond | non-polar bond | non-polar bond | van der Waals interactions | van der Waals interactions | proton gradient | proton gradient | cyclic photophosphorylation | cyclic photophosphorylation | sunlight | sunlight | ATP | ATP | chlorophyll | chlorophyll | chlorophyll a | chlorophyll a | electrons | electrons | hydrogen sulfide | hydrogen sulfide | biosynthesis | biosynthesis | non-cyclic photophosphorylation | non-cyclic photophosphorylation | photosystem II | photosystem II | photosystem I | photosystem I | cyanobacteria | cyanobacteria | chloroplast | chloroplast | stroma | stroma | thylakoid membrane | thylakoid membrane | Genetics | Genetics | Mendel | Mendel | Mendel's Laws | Mendel's Laws | cloning | cloning | restriction enzymes | restriction enzymes | vector | vector | insert DNA | insert DNA | ligase | ligase | library | library | E.Coli | E.Coli | phosphatase | phosphatase | yeast | yeast | transformation | transformation | ARG1 gene | ARG1 gene | ARG1 mutant yeast | ARG1 mutant yeast | yeast wild-type | yeast wild-type | cloning by complementation | cloning by complementation | Human Beta Globin gene | Human Beta Globin gene | protein tetramer | protein tetramer | vectors | vectors | antibodies | antibodies | human promoter | human promoter | splicing | splicing | mRNA | mRNA | cDNA | cDNA | reverse transcriptase | reverse transcriptase | plasmid | plasmid | electrophoresis | electrophoresis | DNA sequencing | DNA sequencing | primer | primer | template | template | capillary tube | capillary tube | laser detector | laser detector | human genome project | human genome project | recombinant DNA | recombinant DNA | clone | clone | primer walking | primer walking | subcloning | subcloning | computer assembly | computer assembly | shotgun sequencing | shotgun sequencing | open reading frame | open reading frame | databases | databases | polymerase chain reaction (PCR) | polymerase chain reaction (PCR) | polymerase | polymerase | nucleotides | nucleotides | Thermus aquaticus | Thermus aquaticus | Taq polymerase | Taq polymerase | thermocycler | thermocycler | resequencing | resequencing | in vitro fertilization | in vitro fertilization | pre-implantation diagnostics | pre-implantation diagnostics | forensics | forensics | genetic engineering | genetic engineering | DNA sequences | DNA sequences | therapeutic proteins | therapeutic proteins | E. coli | E. coli | disease-causing mutations | disease-causing mutations | cleavage of DNA | cleavage of DNA | bacterial transformation | bacterial transformation | recombinant DNA revolution | recombinant DNA revolution | biotechnology industry | biotechnology industry | Robert Swanson | Robert Swanson | toxin gene | toxin gene | pathogenic bacterium | pathogenic bacterium | biomedical research | biomedical research | S. Pyogenes | S. Pyogenes | origin of replication | origin of replication

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3.063 Polymer Physics (MIT) 3.063 Polymer Physics (MIT)

Description

This course presents the mechanical, optical, and transport properties of polymers with respect to the underlying physics and physical chemistry of polymers in melt, solution, and solid state. Topics include conformation and molecular dimensions of polymer chains in solutions, melts, blends, and block copolymers; an examination of the structure of glassy, crystalline, and rubbery elastic states of polymers; thermodynamics of polymer solutions, blends, crystallization; liquid crystallinity, microphase separation, and self-assembled organic-inorganic nanocomposites. Case studies include relationships between structure and function in technologically important polymeric systems. This course presents the mechanical, optical, and transport properties of polymers with respect to the underlying physics and physical chemistry of polymers in melt, solution, and solid state. Topics include conformation and molecular dimensions of polymer chains in solutions, melts, blends, and block copolymers; an examination of the structure of glassy, crystalline, and rubbery elastic states of polymers; thermodynamics of polymer solutions, blends, crystallization; liquid crystallinity, microphase separation, and self-assembled organic-inorganic nanocomposites. Case studies include relationships between structure and function in technologically important polymeric systems.

Subjects

mechanical | mechanical | optical | optical | transport | transport | physical chemistry | physical chemistry | chemistry | chemistry | physics | physics | melt | melt | solution | solution | solid | solid | polymer chain | polymer chain | copolymer | copolymer | glass | glass | crystal | crystal | rubber | rubber | elastic | elastic | thermodynamics | thermodynamics | microphase separation | microphase separation | organic | organic | inorganic | inorganic | nanocomposite | nanocomposite

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3.91 Mechanical Behavior of Plastics (MIT) 3.91 Mechanical Behavior of Plastics (MIT)

Description

This course is aimed at presenting the concepts underlying the response of polymeric materials to applied loads. These will include both the molecular mechanisms involved and the mathematical description of the relevant continuum mechanics. It is dominantly an "engineering" subject, but with an atomistic flavor. It covers the influence of processing and structure on mechanical properties of synthetic and natural polymers: Hookean and entropic elastic deformation, linear viscoelasticity, composite materials and laminates, yield and fracture. This course is aimed at presenting the concepts underlying the response of polymeric materials to applied loads. These will include both the molecular mechanisms involved and the mathematical description of the relevant continuum mechanics. It is dominantly an "engineering" subject, but with an atomistic flavor. It covers the influence of processing and structure on mechanical properties of synthetic and natural polymers: Hookean and entropic elastic deformation, linear viscoelasticity, composite materials and laminates, yield and fracture.

Subjects

plastics; synthetic high polymers; viscoelastic phenomena; viscoelastic and strength properties; mechanical property evaluation; plastics fabrication methods | plastics; synthetic high polymers; viscoelastic phenomena; viscoelastic and strength properties; mechanical property evaluation; plastics fabrication methods | plastics | plastics | synthetic high polymers | synthetic high polymers | viscoelastic phenomena | viscoelastic phenomena | viscoelastic and strength properties | viscoelastic and strength properties | mechanical property evaluation | mechanical property evaluation | plastics fabrication methods | plastics fabrication methods

License

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3.91J Mechanical Behavior of Plastics (MIT) 3.91J Mechanical Behavior of Plastics (MIT)

Description

Relation among chemical composition, physical structure, and mechanical behavior of plastics or synthetic high polymers. Study of types of polymers; fundamentals of viscoelastic phenomena such as creep, stress relaxation, stress rupture, mechanical damping, impact; effects of chemical composition and structure on viscoelastic and strength properties; methods of mechanical property evaluation. Influences of plastics fabrication methods. Emphasis on recent research techniques and results. Individual laboratory projects investigating problems related to current research. Relation among chemical composition, physical structure, and mechanical behavior of plastics or synthetic high polymers. Study of types of polymers; fundamentals of viscoelastic phenomena such as creep, stress relaxation, stress rupture, mechanical damping, impact; effects of chemical composition and structure on viscoelastic and strength properties; methods of mechanical property evaluation. Influences of plastics fabrication methods. Emphasis on recent research techniques and results. Individual laboratory projects investigating problems related to current research.

Subjects

plastics | | plastics | | synthetic high polymers | | synthetic high polymers | | viscoelastic phenomena | | viscoelastic phenomena | | viscoelastic and strength properties | | viscoelastic and strength properties | | mechanical property evaluation | | mechanical property evaluation | | plastics fabrication methods | plastics fabrication methods | plastics | plastics | synthetic high polymers | synthetic high polymers | viscoelastic phenomena | viscoelastic phenomena | viscoelastic and strength properties | viscoelastic and strength properties | mechanical property evaluation | mechanical property evaluation | 3.91 | 3.91 | 1.593 | 1.593

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3.064 Polymer Engineering (MIT) 3.064 Polymer Engineering (MIT)

Description

This course offers and overview of engineering analysis and design techniques for synthetic polymers. Treatment of materials properties selection, mechanical characterization, and processing in design of load-bearing and environment-compatible structures are covered. This course offers and overview of engineering analysis and design techniques for synthetic polymers. Treatment of materials properties selection, mechanical characterization, and processing in design of load-bearing and environment-compatible structures are covered.

Subjects

engineering analysis | engineering analysis | design techniques | design techniques | synthetic polymers | synthetic polymers | materials properties selection | materials properties selection | mechanical characterization | mechanical characterization | design of load-bearing and environment-compatible structures | design of load-bearing and environment-compatible structures | load-bearing structures | load-bearing structures | environment-compatible structures | environment-compatible structures | processing methods | processing methods | materials specification | materials specification | design drawing | design drawing | polymeric load-bearing articles | polymeric load-bearing articles

License

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3.051J Materials for Biomedical Applications (MIT) 3.051J Materials for Biomedical Applications (MIT)

Description

This course gives an introduction to the interactions between proteins, cells and surfaces of biomaterials. It includes surface chemistry and physics of selected metals, polymers and ceramics, modification of biomaterials surfaces, and surface characterization methodology; quantitative assays of cell behavior in culture and methods of statistical analysis; organ replacement therapies and acute and chronic response to implanted biomaterials. The course includes topics in biosensors, drug delivery and tissue engineering. This course gives an introduction to the interactions between proteins, cells and surfaces of biomaterials. It includes surface chemistry and physics of selected metals, polymers and ceramics, modification of biomaterials surfaces, and surface characterization methodology; quantitative assays of cell behavior in culture and methods of statistical analysis; organ replacement therapies and acute and chronic response to implanted biomaterials. The course includes topics in biosensors, drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Subjects

Interactions between proteins | Interactions between proteins | cells | cells | Surface chemistry and physics of metals | Surface chemistry and physics of metals | polymers and ceramics | polymers and ceramics | Surface characterization methodology | Surface characterization methodology | Quantitative assays of cell behavior | Quantitative assays of cell behavior | Organ replacement therapies | Organ replacement therapies | Acute and chronic response to implanted biomaterials | Acute and chronic response to implanted biomaterials | Biosensors | Biosensors | drug delivery and tissue engineering | drug delivery and tissue engineering | Interactions between proteins | cells | Interactions between proteins | cells | Surface chemistry and physics of metals | polymers and ceramics | Surface chemistry and physics of metals | polymers and ceramics | Biosensors | drug delivery and tissue engineering | Biosensors | drug delivery and tissue engineering | BE.340J | BE.340J | 3.051 | 3.051 | BE.340 | BE.340 | 20.340 | 20.340

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Biomaterials Chemistry (MIT)

Description

This course covers principles of materials chemistry common to organic materials ranging from biological polypeptides to engineered block copolymers. Topics include molecular structure, polymer synthesis reactions, protein-protein interactions, multifunctional organic materials including polymeric nanoreactors, conducting polymers and virus-mediated biomineralization. WARNING NOTICE The experiments described in these materials are potentially hazardous and require a high level of safety training, special facilities and equipment, and supervision by appropriate individuals. You bear the sole responsibility, liability, and risk for the implementation of such safety procedures and measures. MIT shall have no responsibility, liability, or risk for the content or implementation of any of the ma

Subjects

polymeric nanoreactors | virus-mediated biomineralization | conducting polymers | biomaterials chemistry | organic materials | polypeptides | block copolymers | polymer synthesis

License

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20.462J Molecular Principles of Biomaterials (MIT) 20.462J Molecular Principles of Biomaterials (MIT)

Description

This course covers the analysis and design at a molecular scale of materials used in contact with biological systems, including biotechnology and biomedical engineering. Topics include molecular interactions between bio- and synthetic molecules and surfaces; design, synthesis, and processing approaches for materials that control cell functions; and application of state-of-the-art materials science to problems in tissue engineering, drug delivery, vaccines, and cell-guiding surfaces. This course covers the analysis and design at a molecular scale of materials used in contact with biological systems, including biotechnology and biomedical engineering. Topics include molecular interactions between bio- and synthetic molecules and surfaces; design, synthesis, and processing approaches for materials that control cell functions; and application of state-of-the-art materials science to problems in tissue engineering, drug delivery, vaccines, and cell-guiding surfaces.

Subjects

biomaterials | biomaterials | biomaterial engineering | biomaterial engineering | biotechnology | biotechnology | cell-guiding surface | cell-guiding surface | molecular biomaterials | molecular biomaterials | drug release | drug release | polymers | polymers | pulsatile release | pulsatile release | polymerization | polymerization | polyer erosion | polyer erosion | tissue engineering | tissue engineering | hydrogels | hydrogels | adhesion | adhesion | migration | migration | drug diffusion | drug diffusion | molecular switches | molecular switches | molecular motors | molecular motors | nanoparticles | nanoparticles | microparticles | microparticles | vaccines | vaccines | drug targeting | drug targeting | micro carriers | micro carriers | nano carriers | nano carriers | intracellular drug delivery | intracellular drug delivery | 20.462 | 20.462 | 3.962 | 3.962

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Kevlar fibre composite fracture surface

Description

Because a relatively short beam was used, significant shear stresses existed in the beam, and failure has occurred principally by shear. In this mode, the specimen splits longitudinally along planes parallel to its neutral axis, due to shear failure within the matrix and at the weak interface between fibres and matrix. Matrix porosity (and particularly the long longitudinal voids present in this specimen), the poor wetting of fibres by the resin, and poor fibre distribution will all promote failure by shear. However, it may be that this failure mechanism has been partly inhibited by poor fibre alignment since some off-axis fibres will reinforce the matrix in shear

Subjects

alignment | composite material | epoxy | fibre | fibrillation | fracture | hackle region | Kevlar | liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) | lyotropic | polymer | polymer composite | reinforcement | shear | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Kevlar fibre composite shear surface

Description

This is an image of the shear surface in a failed composite beam. 'Hackles' of matrix are clearly visible where shear has occurred within the matrix and it is also clear that shear has occurred across the fibre/matrix interface. The fibres are for the most part totally unscathed, though some mis-aligned fibres have become caught between the shear surfaces and 'fibrillated' by rolling and bending actions. It may be that this failure mechanism has been partly inhibited by poor fibre alignment since some off-axis fibres will reinforce the matrix in shear. It will have been promoted, however, by the extensive longitudinal voids.

Subjects

alignment | composite material | epoxy | fibre | fibrillation | fracture | hackle region | Kevlar | liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) | lyotropic | polymer | polymer composite | reinforcement | shear | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Kevlar fibre composite shear surface

Description

This is an image of the shear surface in a failed composite beam. 'Hackles' of matrix are clearly visible where shear has occurred within the matrix and it is also clear that shear has occurred across the fibre/matrix interface. The fibres are for the most part totally unscathed, though some mis-aligned fibres have become caught between the shear surfaces and 'fibrillated' by rolling and bending actions. It may be that this failure mechanism has been partly inhibited by poor fibre alignment since some off-axis fibres will reinforce the matrix in shear. It will have been promoted, however, by the extensive longitudinal voids.

Subjects

alignment | composite material | epoxy | fibre | fibrillation | fracture | hackle region | Kevlar | liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) | lyotropic | polymer | polymer composite | reinforcement | shear | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS)

Description

High impact polystyrene (HIPS) or 'rubber-toughened polystyrene' is a two-phase mixture of polybutadiene (a synthetic rubber) in polystyrene. The two phases are immiscible, with polybutadiene crystallising out of the melt to form spheroidal particles. In fact, polystyrene is the first phase to crystallise, forming even an even finer dispersion of polystyrene particles which become trapped within the polybutadiene when a phase inversion occurs at around 10% solidification.

Subjects

blend | composite material | high impact polystyrene (hips) | phase inversion | polybutadiene (pb) | polymer | polymer composite | polystyrene (ps) | rubber | rubber-toughened polymer | tough | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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7.01SC Fundamentals of Biology (MIT)

Description

Fundamentals of Biology focuses on the basic principles of biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, and recombinant DNA. These principles are necessary to understanding the basic mechanisms of life and anchor the biological knowledge that is required to understand many of the challenges in everyday life, from human health and disease to loss of biodiversity and environmental quality.

Subjects

amino acids | carboxyl group | amino group | side chains | polar | hydrophobic | primary structure | secondary structure | tertiary structure | quaternary structure | x-ray crystallography | alpha helix | beta sheet | ionic bond | non-polar bond | van der Waals interactions | proton gradient | cyclic photophosphorylation | sunlight | ATP | chlorophyll | chlorophyll a | electrons | hydrogen sulfide | biosynthesis | non-cyclic photophosphorylation | photosystem II | photosystem I | cyanobacteria | chloroplast | stroma | thylakoid membrane | Genetics | Mendel | Mendel's Laws | cloning | restriction enzymes | vector | insert DNA | ligase | library | E.Coli | phosphatase | yeast | transformation | ARG1 gene | ARG1 mutant yeast | yeast wild-type | cloning by complementation | Human Beta Globin gene | protein tetramer | vectors | antibodies | human promoter | splicing | mRNA | cDNA | reverse transcriptase | plasmid | electrophoresis | DNA sequencing | primer | template | capillary tube | laser detector | human genome project | recombinant DNA | clone | primer walking | subcloning | computer assembly | shotgun sequencing | open reading frame | databases | polymerase chain reaction (PCR) | polymerase | nucleotides | Thermus aquaticus | Taq polymerase | thermocycler | resequencing | in vitro fertilization | pre-implantation diagnostics | forensics | genetic engineering | DNA sequences | therapeutic proteins | E. coli | disease-causing mutations | cleavage of DNA | bacterial transformation | recombinant DNA revolution | biotechnology industry | Robert Swanson | toxin gene | pathogenic bacterium | biomedical research | S. Pyogenes | origin of replication

License

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Kevlar fibre composite fracture surface

Description

Because a relatively short beam was used, significant shear stresses existed in the beam, and failure has occurred principally by shear. In this mode, the specimen splits longitudinally along planes parallel to its neutral axis, due to shear failure within the matrix and at the weak interface between fibres and matrix. Matrix porosity (and particularly the long longitudinal voids present in this specimen), the poor wetting of fibres by the resin, and poor fibre distribution will all promote failure by shear. However, it may be that this failure mechanism has been partly inhibited by poor fibre alignment since some off-axis fibres will reinforce the matrix in shear

Subjects

alignment | composite material | epoxy | fibre | fibrillation | fracture | hackle region | kevlar | liquid crystalline polymer (lcp) | lyotropic | polymer | polymer composite | reinforcement | shear | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Kevlar fibre composite shear surface

Description

This is an image of the shear surface in a failed composite beam. 'Hackles' of matrix are clearly visible where shear has occurred within the matrix and it is also clear that shear has occurred across the fibre/matrix interface. The fibres are for the most part totally unscathed, though some mis-aligned fibres have become caught between the shear surfaces and 'fibrillated' by rolling and bending actions. It may be that this failure mechanism has been partly inhibited by poor fibre alignment since some off-axis fibres will reinforce the matrix in shear. It will have been promoted, however, by the extensive longitudinal voids.

Subjects

alignment | composite material | epoxy | fibre | fibrillation | fracture | hackle region | kevlar | liquid crystalline polymer (lcp) | lyotropic | polymer | polymer composite | reinforcement | shear | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Kevlar fibre composite shear surface

Description

This is an image of the shear surface in a failed composite beam. 'Hackles' of matrix are clearly visible where shear has occurred within the matrix and it is also clear that shear has occurred across the fibre/matrix interface. The fibres are for the most part totally unscathed, though some mis-aligned fibres have become caught between the shear surfaces and 'fibrillated' by rolling and bending actions. It may be that this failure mechanism has been partly inhibited by poor fibre alignment since some off-axis fibres will reinforce the matrix in shear. It will have been promoted, however, by the extensive longitudinal voids.

Subjects

alignment | composite material | epoxy | fibre | fibrillation | fracture | hackle region | kevlar | liquid crystalline polymer (lcp) | lyotropic | polymer | polymer composite | reinforcement | shear | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS)

Description

High impact polystyrene (HIPS) or 'rubber-toughened polystyrene' is a two-phase mixture of polybutadiene (a synthetic rubber) in polystyrene. The two phases are immiscible, with polybutadiene crystallising out of the melt to form spheroidal particles. In fact, polystyrene is the first phase to crystallise, forming even an even finer dispersion of polystyrene particles which become trapped within the polybutadiene when a phase inversion occurs at around 10% solidification.

Subjects

blend | composite material | high impact polystyrene (HIPS) | phase inversion | polybutadiene (PB) | polymer | polymer composite | polystyrene (PS) | rubber | rubber-toughened polymer | tough | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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2.800 Tribology (MIT) 2.800 Tribology (MIT)

Description

This course addresses the design of tribological systems: the interfaces between two or more bodies in relative motion. Fundamental topics include: geometric, chemical, and physical characterization of surfaces; friction and wear mechanisms for metals, polymers, and ceramics, including abrasive wear, delamination theory, tool wear, erosive wear, wear of polymers and composites; and boundary lubrication and solid-film lubrication. The course also considers the relationship between nano-tribology and macro-tribology, rolling contacts, tribological problems in magnetic recording and electrical contacts, and monitoring and diagnosis of friction and wear. Case studies are used to illustrate key points. This course addresses the design of tribological systems: the interfaces between two or more bodies in relative motion. Fundamental topics include: geometric, chemical, and physical characterization of surfaces; friction and wear mechanisms for metals, polymers, and ceramics, including abrasive wear, delamination theory, tool wear, erosive wear, wear of polymers and composites; and boundary lubrication and solid-film lubrication. The course also considers the relationship between nano-tribology and macro-tribology, rolling contacts, tribological problems in magnetic recording and electrical contacts, and monitoring and diagnosis of friction and wear. Case studies are used to illustrate key points.

Subjects

tribology | tribology | surfaces | surfaces | interface | interface | friction | friction | wear | wear | metal | metal | polymer | polymer | ceramics | ceramics | abrasive wear | abrasive wear | delamination theory | delamination theory | tool wear | tool wear | erosive wear | erosive wear | composites | composites | boundary lubrication | boundary lubrication | solid-film lubrication. nano-tribology | solid-film lubrication. nano-tribology | macro-tribology | macro-tribology | rolling contacts | rolling contacts | magnetic recording | magnetic recording | electrical contact | electrical contact | connector | connector | axiomatic design | axiomatic design | traction | traction | seals | seals | solid-film lubrication | solid-film lubrication | nano-tribology | nano-tribology

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Using composite materials to replace bone Using composite materials to replace bone

Description

For the past ten years, Professor Rudd and his team have been researching degradable polymers that would be as strong as the steel plates, but could be absorbed by the body, thus eliminating the need for secondary surgery. For the past ten years, Professor Rudd and his team have been researching degradable polymers that would be as strong as the steel plates, but could be absorbed by the body, thus eliminating the need for secondary surgery. In this podcast, Professor Chris Rudd, Dean of the faculty of Engineering at the University of Nottingham, describes his work with composite materials in the car industry and how it can be applied to the field of medicine. Traditionally, patients who have lost bone in an accident or have had bone removed due to cancer have had to endure two very long and very painful operations. One operation to attach steel plates to the bone, and a second operation once the bone has healed, to remove them. For the past ten years, Professor Rudd and his team have been researching degradable polymers that would be as strong as the steel plates, but could be absorbed by the body, thus eliminating the need for secondary surgery. In this podcast, Professor Chris Rudd, Dean of the faculty of Engineering at the University of Nottingham, describes his work with composite materials in the car industry and how it can be applied to the field of medicine. Traditionally, patients who have lost bone in an accident or have had bone removed due to cancer have had to endure two very long and very painful operations. One operation to attach steel plates to the bone, and a second operation once the bone has healed, to remove them. For the past ten years, Professor Rudd and his team have been researching degradable polymers that would be as strong as the steel plates, but could be absorbed by the body, thus eliminating the need for secondary surgery.

Subjects

UNow | UNow | Bone replacement | Bone replacement | Degradable polymers in the body | Degradable polymers in the body | UKOER | UKOER

License

Except for third party materials (materials owned by someone other than The University of Nottingham) and where otherwise indicated, the copyright in the content provided in this resource is owned by The University of Nottingham and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike UK 2.0 Licence (BY-NC-SA) Except for third party materials (materials owned by someone other than The University of Nottingham) and where otherwise indicated, the copyright in the content provided in this resource is owned by The University of Nottingham and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike UK 2.0 Licence (BY-NC-SA)

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2.76 Multi-Scale System Design (MIT) 2.76 Multi-Scale System Design (MIT)

Description

Multi-scale systems (MuSS) consist of components from two or more length scales (nano, micro, meso, or macro-scales). In MuSS, the engineering modeling, design principles, and fabrication processes of the components are fundamentally different. The challenge is to make these components so they are conceptually and model-wise compatible with other-scale components with which they interface. This course covers the fundamental properties of scales, design theories, modeling methods and manufacturing issues which must be addressed in these systems. Examples of MuSS include precision instruments, nanomanipulators, fiber optics, micro/nano-photonics, nanorobotics, MEMS (piezoelectric driven manipulators and optics), X-Ray telescopes and carbon nano-tube assemblies. Students master the materials Multi-scale systems (MuSS) consist of components from two or more length scales (nano, micro, meso, or macro-scales). In MuSS, the engineering modeling, design principles, and fabrication processes of the components are fundamentally different. The challenge is to make these components so they are conceptually and model-wise compatible with other-scale components with which they interface. This course covers the fundamental properties of scales, design theories, modeling methods and manufacturing issues which must be addressed in these systems. Examples of MuSS include precision instruments, nanomanipulators, fiber optics, micro/nano-photonics, nanorobotics, MEMS (piezoelectric driven manipulators and optics), X-Ray telescopes and carbon nano-tube assemblies. Students master the materials

Subjects

scale | scale | complexity | complexity | nano | micro | meso | or macro-scale | nano | micro | meso | or macro-scale | kinematics | kinematics | metrology | metrology | engineering modeling | motion | engineering modeling | motion | modeling | modeling | design | design | manufacture | manufacture | design principles | design principles | fabrication process | fabrication process | functional requirements | functional requirements | precision instruments | precision instruments | nanomanipulators | fiber optics | micro- photonics | nano-photonics | nanorobotics | MEMS | nanomanipulators | fiber optics | micro- photonics | nano-photonics | nanorobotics | MEMS | piezoelectric | transducer | actuator | sensor | piezoelectric | transducer | actuator | sensor | constraint | rigid constraint | flexible constraint | ride-flexible constraint | constraint | rigid constraint | flexible constraint | ride-flexible constraint | constaint-based design | constaint-based design | carbon nanotube | carbon nanotube | nanowire | nanowire | scanning tunneling microscope | scanning tunneling microscope | flexure | flexure | protein structure | protein structure | polymer structure | polymer structure | nanopelleting | nanopipette | nanowire | nanopelleting | nanopipette | nanowire | TMA pixel array | TMA pixel array | error modeling | error modeling | repeatability | repeatability

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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