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Fe, C 0.15 (wt%) steel, quenched.

Description

A low carbon steel quenched in order to produce martensitic plates.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | quenching | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Fe, C 0.15 (wt%) steel, quenched.

Description

A low carbon steel quenched in order to produce martensitic plates.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | quenching | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

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Fe, C 0.15 (wt%) steel, quenched.

Description

A low carbon steel quenched in order to produce martensitic plates.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | quenching | steel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, Ni 30, C 0.3 (wt%), quenched - martensite plates

Description

This sample was quenched to -80 °C to give a metastable martensitic microstructure. The martensite plates show a lenticular morphology as the material attempts to shear as it transforms but is unable to open up voids at the grain boundaries. The plates form in a similar way to mechanical twins but the shear processes lead to changes in crystal structure as well as crystallographic orientation.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | metastable | nickel | quenching | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

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Fe, Ni 30, C 0.3 (wt%), quenched - martensite plates

Description

This sample was quenched to -80 °C to give a metastable martensitic microstructure. The martensite plates show a lenticular morphology as the material attempts to shear as it transforms but is unable to open up voids at the grain boundaries. The plates form in a similar way to mechanical twins but the shear processes lead to changes in crystal structure as well as crystallographic orientation.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | metastable | nickel | quenching | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

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°C - Widmanstätten microstructure

Description

This sample was quenched and held at 300 °C for one hour. It has a Widmanstätten microstructure with the ? phase precipitating out of the single ? phase during cooling to give ? plates in a ? matrix. The low temperature at which the transformation takes place leads to less diffusion and results in a finer structure.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | quenching | ätten | zinc | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Al 96, Cu 4 (wt%), solution treated and overaged - precipitation hardening

Description

This sample has been aged after quenching to enable the growth of precipitates from a supersaturated solid solution. The strength of the alloy has been greatly improved by precipitation hardening. A precipitation sequence is observed eventually resulting in the formation of the stable ? phase through a series of metastable intermediates. The ? phase is an intermetallic compound with a composition close to CuAl2. The ? precipitates preferentially form on Al grain boundaries, as these are excellent heterogeneous nucleation sites. The depletion of Cu near the boundaries to these precipitates is one reason for the formation of adjacent precipitation free zones (PFZ).

Subjects

alloy | aluminium | copper | metal | metastable | overaged | precipitation | precipitation hardening | quenching | solution heat treatment | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

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Al 96, Cu 4 (wt%), solution treated and overaged - precipitation hardening

Description

This sample has been aged after quenching to enable the growth of precipitates from a supersaturated solid solution. The strength of the alloy has been greatly improved by precipitation hardening. A precipitation sequence is observed eventually resulting in the formation of the stable ? phase through a series of metastable intermediates. The ? phase is an intermetallic compound with a composition close to CuAl2. The ? precipitates preferentially form on Al grain boundaries, as these are excellent heterogeneous nucleation sites. The depletion of Cu near the boundaries to these precipitates is one reason for the formation of adjacent precipitation free zones (PFZ).

Subjects

alloy | aluminium | copper | metal | metastable | overaged | precipitation | precipitation hardening | quenching | solution heat treatment | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

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Al-4 wt% Cu, age hardened alloy

Description

This alloy was solution treated. Hardening is achieved by the controlled rejection of copper from a supersaturated solid solution. There is some additional hardening from precipitates such as MgSi2. From the phase diagram for the pure aluminium-copper binary system, it can be seen that the solubility of copper in -aluminium increases with increasing temperature up to the eutectic temperature of about 550°C. The equilibrium microstructure below the eutectic temperature is a two-phase mixture of -aluminium and the Al2Cu intermetallic phase (also known as ? phase). The initial solution heat treatment aims to obtain the maximum possible concentration of copper in solution. Rapid quenching from the solution temperature prevents the kinetically slow precipitation of , forming a highly super

Subjects

aged | alloy | aluminium | copper | hardening | heat treatment | metal | quenching | vacancy | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Al-4 wt% Cu, over aged alloy

Description

Prolonged heat treatment above 150°C to 200°C has led to the evolution of the stable CuAl2 phase (?). The CuAl2 phase is visible at high magnifications. It does not contribute to the strength of the alloy and the over aged aluminium has poor mechanical properties.

Subjects

aged | alloy | aluminium | copper | hardening | heat treatment | metal | quenching | vacancy | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Al-4 wt% Cu, over aged alloy

Description

Prolonged heat treatment above 150°C to 200°C has led to the evolution of the stable CuAl2 phase (?). The CuAl2 phase is visible at high magnifications. It does not contribute to the strength of the alloy and the over aged aluminium has poor mechanical properties.

Subjects

aged | alloy | aluminium | copper | hardening | heat treatment | metal | quenching | vacancy | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Al-4 wt% Cu, over aged alloy

Description

Prolonged heat treatment above 150°C to 200°C has led to the evolution of the stable CuAl2 phase (?). The CuAl2 phase is visible at high magnifications. It does not contribute to the strength of the alloy and the over aged aluminium has poor mechanical properties.

Subjects

aged | alloy | aluminium | copper | hardening | heat treatment | metal | quenching | vacancy | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

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Al-4 wt% Cu, over aged alloy

Description

Prolonged heat treatment above 150°C to 200°C has led to the evolution of the stable CuAl2 phase (?). The CuAl2 phase is visible at high magnifications. It does not contribute to the strength of the alloy and the over aged aluminium has poor mechanical properties.

Subjects

aged | alloy | aluminium | copper | hardening | heat treatment | metal | quenching | vacancy | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Al-4 wt% Cu, over aged alloy

Description

Prolonged heat treatment above 150°C to 200°C has led to the evolution of the stable CuAl2 phase (?). The CuAl2 phase is visible at high magnifications. It does not contribute to the strength of the alloy and the over aged aluminium has poor mechanical properties.

Subjects

aged | alloy | aluminium | copper | hardening | heat treatment | metal | quenching | vacancy | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 2, Mn 0.7 (wt%) steel, quenched, producing martensite

Description

This steel was quenched from the austenite phase field too rapidly for carbon to diffuse out and form cementite. This resulted in the formation of the brittle martensite phase.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | quenching | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 2, Mn 0.7 (wt%) steel, quenched, producing martensite and cracking

Description

This steel was quenched from the austenite phase field too rapidly for carbon to diffuse out and form cementite. This resulted in the formation of the brittle martensite phase. This phase is unable to accommodate volume changes plastically and may therefore fail, nucleating cracks as seen in this sample. The different colours in the micrograph are an artefact of the etching process.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | quenching | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 2, Mn 0.7 (wt%) steel, quenched, producing martensite and cracking

Description

This steel was quenched from the austenite phase field too rapidly for carbon to diffuse out and form cementite. This resulted in the formation of the brittle martensite phase. This phase is unable to accommodate volume changes plastically and may therefore fail, nucleating cracks as seen in this sample. The different colours in the micrograph are an artefact of the etching process.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | quenching | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Banded spherulites in a blend of polyethtylenes

Description

A replica of a 1:3 blend of linear with lightly branched (BPE has 26 branched per 1000 backbone carbon atoms) polyethylenes after quenching from a mixed melt. The lamellae are of a single type, all of the same thickness. In this case the lamellae are arranged in the familiar banded spherulites.

Subjects

alignment | blend | polyethylene (pe) | polymer | quenching | sheaf | spherulite | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Sheaf-like arrangement of lamellae in a blend of polyethylenes

Description

A replica of a 3:1 blend of linear with lightly branched polyethylenes (BPE has 26 branched per 1000 backbone carbon atoms) after isothermal crystallisation at a temperature at which the LPE but not the BPE can crystallise. This sample crystallised from a phase separated melt. There are clearly two lamellar types (The isothermal crystallisation makes the distinction clearer). The thick, LPE rich, lamellae crystallised in sheaf-like groups, from LPE rich droplets contained in a BPE rich matrix. The sheaf-like arrangement is representative of one of the initial stages in spherulite formation.

Subjects

alignment | blend | polyethylene (pe) | polymer | quenching | spherulite | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 0.4 (wt%) steel, quenched, martensitic and quench cracks

Description

The steel has been rapidly quenched. This leads to a rapid volume change due to thermal expansion. In this case the steel has been unable to plastically deform to accommodate this change. This leads to the nucleation of cracks in the metal. This is exacerbated by the fact that the quenching of steel promotes the formation of the brittle phase martensite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | quenching | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 0.4 (wt%) steel, quenched, martensitic and quench cracks

Description

The steel has been rapidly quenched. This leads to a rapid volume change due to thermal expansion. In this case the steel has been unable to plastically deform to accommodate this change. This leads to the nucleation of cracks in the metal. This is exacerbated by the fact that the quenching of steel promotes the formation of the brittle phase martensite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | quenching | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 0.4 (wt%) steel, quenched, martensitic and quench cracks

Description

The steel has been rapidly quenched. This leads to a rapid volume change due to thermal expansion. In this case the steel has been unable to plastically deform to accommodate this change. This leads to the nucleation of cracks in the metal. This is exacerbated by the fact that the quenching of steel promotes the formation of the brittle phase martensite.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | quenching | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 0.4 (wt%) steel, quenched, martensitic

Description

The steel has been rapidly quenched. This produces the non-equilibrium phase martensite

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | quenching | steel | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 0.75 (wt%) steel, quenched and tempered

Description

This is an example of a quenched and tempered steel. The steel is initially quenched from the austenite phase field to form hard and brittle martensite. Subsequently the steel is reheated to allow diffusion of the interstitially trapped carbon and hence reduction of the lattice strain. This results in a softer and tougher steel.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | quenching | steel | tempered | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Fe, C 0.75 (wt%) steel, quenched and tempered

Description

This is an example of a quenched and tempered steel. The steel is initially quenched from the austenite phase field to form hard and brittle martensite. Subsequently the steel is reheated to allow diffusion of the interstitially trapped carbon and hence reduction of the lattice strain. This results in a softer and tougher steel.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | iron | martensite | metal | quenching | steel | tempered | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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