Searching for relativism : 21 results found | RSS Feed for this search

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24.231 Ethics (MIT) 24.231 Ethics (MIT)

Description

This will be a seminar on classic and contemporary work on central topics in ethics. The first third of the course will focus on metaethics: we will examine the meaning of moral claims and ask whether there is any sense in which moral principles are objectively valid. The second third of the course will focus on normative ethics: what makes our lives worth living, what makes our actions right or wrong, and what do we owe to others? The final third of the course will focus on moral character: what is virtue, and how important is it? Can we be held responsible for what we do? When and why? This will be a seminar on classic and contemporary work on central topics in ethics. The first third of the course will focus on metaethics: we will examine the meaning of moral claims and ask whether there is any sense in which moral principles are objectively valid. The second third of the course will focus on normative ethics: what makes our lives worth living, what makes our actions right or wrong, and what do we owe to others? The final third of the course will focus on moral character: what is virtue, and how important is it? Can we be held responsible for what we do? When and why?

Subjects

ethics | ethics | euthyphro | euthyphro | Plato | Plato | goodness | goodness | non-naturalism | non-naturalism | G. E. Moore | G. E. Moore | non-cognitivism | non-cognitivism | Alfred Jules Ayer | Alfred Jules Ayer | David Brink | David Brink | cognitivism | cognitivism | Gilbert Harman | Gilbert Harman | Nicholas Sturgeon | Nicholas Sturgeon | observation | observation | morality | morality | moral relativism | moral relativism | Philippa Foot | Philippa Foot | David Lyons | David Lyons | incoherence | incoherence | ethical relativism | ethical relativism | John Stuart Mill | John Stuart Mill | utilitarianism | utilitarianism | Robert Nozick | Robert Nozick | Derek Parfit | Derek Parfit | Alastair Norcross | Alastair Norcross | philosophy | philosophy | Bernard Williams | Bernard Williams | James Lenman | James Lenman | consequentialism | consequentialism | cluelessness | cluelessness | Peter Singer | Peter Singer | act-utilitarianism | act-utilitarianism | John Rawls | John Rawls | rules | rules | Thomas Nagel | Thomas Nagel | famine | famine | affluence | affluence | Nomy Arpaly | Nomy Arpaly | moral worth | moral worth | Susan Wolf | Susan Wolf | moral saints | moral saints | Peter van Inwagen | Peter van Inwagen | free will | free will | determinism | determinism | Harry Frankfurt | Harry Frankfurt | moral responsibility | moral responsibility | moral luck | moral luck

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.231 Ethics (MIT)

Description

This will be a seminar on classic and contemporary work on central topics in ethics. The first third of the course will focus on metaethics: we will examine the meaning of moral claims and ask whether there is any sense in which moral principles are objectively valid. The second third of the course will focus on normative ethics: what makes our lives worth living, what makes our actions right or wrong, and what do we owe to others? The final third of the course will focus on moral character: what is virtue, and how important is it? Can we be held responsible for what we do? When and why?

Subjects

ethics | euthyphro | Plato | goodness | non-naturalism | G. E. Moore | non-cognitivism | Alfred Jules Ayer | David Brink | cognitivism | Gilbert Harman | Nicholas Sturgeon | observation | morality | moral relativism | Philippa Foot | David Lyons | incoherence | ethical relativism | John Stuart Mill | utilitarianism | Robert Nozick | Derek Parfit | Alastair Norcross | philosophy | Bernard Williams | James Lenman | consequentialism | cluelessness | Peter Singer | act-utilitarianism | John Rawls | rules | Thomas Nagel | famine | affluence | Nomy Arpaly | moral worth | Susan Wolf | moral saints | Peter van Inwagen | free will | determinism | Harry Frankfurt | moral responsibility | moral luck

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.02 Moral Problems and the Good Life (MIT) 24.02 Moral Problems and the Good Life (MIT)

Description

This course will focus on issues that arise in contemporary public debate concerning matters of social justice. Topics will likely include: euthanasia, gay marriage, racism and racial profiling, free speech, hunger and global inequality. Students will be exposed to multiple points of view on the topics and will be given guidance in analyzing the moral frameworks informing opposing positions. The goal will be to provide the basis for respectful and informed discussion of matters of common moral concern. This course will focus on issues that arise in contemporary public debate concerning matters of social justice. Topics will likely include: euthanasia, gay marriage, racism and racial profiling, free speech, hunger and global inequality. Students will be exposed to multiple points of view on the topics and will be given guidance in analyzing the moral frameworks informing opposing positions. The goal will be to provide the basis for respectful and informed discussion of matters of common moral concern.

Subjects

pleasure | pleasure | desire | desire | satisfaction | satisfaction | objectivity | objectivity | environmentalism | environmentalism | animal rights | animal rights | immortality | immortality | egoism | egoism | skepticism | skepticism | relativism | relativism | toleration | toleration | utilitarianism | utilitarianism | deontology | deontology | virtue | virtue | moral theory | moral theory | global justice | global justice | equality | equality | social justice | social justice | race | race | gender | gender | poverty | poverty | sex | sex | welfare | welfare | freedom | freedom | death penalty | death penalty | gay marriage | gay marriage | sexuality | sexuality | pornography | pornography | free speech | free speech | hate speech | hate speech

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.729 Topics in Philosophy of Language: Vagueness (MIT) 24.729 Topics in Philosophy of Language: Vagueness (MIT)

Description

The objective of the graduate-level course is to give people a sense of what "accounting for vagueness" is all about, why it's hard, and why it's important. This will involve surveying some prominent accounts of vagueness. The objective of the graduate-level course is to give people a sense of what "accounting for vagueness" is all about, why it's hard, and why it's important. This will involve surveying some prominent accounts of vagueness.

Subjects

vagueness | vagueness | sorites paradox | sorites paradox | truth | truth | supervaluationism | supervaluationism | epistemicism | epistemicism | contextualism | contextualism | nihilism | nihilism | relativism | relativism | logical revisionism | logical revisionism | interdeterminacy | interdeterminacy | language | language | inexact knowledge | inexact knowledge | logic | logic

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.03 Relativism, Reason, and Reality (MIT) 24.03 Relativism, Reason, and Reality (MIT)

Description

Are moral standards relative to cultures and/or moral frameworks? Are there incompatible or non-comparable ways of thinking about the world that are somehow equally good? Is science getting closer to the truth? Is rationality--the notion of a good reason to believe something--relative to cultural norms? What are selves? Is there a coherent form of relativism about the self? Guided by the writings of Thomas Kuhn, Gilbert Harman, Judith Thomson, John Perry and Derek Parfit, we attempt to make these vague questions precise, and we make a start at answering them. Are moral standards relative to cultures and/or moral frameworks? Are there incompatible or non-comparable ways of thinking about the world that are somehow equally good? Is science getting closer to the truth? Is rationality--the notion of a good reason to believe something--relative to cultural norms? What are selves? Is there a coherent form of relativism about the self? Guided by the writings of Thomas Kuhn, Gilbert Harman, Judith Thomson, John Perry and Derek Parfit, we attempt to make these vague questions precise, and we make a start at answering them.

Subjects

relativism | relativism | moral standards | moral standards | science | science | truth | truth | rationality | rationality | cultural norms | cultural norms | Thomas Kuhn | Thomas Kuhn | Karl Popper | Karl Popper | Gilbert Harman | Gilbert Harman | Judith Thomson | Judith Thomson | Derek Parfit | Derek Parfit

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.502 Topics in Metaphysics and Ethics (MIT) 24.502 Topics in Metaphysics and Ethics (MIT)

Description

This is a class about 'ought' and ought—you can think of it as a class in philosophy of language and metaphysics in which the focus is the ethical sphere. Some of the questions that we will broach include: How should we give a semantics for 'ought' generally? Is there anything special about the ethical 'ought'? Is there anything that you ethically ought to do, e.g., give to charity or refrain from stealing? This is a class about 'ought' and ought—you can think of it as a class in philosophy of language and metaphysics in which the focus is the ethical sphere. Some of the questions that we will broach include: How should we give a semantics for 'ought' generally? Is there anything special about the ethical 'ought'? Is there anything that you ethically ought to do, e.g., give to charity or refrain from stealing?

Subjects

ought | ought | philosophy | philosophy | metaphysics | metaphysics | ethics | ethics | morals | morals | right and wrong | right and wrong | language | language | contextualism | contextualism | relativism | relativism | realism | realism | choice | choice | expressivism | expressivism | minimalism | minimalism | internalism | internalism | non-naturalism | non-naturalism | morality | morality | supervenience | supervenience | contingentism | contingentism | principles | principles

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Lecture 33: Ethics in Games Lecture 33: Ethics in Games

Description

Description: Mia Consalvo asks students for examples illustrating how game designers construct ethical systems, how users act within those systems, and the role of community norms. How do players connect behavioral standards inside and outside the game world? Instructors/speakers: Philip Tan, Jason Begy, Mia Consalvo (Comparative Media Studies)Keywords: ethical systems, violence, simulation, obscenity, morals, virtual economy, griefing, abstraction, censorship, geopolitics, community standards, social commentary, relativismTranscript: PDFSubtitles: SRTAudio - download: Internet Archive (MP3)Audio - download: iTunes U (MP3)(CC BY-NC-SA) Description: Mia Consalvo asks students for examples illustrating how game designers construct ethical systems, how users act within those systems, and the role of community norms. How do players connect behavioral standards inside and outside the game world? Instructors/speakers: Philip Tan, Jason Begy, Mia Consalvo (Comparative Media Studies)Keywords: ethical systems, violence, simulation, obscenity, morals, virtual economy, griefing, abstraction, censorship, geopolitics, community standards, social commentary, relativismTranscript: PDFSubtitles: SRTAudio - download: Internet Archive (MP3)Audio - download: iTunes U (MP3)(CC BY-NC-SA)

Subjects

ethical systems | ethical systems | violence | violence | simulation | simulation | obscenity | obscenity | morals | morals | virtual economy | virtual economy | griefing | griefing | abstraction | abstraction | censorship | censorship | geopolitics | geopolitics | community standards | community standards | social commentary | social commentary | relativism | relativism

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.02 Moral Problems and the Good Life (MIT) 24.02 Moral Problems and the Good Life (MIT)

Description

This course will focus on issues that arise in contemporary public debate concerning matters of social justice. Topics will likely include: euthanasia, gay marriage, racism and racial profiling, free speech, hunger and global inequality. Students will be exposed to multiple points of view on the topics and will be given guidance in analyzing the moral frameworks informing opposing positions. The goal will be to provide the basis for respectful and informed discussion of matters of common moral concern. This course will focus on issues that arise in contemporary public debate concerning matters of social justice. Topics will likely include: euthanasia, gay marriage, racism and racial profiling, free speech, hunger and global inequality. Students will be exposed to multiple points of view on the topics and will be given guidance in analyzing the moral frameworks informing opposing positions. The goal will be to provide the basis for respectful and informed discussion of matters of common moral concern.

Subjects

pleasure | pleasure | desire | desire | satisfaction | satisfaction | objectivity | objectivity | environmentalism | environmentalism | animal rights | animal rights | immortality | immortality | egoism | egoism | skepticism | skepticism | relativism | relativism | toleration | toleration | utilitarianism | utilitarianism | deontology | deontology | virtue | virtue | moral theory | moral theory | global justice | global justice | equality | equality | social justice | social justice | race | race | gender | gender | poverty | poverty | sex | sex | welfare | welfare | freedom | freedom | famly | famly | vengeance | vengeance | retribution | retribution | reform | reform | punishment | punishment | prison | prison | body | body | Michel Foucault | Michel Foucault | John Stuart Mill | John Stuart Mill | death penalty | death penalty | gay marriage | gay marriage | sexuality | sexuality

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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21A.442J Violence, Human Rights, and Justice (MIT) 21A.442J Violence, Human Rights, and Justice (MIT)

Description

This course examines the problem of mass violence and oppression in the contemporary world, and the concept of human rights as a defense against such abuse. It explores questions of cultural relativism, race, gender and ethnicity. It examines case studies from war crimes tribunals, truth commissions, anti-terrorist policies and other judicial attempts to redress state-sponsored wrongs. It also considers whether the human rights framework effectively promotes the rule of law in modern societies. Students debate moral positions and address ideas of moral relativism. This course examines the problem of mass violence and oppression in the contemporary world, and the concept of human rights as a defense against such abuse. It explores questions of cultural relativism, race, gender and ethnicity. It examines case studies from war crimes tribunals, truth commissions, anti-terrorist policies and other judicial attempts to redress state-sponsored wrongs. It also considers whether the human rights framework effectively promotes the rule of law in modern societies. Students debate moral positions and address ideas of moral relativism.

Subjects

21A.442 | 21A.442 | WGS.270 | WGS.270 | political violence | political violence | human rights | human rights | justice | justice | freedom | freedom | peace | peace | cultural relativism | cultural relativism | war crimes tribunals | war crimes tribunals | truth commissions | truth commissions | historical traumas | historical traumas | gender | gender | religion | religion | the Holocaust | the Holocaust | United Nations | United Nations | universalism | universalism | Argentina | Argentina | Ireland | Ireland | Amnesty International | Amnesty International | Rwanda | Rwanda | Palestine | Palestine | South Africa | South Africa | Haiti | Haiti

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Reality (MIT) Reality (MIT)

Description

An examination of philosophical issues on the theme of relativism. Are moral standards relative to cultures and/or moral frameworks? Are there incompatible or non-comparable ways of thinking about the world that are somehow equally good? Is science getting closer to the truth? Is rationality--the notion of a good reason to believe something--relative to cultural norms? What are selves? Is there a coherent form of relativism about the self? Discussion of these questions through the writings of contemporary philosophers such as Thomas Kuhn, Karl Popper, Gilbert Harman, Judith Thomson, and Derek Parfit. Emphasis on ways of making these vague questions precise, and critical evaluation of philosophical arguments. An examination of philosophical issues on the theme of relativism. Are moral standards relative to cultures and/or moral frameworks? Are there incompatible or non-comparable ways of thinking about the world that are somehow equally good? Is science getting closer to the truth? Is rationality--the notion of a good reason to believe something--relative to cultural norms? What are selves? Is there a coherent form of relativism about the self? Discussion of these questions through the writings of contemporary philosophers such as Thomas Kuhn, Karl Popper, Gilbert Harman, Judith Thomson, and Derek Parfit. Emphasis on ways of making these vague questions precise, and critical evaluation of philosophical arguments.

Subjects

relativism | relativism | moral standards | moral standards | science | science | truth | truth | rationality | rationality | cultural norms | cultural norms | Thomas Kuhn | Thomas Kuhn | Karl Popper | Karl Popper | Gilbert Harman | Gilbert Harman | Judith Thomson | Judith Thomson | Derek Parfit | Derek Parfit

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.02 Moral Problems and the Good Life (MIT)

Description

This course will focus on issues that arise in contemporary public debate concerning matters of social justice. Topics will likely include: euthanasia, gay marriage, racism and racial profiling, free speech, hunger and global inequality. Students will be exposed to multiple points of view on the topics and will be given guidance in analyzing the moral frameworks informing opposing positions. The goal will be to provide the basis for respectful and informed discussion of matters of common moral concern.

Subjects

pleasure | desire | satisfaction | objectivity | environmentalism | animal rights | immortality | egoism | skepticism | relativism | toleration | utilitarianism | deontology | virtue | moral theory | global justice | equality | social justice | race | gender | poverty | sex | welfare | freedom | famly | vengeance | retribution | reform | punishment | prison | body | Michel Foucault | John Stuart Mill | death penalty | gay marriage | sexuality

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Cultural and Literary Expression in Modernity

Description

This course seeks to develop a nuanced understanding of the scope of cultural and literary expression in the late 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries. It attends to broad socio-historical happenings, from the birth of modernism in the late 19th century to the post-modern moment. In addition to literary “modernism,” the course will also take a brief look at the cultural production of “modernism” in art, music, architecture, cinema, philosophy, and drama. This free course may be completed online at any time. See course site for detailed overview and learning outcomes. (English Literature 204)

Subjects

aestheticism | symbolism | experimental poetics | imagism | vorticism | futurism | dadaism | marxism | fascism | surrealism | narrative | epistemology | postmodernism | relativism | related subjects | R000

License

Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/

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Lecture 33: Ethics in Games

Description

Description: Mia Consalvo asks students for examples illustrating how game designers construct ethical systems, how users act within those systems, and the role of community norms. How do players connect behavioral standards inside and outside the game world? Instructors/speakers: Philip Tan, Jason Begy, Mia Consalvo (Comparative Media Studies)Keywords: ethical systems, violence, simulation, obscenity, morals, virtual economy, griefing, abstraction, censorship, geopolitics, community standards, social commentary, relativismTranscript: PDFSubtitles: SRTAudio - download: Internet Archive (MP3)Audio - download: iTunes U (MP3)(CC BY-NC-SA)

Subjects

ethical systems | violence | simulation | obscenity | morals | virtual economy | griefing | abstraction | censorship | geopolitics | community standards | social commentary | relativism

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Lecture 33: Ethics in Games

Description

Description: Mia Consalvo asks students for examples illustrating how game designers construct ethical systems, how users act within those systems, and the role of community norms. How do players connect behavioral standards inside and outside the game world? Instructors/speakers: Philip Tan, Jason Begy, Mia Consalvo (Comparative Media Studies)Keywords: ethical systems, violence, simulation, obscenity, morals, virtual economy, griefing, abstraction, censorship, geopolitics, community standards, social commentary, relativismTranscript: PDF (English - US)Subtitles: SRTAudio - download: Internet Archive (MP3)Audio - download: iTunes U (MP3)(CC BY-NC-SA)

Subjects

ethical systems | violence | simulation | obscenity | morals | virtual economy | griefing | abstraction | censorship | geopolitics | community standards | social commentary | relativism

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.02 Moral Problems and the Good Life (MIT)

Description

This course will focus on issues that arise in contemporary public debate concerning matters of social justice. Topics will likely include: euthanasia, gay marriage, racism and racial profiling, free speech, hunger and global inequality. Students will be exposed to multiple points of view on the topics and will be given guidance in analyzing the moral frameworks informing opposing positions. The goal will be to provide the basis for respectful and informed discussion of matters of common moral concern.

Subjects

pleasure | desire | satisfaction | objectivity | environmentalism | animal rights | immortality | egoism | skepticism | relativism | toleration | utilitarianism | deontology | virtue | moral theory | global justice | equality | social justice | race | gender | poverty | sex | welfare | freedom | death penalty | gay marriage | sexuality | pornography | free speech | hate speech

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Reality (MIT)

Description

An examination of philosophical issues on the theme of relativism. Are moral standards relative to cultures and/or moral frameworks? Are there incompatible or non-comparable ways of thinking about the world that are somehow equally good? Is science getting closer to the truth? Is rationality--the notion of a good reason to believe something--relative to cultural norms? What are selves? Is there a coherent form of relativism about the self? Discussion of these questions through the writings of contemporary philosophers such as Thomas Kuhn, Karl Popper, Gilbert Harman, Judith Thomson, and Derek Parfit. Emphasis on ways of making these vague questions precise, and critical evaluation of philosophical arguments.

Subjects

relativism | moral standards | science | truth | rationality | cultural norms | Thomas Kuhn | Karl Popper | Gilbert Harman | Judith Thomson | Derek Parfit

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Logic and Critical Thinking

Description

This course provides an introduction to critical thinking, informal logic, and a small amount of formal logic; its purpose is to provide students with the basic tools of analytical reasoning. This free course may be completed online at any time. See course site for detailed overview and learning outcomes. (Philosophy 102)

Subjects

philosophy | meaning | argument | validity | fallacies | induction | deduction | logic | truth tables | formalization | venn diagrams | syllogism | scientific reasoning | causality | correlation | strategic reasoning | creative thinking | morality | relativism | reflective equilibrium | philosophical studies | V000

License

Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/

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21A.442J Violence, Human Rights, and Justice (MIT)

Description

This course examines the problem of mass violence and oppression in the contemporary world, and the concept of human rights as a defense against such abuse. It explores questions of cultural relativism, race, gender and ethnicity. It examines case studies from war crimes tribunals, truth commissions, anti-terrorist policies and other judicial attempts to redress state-sponsored wrongs. It also considers whether the human rights framework effectively promotes the rule of law in modern societies. Students debate moral positions and address ideas of moral relativism.

Subjects

21A.442 | WGS.270 | political violence | human rights | justice | freedom | peace | cultural relativism | war crimes tribunals | truth commissions | historical traumas | gender | religion | the Holocaust | United Nations | universalism | Argentina | Ireland | Amnesty International | Rwanda | Palestine | South Africa | Haiti

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.502 Topics in Metaphysics and Ethics (MIT)

Description

This is a class about 'ought' and ought—you can think of it as a class in philosophy of language and metaphysics in which the focus is the ethical sphere. Some of the questions that we will broach include: How should we give a semantics for 'ought' generally? Is there anything special about the ethical 'ought'? Is there anything that you ethically ought to do, e.g., give to charity or refrain from stealing?

Subjects

ought | philosophy | metaphysics | ethics | morals | right and wrong | language | contextualism | relativism | realism | choice | expressivism | minimalism | internalism | non-naturalism | morality | supervenience | contingentism | principles

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.03 Relativism, Reason, and Reality (MIT)

Description

Are moral standards relative to cultures and/or moral frameworks? Are there incompatible or non-comparable ways of thinking about the world that are somehow equally good? Is science getting closer to the truth? Is rationality--the notion of a good reason to believe something--relative to cultural norms? What are selves? Is there a coherent form of relativism about the self? Guided by the writings of Thomas Kuhn, Gilbert Harman, Judith Thomson, John Perry and Derek Parfit, we attempt to make these vague questions precise, and we make a start at answering them.

Subjects

relativism | moral standards | science | truth | rationality | cultural norms | Thomas Kuhn | Karl Popper | Gilbert Harman | Judith Thomson | Derek Parfit

License

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24.729 Topics in Philosophy of Language: Vagueness (MIT)

Description

The objective of the graduate-level course is to give people a sense of what "accounting for vagueness" is all about, why it's hard, and why it's important. This will involve surveying some prominent accounts of vagueness.

Subjects

vagueness | sorites paradox | truth | supervaluationism | epistemicism | contextualism | nihilism | relativism | logical revisionism | interdeterminacy | language | inexact knowledge | logic

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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