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7.344 Antibiotics, Toxins, and Protein Engineering (MIT) 7.344 Antibiotics, Toxins, and Protein Engineering (MIT)

Description

The lethal poison Ricin (best known as a weapon of bioterrorism), Diphtheria toxin (the causative agent of a highly contagious bacterial disease), and the widely used antibiotic tetracycline have one thing in common: They specifically target the cell's translational apparatus and disrupt protein synthesis. In this course, we will explore the mechanisms of action of toxins and antibiotics, their roles in everyday medicine, and the emergence and spread of drug resistance. We will also discuss the identification of new drug targets and how we can manipulate the protein synthesis machinery to provide powerful tools for protein engineering and potential new treatments for patients with devastating diseases, such as cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy. This course is one of many Advanced Und The lethal poison Ricin (best known as a weapon of bioterrorism), Diphtheria toxin (the causative agent of a highly contagious bacterial disease), and the widely used antibiotic tetracycline have one thing in common: They specifically target the cell's translational apparatus and disrupt protein synthesis. In this course, we will explore the mechanisms of action of toxins and antibiotics, their roles in everyday medicine, and the emergence and spread of drug resistance. We will also discuss the identification of new drug targets and how we can manipulate the protein synthesis machinery to provide powerful tools for protein engineering and potential new treatments for patients with devastating diseases, such as cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy. This course is one of many Advanced Und

Subjects

lethal poison | lethal poison | Ricin | Ricin | Diphtheria | Diphtheria | contagious bacterial disease | contagious bacterial disease | tetracycline | tetracycline | protein synthesis | protein synthesis | drug resistance | drug resistance | protein engineering | protein engineering | cystic fibrosis | cystic fibrosis | muscular dystrophy | muscular dystrophy | ribosome | ribosome | ribosomal proteins | ribosomal proteins | rRNA | rRNA | mRNA | mRNA | tRNA | tRNA | translation factors | translation factors | genetic code | genetic code | E. coli ribosome | E. coli ribosome | prokaryotes | prokaryotes | eukaryotes | eukaryotes | Shiga | Shiga | Diphtheria toxin | Diphtheria toxin | Pseudomonas exotoxin A | Pseudomonas exotoxin A | Chloramphenicol | Chloramphenicol | Aminoglycoside | Aminoglycoside

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7.344 Directed Evolution: Engineering Biocatalysts (MIT) 7.344 Directed Evolution: Engineering Biocatalysts (MIT)

Description

Directed evolution has been used to produce enzymes with many unique properties. The technique of directed evolution comprises two essential steps: mutagenesis of the gene encoding the enzyme to produce a library of variants, and selection of a particular variant based on its desirable catalytic properties. In this course we will examine what kinds of enzymes are worth evolving and the strategies used for library generation and enzyme selection. We will focus on those enzymes that are used in the synthesis of drugs and in biotechnological applications. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current Directed evolution has been used to produce enzymes with many unique properties. The technique of directed evolution comprises two essential steps: mutagenesis of the gene encoding the enzyme to produce a library of variants, and selection of a particular variant based on its desirable catalytic properties. In this course we will examine what kinds of enzymes are worth evolving and the strategies used for library generation and enzyme selection. We will focus on those enzymes that are used in the synthesis of drugs and in biotechnological applications. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current

Subjects

evolution | evolution | biocatalyst | biocatalyst | mutation | mutation | library | library | recombination | recombination | directed evolution | directed evolution | enzyme | enzyme | point mutation | point mutation | mutagenesis | mutagenesis | DNA | DNA | gene | gene | complementation | complementation | affinity | affinity | phage | phage | ribosome display | ribosome display | yeast surface display | yeast surface display | bacterial cell surface display | bacterial cell surface display | IVC | IVC | FACS | FACS | active site | active site

License

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7.A12 Freshman Seminar: Structural Basis of Genetic Material: Nucleic Acids (MIT) 7.A12 Freshman Seminar: Structural Basis of Genetic Material: Nucleic Acids (MIT)

Description

Since the discovery of the structure of the DNA double helix in 1953 by Watson and Crick, the information on detailed molecular structures of DNA and RNA, namely, the foundation of genetic material, has expanded rapidly. This discovery is the beginning of the "Big Bang" of molecular biology and biotechnology. In this seminar, students discuss, from a historical perspective and current developments, the importance of pursuing the detailed structural basis of genetic materials. Since the discovery of the structure of the DNA double helix in 1953 by Watson and Crick, the information on detailed molecular structures of DNA and RNA, namely, the foundation of genetic material, has expanded rapidly. This discovery is the beginning of the "Big Bang" of molecular biology and biotechnology. In this seminar, students discuss, from a historical perspective and current developments, the importance of pursuing the detailed structural basis of genetic materials.

Subjects

nucleic acids | nucleic acids | DNA | DNA | RNA | RNA | genetics | genetics | genes | genes | genetic material | genetic material | double helix | double helix | molecular biology | molecular biology | biotechnology | biotechnology | structure | structure | function | function | heredity | heredity | complementarity | complementarity | biological materials | biological materials | genetic code | genetic code | oligonucleotides | oligonucleotides | supercoiled DNA | supercoiled DNA | polyribosome | polyribosome | tRNA | tRNA | reverse transcription | reverse transcription | central dogma | central dogma | transcription | transcription

License

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7.03 Genetics (MIT) 7.03 Genetics (MIT)

Description

This course discusses the principles of genetics with application to the study of biological function at the level of molecules, cells, and multicellular organisms, including humans. The topics include: structure and function of genes, chromosomes and genomes, biological variation resulting from recombination, mutation, and selection, population genetics, use of genetic methods to analyze protein function, gene regulation and inherited disease. This course discusses the principles of genetics with application to the study of biological function at the level of molecules, cells, and multicellular organisms, including humans. The topics include: structure and function of genes, chromosomes and genomes, biological variation resulting from recombination, mutation, and selection, population genetics, use of genetic methods to analyze protein function, gene regulation and inherited disease.

Subjects

genetics | genetics | gene | gene | DNA | DNA | RNA | RNA | mutation | mutation | genome | genome | Watson and Crick | Watson and Crick | replication | replication | transcription | transcription | DNA heliz | DNA heliz | double helix | double helix | mRNA | mRNA | messenger RNA | messenger RNA | translation | translation | ribosome | ribosome | promoter | promoter | genetic analysis | genetic analysis | alleles | alleles | genotype | genotype | wild type | wild type | phenotype | phenotype | haploid | haploid | diploid | diploid | auxotrophic mutation | auxotrophic mutation | homozygous | homozygous | heterozygous | heterozygous | recessive allele | recessive allele | dominant allele | dominant allele | complementation test | complementation test | locus | locus | incomplete dominance | incomplete dominance | incomplete penetrance | incomplete penetrance | true-breeding | true-breeding | gametes | gametes | codominant | codominant | meiosis | meiosis

License

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7.013 Introductory Biology (MIT) 7.013 Introductory Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material. 7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of human biology. Topics include genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, disease (infectious agents, inherited diseases and cancer), The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material. 7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of human biology. Topics include genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, disease (infectious agents, inherited diseases and cancer),

Subjects

biology | biology | biochemistry | biochemistry | genetics | genetics | molecular biology | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell cycle | cell signaling | cell signaling | cloning | cloning | stem cells | stem cells | cancer | cancer | immunology | immunology | virology | virology | genomics | genomics | molecular medicine | molecular medicine | DNA | DNA | RNA | RNA | proteins | proteins | replication | replication | transcription | transcription | mRNA | mRNA | translation | translation | ribosome | ribosome | nervous system | nervous system | amino acids | amino acids | polypeptide chain | polypeptide chain | cell biology | cell biology | neurobiology | neurobiology | gene regulation | gene regulation | protein structure | protein structure | protein synthesis | protein synthesis | gene structure | gene structure | PCR | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum | endoplasmic reticulum | human biology | human biology | inherited diseases | inherited diseases | developmental biology | developmental biology | evolution | evolution | human genetics | human genetics | human diseases | human diseases | infectious agents | infectious agents | infectious diseases | infectious diseases

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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5.08J Biological Chemistry II (MIT) 5.08J Biological Chemistry II (MIT)

Description

This course deals with a more advanced treatment of the biochemical mechanisms that underlie biological processes. Emphasis will be given to the experimental methods used to unravel how these processes fit into the cellular context as well as the coordinated regulation of these processes. Topics include macromolecular machines for energy and force transduction, regulation of biosynthetic and degradative pathways, and the structure and function of nucleic acids. This course deals with a more advanced treatment of the biochemical mechanisms that underlie biological processes. Emphasis will be given to the experimental methods used to unravel how these processes fit into the cellular context as well as the coordinated regulation of these processes. Topics include macromolecular machines for energy and force transduction, regulation of biosynthetic and degradative pathways, and the structure and function of nucleic acids.

Subjects

biochemistry | biochemistry | biological chemistry | biological chemistry | Rasmol | Rasmol | Deep Viewer | Deep Viewer | CHIME | CHIME | BLAST | BLAST | PDB | PDB | macromolecular machines | macromolecular machines | protein folding | protein folding | protein degradation | protein degradation | fatty acid synthases | fatty acid synthases | polyketide synthases | polyketide synthases | non-ribosomal polypeptide synthases | non-ribosomal polypeptide synthases | metal homeostasis | metal homeostasis | biochemical mechanisms | biochemical mechanisms | biochemical pathways | biochemical pathways | macromolecular interactions | macromolecular interactions | ribosome | ribosome | mRNA | mRNA | metabolic networking | metabolic networking | 5.08 | 5.08 | 7.08 | 7.08

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.013 Introductory Biology (MIT) 7.013 Introductory Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of human biology. Topics include genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, disease (infectious agents, inherited diseases and cancer), The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of human biology. Topics include genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, disease (infectious agents, inherited diseases and cancer),

Subjects

biology | biology | biochemistry | biochemistry | genetics | genetics | molecular biology | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell cycle | cell signaling | cell signaling | cloning | cloning | stem cells | stem cells | cancer | cancer | immunology | immunology | virology | virology | genomics | genomics | molecular medicine | molecular medicine | DNA | DNA | RNA | RNA | proteins | proteins | replication | replication | transcription | transcription | mRNA | mRNA | translation | translation | ribosome | ribosome | nervous system | nervous system | amino acids | amino acids | polypeptide chain | polypeptide chain | cell biology | cell biology | neurobiology | neurobiology | gene regulation | gene regulation | protein structure | protein structure | protein synthesis | protein synthesis | gene structure | gene structure | PCR | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum | endoplasmic reticulum | human biology | human biology | inherited diseases | inherited diseases | developmental biology | developmental biology | evolution | evolution | human genetics | human genetics | human diseases | human diseases | infectious agents | infectious agents | infectious diseases | infectious diseases

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.014 Introductory Biology (MIT) 7.014 Introductory Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.014 focuses on the application of these fundamental principles, toward an understanding of microorganisms as geochemical agents responsible for the evolution and renewal of the biosphere and of their role in human health The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.014 focuses on the application of these fundamental principles, toward an understanding of microorganisms as geochemical agents responsible for the evolution and renewal of the biosphere and of their role in human health

Subjects

microorganisms | microorganisms | geochemistry | geochemistry | geochemical agents | geochemical agents | biosphere | biosphere | bacterial genetics | bacterial genetics | carbon metabolism | carbon metabolism | energy metabolism | energy metabolism | productivity | productivity | biogeochemical cycles | biogeochemical cycles | molecular evolution | molecular evolution | population genetics | population genetics | evolution | evolution | population growth | population growth | biology | biology | biochemistry | biochemistry | genetics | genetics | molecular biology | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell cycle | cell signaling | cell signaling | cloning | cloning | stem cells | stem cells | cancer | cancer | immunology | immunology | virology | virology | genomics | genomics | molecular medicine | molecular medicine | DNA | DNA | RNA | RNA | proteins | proteins | replication | replication | transcription | transcription | mRNA | mRNA | translation | translation | ribosome | ribosome | nervous system | nervous system | amino acids | amino acids | polypeptide chain | polypeptide chain | cell biology | cell biology | neurobiology | neurobiology | gene regulation | gene regulation | protein structure | protein structure | protein synthesis | protein synthesis | gene structure | gene structure | PCR | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum | endoplasmic reticulum | ecology | ecology | communities | communities

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.012 Introduction to Biology (MIT) 7.012 Introduction to Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.012 focuses on the exploration of current research in cell biology, immunology, neurobiology, genomics, and molecular medicine.AcknowledgmentsThe study materials, problem sets, and quiz materials used during Fall 2004 for The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.012 focuses on the exploration of current research in cell biology, immunology, neurobiology, genomics, and molecular medicine.AcknowledgmentsThe study materials, problem sets, and quiz materials used during Fall 2004 for

Subjects

biology | biology | biochemistry | biochemistry | genetics | genetics | molecular biology | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell cycle | cell signaling | cell signaling | cloning | cloning | stem cells | stem cells | cancer | cancer | immunology | immunology | virology | virology | genomics | genomics | molecular medicine | molecular medicine | DNA | DNA | RNA | RNA | proteins | proteins | replication | replication | transcription | transcription | mRNA | mRNA | translation | translation | ribosome | ribosome | nervous system | nervous system | amino acids | amino acids | polypeptide chain | polypeptide chain | cell biology | cell biology | neurobiology | neurobiology | gene regulation | gene regulation | protein structure | protein structure | protein synthesis | protein synthesis | gene structure | gene structure | PCR | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum | endoplasmic reticulum

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.344 Antibiotics, Toxins, and Protein Engineering (MIT)

Description

The lethal poison Ricin (best known as a weapon of bioterrorism), Diphtheria toxin (the causative agent of a highly contagious bacterial disease), and the widely used antibiotic tetracycline have one thing in common: They specifically target the cell's translational apparatus and disrupt protein synthesis. In this course, we will explore the mechanisms of action of toxins and antibiotics, their roles in everyday medicine, and the emergence and spread of drug resistance. We will also discuss the identification of new drug targets and how we can manipulate the protein synthesis machinery to provide powerful tools for protein engineering and potential new treatments for patients with devastating diseases, such as cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy. This course is one of many Advanced Und

Subjects

lethal poison | Ricin | Diphtheria | contagious bacterial disease | tetracycline | protein synthesis | drug resistance | protein engineering | cystic fibrosis | muscular dystrophy | ribosome | ribosomal proteins | rRNA | mRNA | tRNA | translation factors | genetic code | E. coli ribosome | prokaryotes | eukaryotes | Shiga | Diphtheria toxin | Pseudomonas exotoxin A | Chloramphenicol | Aminoglycoside

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.012 Introduction to Biology (MIT) 7.012 Introduction to Biology (MIT)

Description

All three courses: 7.012, 7.013 and 7.014 cover the same core material which includes: the fundamental principles of biochemistry as they apply to introductory biology, genetics, molecular biology, basic recombinant DNA technology, and gene regulation.In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material, described below. Note: All three versions require a familiarity with some basic chemistry. For details, see the Chemistry Self-evaluation.7.012 focuses on cell biology, immunology, neurobiology, and includes an exploration into current research in cancer, genomics, and molecular medicine. 7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of cells, human genetics and diseases, infectious agents, cancer, immunology, molecular All three courses: 7.012, 7.013 and 7.014 cover the same core material which includes: the fundamental principles of biochemistry as they apply to introductory biology, genetics, molecular biology, basic recombinant DNA technology, and gene regulation.In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material, described below. Note: All three versions require a familiarity with some basic chemistry. For details, see the Chemistry Self-evaluation.7.012 focuses on cell biology, immunology, neurobiology, and includes an exploration into current research in cancer, genomics, and molecular medicine. 7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of cells, human genetics and diseases, infectious agents, cancer, immunology, molecular

Subjects

amino acids | amino acids | biochemistry | biochemistry | cancer | cancer | cell biology | cell biology | cell cycle | cell cycle | cell signaling | cell signaling | cloning | cloning | DNA | DNA | endoplasmic reticulum | endoplasmic reticulum | gene regulation | gene regulation | gene structure | gene structure | genetics | genetics | genomics | genomics | immunology | immunology | molecular biology | molecular biology | molecular medicine | molecular medicine | mRNA | mRNA | nervous system | nervous system | neurobiology | neurobiology | PCR | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | polymerase chain reaction | polypeptide chain | polypeptide chain | protein localization | protein localization | protein structure | protein structure | protein synthesis | protein synthesis | proteins | proteins | recombinant DNA | recombinant DNA | replication | replication | ribosome | ribosome | RNA | RNA | stem cells | stem cells | transcription | transcription | translation | translation | virology | virology | biology | biology

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.013 Introductory Biology (MIT) 7.013 Introductory Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. 7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of human biology. Topics include genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, disease (infectious agents, inherited diseases and cancer), developmental biology, neurobiology and evolution.Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized in all courses and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In add The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. 7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of human biology. Topics include genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, disease (infectious agents, inherited diseases and cancer), developmental biology, neurobiology and evolution.Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized in all courses and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In add

Subjects

biology | biology | biochemistry | biochemistry | genetics | genetics | molecular biology | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell cycle | cell signaling | cell signaling | cloning | cloning | stem cells | stem cells | cancer | cancer | immunology | immunology | virology | virology | genomics | genomics | molecular medicine | molecular medicine | DNA | DNA | RNA | RNA | proteins | proteins | replication | replication | transcription | transcription | mRNA | mRNA | translation | translation | ribosome | ribosome | nervous system | nervous system | amino acids | amino acids | polypeptide chain | polypeptide chain | cell biology | cell biology | neurobiology | neurobiology | gene regulation | gene regulation | protein structure | protein structure | protein synthesis | protein synthesis | gene structure | gene structure | PCR | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum | endoplasmic reticulum | human biology | human biology | inherited diseases | inherited diseases | developmental biology | developmental biology | evolution | evolution | human genetics | human genetics | human diseases | human diseases | infectious agents | infectious agents | infectious diseases | infectious diseases

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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5.08J Biological Chemistry II (MIT)

Description

This course deals with a more advanced treatment of the biochemical mechanisms that underlie biological processes. Emphasis will be given to the experimental methods used to unravel how these processes fit into the cellular context as well as the coordinated regulation of these processes. Topics include macromolecular machines for energy and force transduction, regulation of biosynthetic and degradative pathways, and the structure and function of nucleic acids.

Subjects

biochemistry | biological chemistry | Rasmol | Deep Viewer | CHIME | BLAST | PDB | macromolecular machines | protein folding | protein degradation | fatty acid synthases | polyketide synthases | non-ribosomal polypeptide synthases | metal homeostasis | biochemical mechanisms | biochemical pathways | macromolecular interactions | ribosome | mRNA | metabolic networking | 5.08 | 7.08

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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5.08J Biological Chemistry II (MIT)

Description

This course deals with a more advanced treatment of the biochemical mechanisms that underlie biological processes. Emphasis will be given to the experimental methods used to unravel how these processes fit into the cellular context as well as the coordinated regulation of these processes. Topics include macromolecular machines for energy and force transduction, regulation of biosynthetic and degradative pathways, and the structure and function of nucleic acids.

Subjects

biochemistry | biological chemistry | Rasmol | Deep Viewer | CHIME | BLAST | PDB | macromolecular machines | protein folding | protein degradation | fatty acid synthases | polyketide synthases | non-ribosomal polypeptide synthases | metal homeostasis | biochemical mechanisms | biochemical pathways | macromolecular interactions | ribosome | mRNA | metabolic networking | 5.08 | 7.08

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.012 Introduction to Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.012 focuses on the exploration of current research in cell biology, immunology, neurobiology, genomics, and molecular medicine.AcknowledgmentsThe study materials, problem sets, and quiz materials used during Fall 2004 for

Subjects

biology | biochemistry | genetics | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell signaling | cloning | stem cells | cancer | immunology | virology | genomics | molecular medicine | DNA | RNA | proteins | replication | transcription | mRNA | translation | ribosome | nervous system | amino acids | polypeptide chain | cell biology | neurobiology | gene regulation | protein structure | protein synthesis | gene structure | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.013 Introductory Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. 7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of human biology. Topics include genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, disease (infectious agents, inherited diseases and cancer), developmental biology, neurobiology and evolution.Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized in all courses and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In add

Subjects

biology | biochemistry | genetics | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell signaling | cloning | stem cells | cancer | immunology | virology | genomics | molecular medicine | DNA | RNA | proteins | replication | transcription | mRNA | translation | ribosome | nervous system | amino acids | polypeptide chain | cell biology | neurobiology | gene regulation | protein structure | protein synthesis | gene structure | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum | human biology | inherited diseases | developmental biology | evolution | human genetics | human diseases | infectious agents | infectious diseases

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.344 Directed Evolution: Engineering Biocatalysts (MIT)

Description

Directed evolution has been used to produce enzymes with many unique properties. The technique of directed evolution comprises two essential steps: mutagenesis of the gene encoding the enzyme to produce a library of variants, and selection of a particular variant based on its desirable catalytic properties. In this course we will examine what kinds of enzymes are worth evolving and the strategies used for library generation and enzyme selection. We will focus on those enzymes that are used in the synthesis of drugs and in biotechnological applications. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current

Subjects

evolution | biocatalyst | mutation | library | recombination | directed evolution | enzyme | point mutation | mutagenesis | DNA | gene | complementation | affinity | phage | ribosome display | yeast surface display | bacterial cell surface display | IVC | FACS | active site

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.013 Introductory Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material. 7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of human biology. Topics include genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, disease (infectious agents, inherited diseases and cancer),

Subjects

biology | biochemistry | genetics | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell signaling | cloning | stem cells | cancer | immunology | virology | genomics | molecular medicine | DNA | RNA | proteins | replication | transcription | mRNA | translation | ribosome | nervous system | amino acids | polypeptide chain | cell biology | neurobiology | gene regulation | protein structure | protein synthesis | gene structure | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum | human biology | inherited diseases | developmental biology | evolution | human genetics | human diseases | infectious agents | infectious diseases

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.A12 Freshman Seminar: Structural Basis of Genetic Material: Nucleic Acids (MIT)

Description

Since the discovery of the structure of the DNA double helix in 1953 by Watson and Crick, the information on detailed molecular structures of DNA and RNA, namely, the foundation of genetic material, has expanded rapidly. This discovery is the beginning of the "Big Bang" of molecular biology and biotechnology. In this seminar, students discuss, from a historical perspective and current developments, the importance of pursuing the detailed structural basis of genetic materials.

Subjects

nucleic acids | DNA | RNA | genetics | genes | genetic material | double helix | molecular biology | biotechnology | structure | function | heredity | complementarity | biological materials | genetic code | oligonucleotides | supercoiled DNA | polyribosome | tRNA | reverse transcription | central dogma | transcription

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.014 Introductory Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.014 focuses on the application of these fundamental principles, toward an understanding of microorganisms as geochemical agents responsible for the evolution and renewal of the biosphere and of their role in human health

Subjects

microorganisms | geochemistry | geochemical agents | biosphere | bacterial genetics | carbon metabolism | energy metabolism | productivity | biogeochemical cycles | molecular evolution | population genetics | evolution | population growth | biology | biochemistry | genetics | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell signaling | cloning | stem cells | cancer | immunology | virology | genomics | molecular medicine | DNA | RNA | proteins | replication | transcription | mRNA | translation | ribosome | nervous system | amino acids | polypeptide chain | cell biology | neurobiology | gene regulation | protein structure | protein synthesis | gene structure | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum | ecology | communities

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.012 Introduction to Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.012 focuses on the exploration of current research in cell biology, immunology, neurobiology, genomics, and molecular medicine.AcknowledgmentsThe study materials, problem sets, and quiz materials used during Fall 2004 for

Subjects

biology | biochemistry | genetics | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell signaling | cloning | stem cells | cancer | immunology | virology | genomics | molecular medicine | DNA | RNA | proteins | replication | transcription | mRNA | translation | ribosome | nervous system | amino acids | polypeptide chain | cell biology | neurobiology | gene regulation | protein structure | protein synthesis | gene structure | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.03 Genetics (MIT)

Description

This course discusses the principles of genetics with application to the study of biological function at the level of molecules, cells, and multicellular organisms, including humans. The topics include: structure and function of genes, chromosomes and genomes, biological variation resulting from recombination, mutation, and selection, population genetics, use of genetic methods to analyze protein function, gene regulation and inherited disease.

Subjects

genetics | gene | DNA | RNA | mutation | genome | Watson and Crick | replication | transcription | DNA heliz | double helix | mRNA | messenger RNA | translation | ribosome | promoter | genetic analysis | alleles | genotype | wild type | phenotype | haploid | diploid | auxotrophic mutation | homozygous | heterozygous | recessive allele | dominant allele | complementation test | locus | incomplete dominance | incomplete penetrance | true-breeding | gametes | codominant | meiosis

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.013 Introductory Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of human biology. Topics include genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, disease (infectious agents, inherited diseases and cancer),

Subjects

biology | biochemistry | genetics | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell signaling | cloning | stem cells | cancer | immunology | virology | genomics | molecular medicine | DNA | RNA | proteins | replication | transcription | mRNA | translation | ribosome | nervous system | amino acids | polypeptide chain | cell biology | neurobiology | gene regulation | protein structure | protein synthesis | gene structure | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum | human biology | inherited diseases | developmental biology | evolution | human genetics | human diseases | infectious agents | infectious diseases

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.012 Introduction to Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.012 focuses on the exploration of current research in cell biology, immunology, neurobiology, genomics, and molecular medicine.AcknowledgmentsThe study materials, problem sets, and quiz materials used during Fall 2004 for

Subjects

biology | biochemistry | genetics | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell signaling | cloning | stem cells | cancer | immunology | virology | genomics | molecular medicine | DNA | RNA | proteins | replication | transcription | mRNA | translation | ribosome | nervous system | amino acids | polypeptide chain | cell biology | neurobiology | gene regulation | protein structure | protein synthesis | gene structure | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.014 Introductory Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.014 focuses on the application of these fundamental principles, toward an understanding of microorganisms as geochemical agents responsible for the evolution and renewal of the biosphere and of their role in human health

Subjects

microorganisms | geochemistry | geochemical agents | biosphere | bacterial genetics | carbon metabolism | energy metabolism | productivity | biogeochemical cycles | molecular evolution | population genetics | evolution | population growth | biology | biochemistry | genetics | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell signaling | cloning | stem cells | cancer | immunology | virology | genomics | molecular medicine | DNA | RNA | proteins | replication | transcription | mRNA | translation | ribosome | nervous system | amino acids | polypeptide chain | cell biology | neurobiology | gene regulation | protein structure | protein synthesis | gene structure | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum | ecology | communities

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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