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7.02CI Experimental Biology - Communications Intensive (MIT) 7.02CI Experimental Biology - Communications Intensive (MIT)

Description

This course is the scientific communications portion of course 7.02, Experimental Biology and Communication. Students develop their skills as writers of scientific research, skills that also contribute to the learning of the 7.02 course materials. Through in class and out of class writing exercises, students explore the genre of the research article and its components while developing an understanding of the materials covered in the 7.02 laboratory. This course is the scientific communications portion of course 7.02, Experimental Biology and Communication. Students develop their skills as writers of scientific research, skills that also contribute to the learning of the 7.02 course materials. Through in class and out of class writing exercises, students explore the genre of the research article and its components while developing an understanding of the materials covered in the 7.02 laboratory.

Subjects

scientific writing | scientific writing | technical writing | technical writing | scientific communication | scientific communication | science writing | science writing | research article | research article | title | title | abstract | abstract | introduction | introduction | methods | methods | results | results | discussion | discussion | conclusion | conclusion | laboratory research paper | laboratory research paper | 7.02 | 7.02 | 10.702 | 10.702

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17.869 Political Science Scope and Methods (MIT) 17.869 Political Science Scope and Methods (MIT)

Description

This course is designed to provide an introduction to a variety of empirical research methods used by political scientists. The primary aims of the course are to make you a more sophisticated consumer of diverse empirical research and to allow you to conduct sophisticated independent work in your junior and senior years. This is not a course in data analysis. Rather, it is a course on how to approach political science research. This course is designed to provide an introduction to a variety of empirical research methods used by political scientists. The primary aims of the course are to make you a more sophisticated consumer of diverse empirical research and to allow you to conduct sophisticated independent work in your junior and senior years. This is not a course in data analysis. Rather, it is a course on how to approach political science research.

Subjects

political science | political science | empirical research | empirical research | scientific method | scientific method | research design | research design | models | models | samping | samping | statistical analysis | statistical analysis | measurement | measurement | ethics | ethics | empirical | empirical | research | research | scientific | scientific | methods | methods | statistics | statistics | statistical | statistical | analysis | analysis | political | political | politics | politics | science | science | design | design | sampling | sampling | theoretical | theoretical | observation | observation | data | data | case studies | case studies | cases | cases | empirical research methods | empirical research methods | political scientists | political scientists | empirical analysis | empirical analysis | theoretical analysis | theoretical analysis | research projects | research projects | department faculty | department faculty | inference | inference | writing | writing | revision | revision | oral presentations | oral presentations | experimental method | experimental method | theories | theories | political implications | political implications

License

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STS.310 History of Science (MIT) STS.310 History of Science (MIT)

Description

This seminar explores recent historiographical approaches within the history of science. Students will read a wide variety of studies covering topics from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries, from the physical sciences to natural history and medicine. Emphasis will be placed on: deciphering different theoretical approaches; the pros and cons of different research questions, subjects, and sources of evidence; and what makes for good and interesting history of science. This seminar explores recent historiographical approaches within the history of science. Students will read a wide variety of studies covering topics from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries, from the physical sciences to natural history and medicine. Emphasis will be placed on: deciphering different theoretical approaches; the pros and cons of different research questions, subjects, and sources of evidence; and what makes for good and interesting history of science.

Subjects

history | history | science | science | darwin | darwin | galileo | galileo | goethe | goethe | mesmer | mesmer | boyle | boyle | hobbes | hobbes | einstein | einstein | bethe | bethe | oppenheimer | oppenheimer | scientific revolution | scientific revolution | victorian | victorian | philosophy | philosophy | science in cultural context | science in cultural context | imperialism | imperialism | natural history | natural history | institutions | institutions | biomedical research | biomedical research | modern physics | modern physics | post-war physics | post-war physics | scientific advancement | scientific advancement | evolution | evolution

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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STS.310 History of Science (MIT) STS.310 History of Science (MIT)

Description

This seminar explores recent historiographical approaches within the history of science. Students will read a wide variety of studies covering topics from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries, from the physical sciences to natural history and medicine. Emphasis will be placed on: deciphering different theoretical approaches; the pros and cons of different research questions, subjects, and sources of evidence; and what makes for good and interesting history of science. This seminar explores recent historiographical approaches within the history of science. Students will read a wide variety of studies covering topics from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries, from the physical sciences to natural history and medicine. Emphasis will be placed on: deciphering different theoretical approaches; the pros and cons of different research questions, subjects, and sources of evidence; and what makes for good and interesting history of science.

Subjects

history | history | science | science | darwin | darwin | galileo | galileo | goethe | goethe | mesmer | mesmer | boyle | boyle | hobbes | hobbes | einstein | einstein | bethe | bethe | oppenheimer | oppenheimer | scientific revolution | scientific revolution | victorian | victorian | philosophy | philosophy | science in cultural context | science in cultural context | imperialism | imperialism | natural history | natural history | institutions | institutions | biomedical research | biomedical research | modern physics | modern physics | post-war physics | post-war physics | scientific advancement | scientific advancement | evolution | evolution

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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21L.017 The Art of the Probable: Literature and Probability (MIT) 21L.017 The Art of the Probable: Literature and Probability (MIT)

Description

"The Art of the Probable" addresses the history of scientific ideas, in particular the emergence and development of mathematical probability. But it is neither meant to be a history of the exact sciences per se nor an annex to, say, the Course 6 curriculum in probability and statistics. Rather, our objective is to focus on the formal, thematic, and rhetorical features that imaginative literature shares with texts in the history of probability. These shared issues include (but are not limited to): the attempt to quantify or otherwise explain the presence of chance, risk, and contingency in everyday life; the deduction of causes for phenomena that are knowable only in their effects; and, above all, the question of what it means to think and act rationally in an uncertain world. Our course "The Art of the Probable" addresses the history of scientific ideas, in particular the emergence and development of mathematical probability. But it is neither meant to be a history of the exact sciences per se nor an annex to, say, the Course 6 curriculum in probability and statistics. Rather, our objective is to focus on the formal, thematic, and rhetorical features that imaginative literature shares with texts in the history of probability. These shared issues include (but are not limited to): the attempt to quantify or otherwise explain the presence of chance, risk, and contingency in everyday life; the deduction of causes for phenomena that are knowable only in their effects; and, above all, the question of what it means to think and act rationally in an uncertain world. Our course

Subjects

philosophy | philosophy | scientific thought | scientific thought | scientific method | scientific method | mathematics | mathematics | chance | chance | risk | risk | statistics | statistics | history of science | history of science | quantitative measurement | quantitative measurement | chaos | chaos | uncertainty | uncertainty | induction | induction | deduction | deduction | inference | inference | luck | luck | gambling | gambling | cause and effect | cause and effect | games of chance | games of chance | fate | fate | prediction | prediction | rationality | rationality | decision making | decision making | religion | religion | randomness | randomness | knowledge | knowledge | fact | fact | human nature | human nature | mind | mind | senses | senses | intelligence | intelligence | metaphor | metaphor | Darwinism | Darwinism

License

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Scientific Research Centre in Jaderiyah, Baghdad Scientific Research Centre in Jaderiyah, Baghdad

Description

Subjects

centre | centre | iraq | iraq | centro | centro | research | research | fundação | fundação | gulbenkian | gulbenkian | scientific | scientific | iraque | iraque | científica | científica | fundaçãocaloustegulbenkian | fundaçãocaloustegulbenkian | investigação | investigação | bagdade | bagdade | scientificresearchcentre | scientificresearchcentre | centrodeinvestigaçãocientífica | centrodeinvestigaçãocientífica

License

No known copyright restrictions

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STS.310 History of Science (MIT) STS.310 History of Science (MIT)

Description

This seminar offers a review of recent historiographical approaches within the history of science. Students read a wide variety of recent studies covering topics from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries. Emphasis is placed on the intertwining of epistemology with institutions in various settings. This seminar offers a review of recent historiographical approaches within the history of science. Students read a wide variety of recent studies covering topics from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries. Emphasis is placed on the intertwining of epistemology with institutions in various settings.

Subjects

history | history | science | science | historiography | historiography | epistemology | epistemology | scientific practice | scientific practice | culture of science | culture of science | experimental life | experimental life | scientific knowledge | scientific knowledge | cultural studies | cultural studies | cultural study of science | cultural study of science

License

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STS.310 History of Science (MIT) STS.310 History of Science (MIT)

Description

This course offers an introduction to the history and historiography of science from ancient Greece to the present. It is designed to serve as an introduction for those who have no prior background in the field and to deepen the knowledge of those who already do. We will consider how the history of science has responded to its encounters with philosophy, sociology, economics, and anthropology. Our readings and discussions will focus on determining what makes particular works effective, understanding major contemporary trends and debates in the history of science, and establishing resources for further research. This course offers an introduction to the history and historiography of science from ancient Greece to the present. It is designed to serve as an introduction for those who have no prior background in the field and to deepen the knowledge of those who already do. We will consider how the history of science has responded to its encounters with philosophy, sociology, economics, and anthropology. Our readings and discussions will focus on determining what makes particular works effective, understanding major contemporary trends and debates in the history of science, and establishing resources for further research.

Subjects

history | history | science | science | darwin | darwin | galileo | galileo | goethe | goethe | mesmer | mesmer | boyle | boyle | hobbes | hobbes | einstein | einstein | bethe | bethe | oppenheimer | oppenheimer | scientific revolution | scientific revolution | victorian | victorian | philosophy | philosophy | science in cultural context | science in cultural context | imperialism | imperialism | natural history | natural history | institutions | institutions | biomedical research | biomedical research | modern physics | modern physics | post-war physics | post-war physics | scientific advancement | scientific advancement | evolution | evolution

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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STS.310 History of Science (MIT) STS.310 History of Science (MIT)

Description

This seminar explores recent historiographical approaches within the history of science. Students will read a wide variety of studies covering topics from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries, from the physical sciences to natural history and medicine. Emphasis will be placed on: deciphering different theoretical approaches; the pros and cons of different research questions, subjects, and sources of evidence; and what makes for good and interesting history of science. This seminar explores recent historiographical approaches within the history of science. Students will read a wide variety of studies covering topics from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries, from the physical sciences to natural history and medicine. Emphasis will be placed on: deciphering different theoretical approaches; the pros and cons of different research questions, subjects, and sources of evidence; and what makes for good and interesting history of science.

Subjects

history | history | science | science | darwin | darwin | galileo | galileo | goethe | goethe | mesmer | mesmer | boyle | boyle | hobbes | hobbes | einstein | einstein | bethe | bethe | oppenheimer | oppenheimer | scientific revolution | scientific revolution | victorian | victorian | philosophy | philosophy | science in cultural context | science in cultural context | imperialism | imperialism | natural history | natural history | institutions | institutions | biomedical research | biomedical research | modern physics | modern physics | post-war physics | post-war physics | scientific advancement | scientific advancement | evolution | evolution

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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ESD.864 Systems Modeling and Assessment for Policy (MIT) ESD.864 Systems Modeling and Assessment for Policy (MIT)

Description

This course explores how scientific information can be used to inform policy decision-making processes through the use of quantitative modeling techniques. It incorporates both hands-on analysis and practice using models as well as evaluation of the use and effectiveness of models in decision-making. The course assesses the full spectrum of model complexity from simple box model calculations to complex, global systems models. Issues addressed include scientific assessment processes; integrated assessment modeling; model frameworks; and scenarios. Examples focus on models and information used for earth system governance, with selected examples from other areas of application. This course explores how scientific information can be used to inform policy decision-making processes through the use of quantitative modeling techniques. It incorporates both hands-on analysis and practice using models as well as evaluation of the use and effectiveness of models in decision-making. The course assesses the full spectrum of model complexity from simple box model calculations to complex, global systems models. Issues addressed include scientific assessment processes; integrated assessment modeling; model frameworks; and scenarios. Examples focus on models and information used for earth system governance, with selected examples from other areas of application.

Subjects

scientific assessment process | scientific assessment process | integrated assessment modeling | integrated assessment modeling | model frameworks | model frameworks | systems modeling | systems modeling | policy-analysis techniques | policy-analysis techniques | climate change | climate change

License

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7.344 The Fountain of Life: From Dolly to Customized Embryonic Stem Cells (MIT) 7.344 The Fountain of Life: From Dolly to Customized Embryonic Stem Cells (MIT)

Description

During development, the genetic content of each cell remains, with a few exceptions, identical to that of the zygote. Most differentiated cells therefore retain all of the genetic information necessary to generate an entire organism. It was through pioneering technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) that this concept was experimentally proven. Only 10 years ago the sheep Dolly was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult organism, demonstrating that the differentiated state of a mammalian cell can be fully reversible to a pluripotent embryonic state. A key conclusion from these experiments was that the difference between pluripotent cells such as embryonic stem (ES) cells and unipotent differentiated cells is solely a consequence of reversible changes. These changes, which hav During development, the genetic content of each cell remains, with a few exceptions, identical to that of the zygote. Most differentiated cells therefore retain all of the genetic information necessary to generate an entire organism. It was through pioneering technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) that this concept was experimentally proven. Only 10 years ago the sheep Dolly was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult organism, demonstrating that the differentiated state of a mammalian cell can be fully reversible to a pluripotent embryonic state. A key conclusion from these experiments was that the difference between pluripotent cells such as embryonic stem (ES) cells and unipotent differentiated cells is solely a consequence of reversible changes. These changes, which hav

Subjects

embryonic stem cells | embryonic stem cells | stem cells | stem cells | cells | cells | genetics | genetics | genome | genome | Dolly | Dolly | clone | clone | regenerative therapy | regenerative therapy | somatic | somatic | SCNT | SCNT | pluripotent | pluripotent | scientific literature | scientific literature | nuclear | nuclear | embryonic | embryonic | adult | adult | epigenetics | epigenetics | methylation | methylation | DNA | DNA | histone | histone | biomedical | biomedical | differentiation | differentiation | epigenome | epigenome | nuclear transfer | nuclear transfer | customized | customized | zygote | zygote | RNA | RNA | cancer | cancer | medicine | medicine

License

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2.971 2nd Summer Introduction to Design (MIT) 2.971 2nd Summer Introduction to Design (MIT)

Description

Introduce students to the creative design process, based on the scientific method and peer review, by application of fundamental principles and learning to complete projects according to schedule and within budget. Subject relies on active learning through a major team-based design-and-build project focused on the need for a new consumer product identified by each team. Topics to be learned while teams create, design, build, and test their product ideas include formulating strategies, concepts and modules, and estimation, concept selection, machine elements, design for manufacturing, visual thinking, communication, teamwork, and professional responsibilities. Introduce students to the creative design process, based on the scientific method and peer review, by application of fundamental principles and learning to complete projects according to schedule and within budget. Subject relies on active learning through a major team-based design-and-build project focused on the need for a new consumer product identified by each team. Topics to be learned while teams create, design, build, and test their product ideas include formulating strategies, concepts and modules, and estimation, concept selection, machine elements, design for manufacturing, visual thinking, communication, teamwork, and professional responsibilities.

Subjects

creative design process | creative design process | scientific method | scientific method | peer review | peer review | fundamental principles | fundamental principles | team-based | team-based | design-and-build project focused on the need for a new consumer product | design-and-build project focused on the need for a new consumer product | concept selection | concept selection | machine elements | machine elements | manufacturing design | manufacturing design | visual thinking | visual thinking

License

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2.993 Designing Paths to Peace (MIT) 2.993 Designing Paths to Peace (MIT)

Description

Teaches creative design based on the scientific method through the design, engineering, and manufacture of a detailed inlaid tile. This is an introductory lecture/studio course designed to teach students the basic principles of design and expose them to the design process. Throughout the course, students will be introduced to the terminology and concepts that underlie all forms of visual art; which--in many ways--forms the basis for the design of all physical objects. Along with learning mechanical skills, thinking both critically and visually, and working with different media, the students will consider how the arts grow out of and respond to particular cultural contexts and ideas; and how these thinking patterns can be applied to virtually all types of design. Presentations, lectures, de Teaches creative design based on the scientific method through the design, engineering, and manufacture of a detailed inlaid tile. This is an introductory lecture/studio course designed to teach students the basic principles of design and expose them to the design process. Throughout the course, students will be introduced to the terminology and concepts that underlie all forms of visual art; which--in many ways--forms the basis for the design of all physical objects. Along with learning mechanical skills, thinking both critically and visually, and working with different media, the students will consider how the arts grow out of and respond to particular cultural contexts and ideas; and how these thinking patterns can be applied to virtually all types of design. Presentations, lectures, de

Subjects

creative design | creative design | scientific method | scientific method | inlaid tile | inlaid tile | design process | design process | digital solid models | digital solid models | abrasive waterjet machining center | abrasive waterjet machining center

License

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STS.310 History of Science (MIT)

Description

This seminar explores recent historiographical approaches within the history of science. Students will read a wide variety of studies covering topics from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries, from the physical sciences to natural history and medicine. Emphasis will be placed on: deciphering different theoretical approaches; the pros and cons of different research questions, subjects, and sources of evidence; and what makes for good and interesting history of science.

Subjects

history | science | darwin | galileo | goethe | mesmer | boyle | hobbes | einstein | bethe | oppenheimer | scientific revolution | victorian | philosophy | science in cultural context | imperialism | natural history | institutions | biomedical research | modern physics | post-war physics | scientific advancement | evolution

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.18 Topics in Experimental Biology (MIT) 7.18 Topics in Experimental Biology (MIT)

Description

This independent experimental study course is designed to allow students with a strong interest in independent research to fulfill the project laboratory requirement for the Biology Department Program in the context of a research laboratory at MIT. The research should be a continuation of a previous project under the direction of a member of the Biology Department faculty. This course provides instruction and practice in written and oral communication. Journal club discussions are used to help students evaluate and write scientific papers. This independent experimental study course is designed to allow students with a strong interest in independent research to fulfill the project laboratory requirement for the Biology Department Program in the context of a research laboratory at MIT. The research should be a continuation of a previous project under the direction of a member of the Biology Department faculty. This course provides instruction and practice in written and oral communication. Journal club discussions are used to help students evaluate and write scientific papers.

Subjects

experimental biology | experimental biology | journal club | journal club | primary literature | primary literature | scientific research | scientific research | oral presentations | oral presentations | communication | communication | abstracts | abstracts | materials and methods | materials and methods | discussion | discussion | IMRAD | IMRAD | research report | research report | laboratory research | laboratory research | results section | results section

License

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21H.443 European Imperialism in the 19th and 20th Centuries (MIT) 21H.443 European Imperialism in the 19th and 20th Centuries (MIT)

Description

From pineapples grown in Hawaii to English-speaking call centers outsourced to India, the legacy of the "Age of Imperialism" appears everywhere in our modern world. This class explores the history of European imperialism in its political, economic, and cultural dimensions from the 1840s through the 1960s. From pineapples grown in Hawaii to English-speaking call centers outsourced to India, the legacy of the "Age of Imperialism" appears everywhere in our modern world. This class explores the history of European imperialism in its political, economic, and cultural dimensions from the 1840s through the 1960s.

Subjects

History | History | europe | europe | european | european | imperialism | imperialism | 19th century | 19th century | 20th century | 20th century | political | political | economic | economic | cultural | cultural | Africa | Africa | India | India | Asia | Asia | imperial expansion | imperial expansion | the rise of "scientific" racism | the rise of "scientific" racism | national identities | national identities | social class | social class | gender | gender | colonial ideologies | colonial ideologies | colonial rule | colonial rule | decolonization | decolonization | globalization | globalization | post-colonial world. | post-colonial world.

License

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STS.003 The Rise of Modern Science (MIT) STS.003 The Rise of Modern Science (MIT)

Description

This course studies the development of modern science from the seventeenth century to the present, focusing on Europe and the United States. Key questions include: What is science, and how is it done? How are discoveries made and accepted? What is the nature of scientific progress? What is the impact of science on society? What is the impact of society on science? Topics will be drawn from the histories of physics, chemistry, biology, psychology, and medicine.AcknowledgementThis class is based on the one originally designed and taught by Prof. David Jones. His Spring 2005 version can be viewed by following the link under Archived Courses on the right side of this page. This course studies the development of modern science from the seventeenth century to the present, focusing on Europe and the United States. Key questions include: What is science, and how is it done? How are discoveries made and accepted? What is the nature of scientific progress? What is the impact of science on society? What is the impact of society on science? Topics will be drawn from the histories of physics, chemistry, biology, psychology, and medicine.AcknowledgementThis class is based on the one originally designed and taught by Prof. David Jones. His Spring 2005 version can be viewed by following the link under Archived Courses on the right side of this page.

Subjects

technology; | technology; | technology | technology | society | society | modern | modern | seventeenth century | seventeenth century | present | present | discovery | discovery | progress | progress | history | history | physics | physics | chemistry | chemistry | biology | biology | genetics | genetics | geology | geology | medicine | medicine | psychology | psychology | computer science | computer science | race | race | ethics | ethics | scientific revolution | scientific revolution | warfare | warfare | evolution | evolution | Freud | Freud | Einstein | Einstein | Darwin | Darwin | experiment | experiment | eugenics | eugenics | technology and society | technology and society | policy | policy

License

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STS.350 Social Study of Science and Technology (MIT) STS.350 Social Study of Science and Technology (MIT)

Description

This course surveys canonical and recent theories and methods in science studies. We will organize our discussions around the concept of "reproduction," referring variously to: Scientific reproduction (how results are replicated in lab, field, disciplinary contexts) Social reproduction (how social knowledge and relations are regenerated over time) Biological reproduction (how organic substance is managed in the genetic age) Electronic reproduction (how information is reassembled in techniques of transcription, simulation, computation). Examining intersections and disruptions of these genres of reproduction, we seek to map relations among our social, biological, and electronic lives. This course surveys canonical and recent theories and methods in science studies. We will organize our discussions around the concept of "reproduction," referring variously to: Scientific reproduction (how results are replicated in lab, field, disciplinary contexts) Social reproduction (how social knowledge and relations are regenerated over time) Biological reproduction (how organic substance is managed in the genetic age) Electronic reproduction (how information is reassembled in techniques of transcription, simulation, computation). Examining intersections and disruptions of these genres of reproduction, we seek to map relations among our social, biological, and electronic lives.

Subjects

Social | Social | study | study | science | science | technology | technology | interdisciplinary field | interdisciplinary field | social practice | social practice | history | history | philosophy | philosophy | sociology | sociology | scientific institutions | scientific institutions | knowledge | knowledge | anthropology | anthropology | feminism | feminism | critical race theory | critical race theory | post-colonial studies | post-colonial studies | queer theory | queer theory | human culture | human culture | politics | politics | theories | theories | methods | methods | reproduction | reproduction | social reproduction | social reproduction | biological reproduction | biological reproduction | electronic reproduction | electronic reproduction

License

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STS.310 History of Science (MIT)

Description

This course offers an introduction to the history and historiography of science from ancient Greece to the present. It is designed to serve as an introduction for those who have no prior background in the field and to deepen the knowledge of those who already do. We will consider how the history of science has responded to its encounters with philosophy, sociology, economics, and anthropology. Our readings and discussions will focus on determining what makes particular works effective, understanding major contemporary trends and debates in the history of science, and establishing resources for further research.

Subjects

history | science | darwin | galileo | goethe | mesmer | boyle | hobbes | einstein | bethe | oppenheimer | scientific revolution | victorian | philosophy | science in cultural context | imperialism | natural history | institutions | biomedical research | modern physics | post-war physics | scientific advancement | evolution

License

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21L.017 The Art of the Probable: Literature and Probability (MIT)

Description

"The Art of the Probable" addresses the history of scientific ideas, in particular the emergence and development of mathematical probability. But it is neither meant to be a history of the exact sciences per se nor an annex to, say, the Course 6 curriculum in probability and statistics. Rather, our objective is to focus on the formal, thematic, and rhetorical features that imaginative literature shares with texts in the history of probability. These shared issues include (but are not limited to): the attempt to quantify or otherwise explain the presence of chance, risk, and contingency in everyday life; the deduction of causes for phenomena that are knowable only in their effects; and, above all, the question of what it means to think and act rationally in an uncertain world. Our course

Subjects

philosophy | scientific thought | scientific method | mathematics | chance | risk | statistics | history of science | quantitative measurement | chaos | uncertainty | induction | deduction | inference | luck | gambling | cause and effect | games of chance | fate | prediction | rationality | decision making | religion | randomness | knowledge | fact | human nature | mind | senses | intelligence | metaphor | Darwinism

License

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6.901 Inventions and Patents (MIT) 6.901 Inventions and Patents (MIT)

Description

Includes audio/video content: AV faculty introductions. This course explores the history of private and public rights in scientific discoveries and applied engineering, leading to the development of worldwide patent systems. The classes of invention protectable under the patent laws of the U.S., including the procedures in protecting inventions in the Patent Office and the courts will be examined. A review of past cases involving inventions and patents in: the chemical process industry and medical pharmaceutical, biological, and genetic-engineering fields; devices in the mechanical, ocean exploration, civil, and/or aeronautical fields; the electrical, computer, software, and electronic areas, including key radio, solid-state, computer and software inventions; and also software protectio Includes audio/video content: AV faculty introductions. This course explores the history of private and public rights in scientific discoveries and applied engineering, leading to the development of worldwide patent systems. The classes of invention protectable under the patent laws of the U.S., including the procedures in protecting inventions in the Patent Office and the courts will be examined. A review of past cases involving inventions and patents in: the chemical process industry and medical pharmaceutical, biological, and genetic-engineering fields; devices in the mechanical, ocean exploration, civil, and/or aeronautical fields; the electrical, computer, software, and electronic areas, including key radio, solid-state, computer and software inventions; and also software protectio

Subjects

Inventions | Inventions | patents | patents | patent law | patent law | court cases | court cases | engineering patents | engineering patents | copyright laws | copyright laws | private and public rights in scientific discoveries and applied engineering | private and public rights in scientific discoveries and applied engineering | software protection | software protection | procedures in protecting inventions in the Patent Office | procedures in protecting inventions in the Patent Office

License

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STS.320 Environmental Conflict and Social Change (MIT) STS.320 Environmental Conflict and Social Change (MIT)

Description

This graduate-level class explores the complex interrelationships among humans and natural environments, focusing on non-western parts of the world in addition to Europe and the United States. It uses environmental conflict to draw attention to competing understandings and uses of "nature" as well as the local, national and transnational power relationships in which environmental interactions are embedded. In addition to utilizing a range of theoretical perspectives, this subject draws upon a series of ethnographic case studies of environmental conflicts in various parts of the world. This graduate-level class explores the complex interrelationships among humans and natural environments, focusing on non-western parts of the world in addition to Europe and the United States. It uses environmental conflict to draw attention to competing understandings and uses of "nature" as well as the local, national and transnational power relationships in which environmental interactions are embedded. In addition to utilizing a range of theoretical perspectives, this subject draws upon a series of ethnographic case studies of environmental conflicts in various parts of the world.

Subjects

Anthropology | Anthropology | complex interrelationships | complex interrelationships | humans | humans | natural environments | natural environments | conflict | conflict | access | access | land rights | land rights | hunting | hunting | fishing | fishing | environmental regulations | environmental regulations | scientific | scientific | popular | popular | knowledge | knowledge | biotechnology | biotechnology | hazardous waste | hazardous waste | social | social | economic | economic | political | political | environmental | environmental | stakes | stakes | forest | forest | agricultural | agricultural | marine | marine | urban | urban | cultural | cultural | historical | historical | power relationships | power relationships | local | local | national | national | international levels. nature | international levels. nature | European thought | European thought | theoretical paradigms | theoretical paradigms | ethnographic | ethnographic | East Africa | East Africa | South Asia | South Asia | Southeast Asia | Southeast Asia | Eastern Europe | Eastern Europe | North America | North America

License

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24.230 Meta-ethics (MIT) 24.230 Meta-ethics (MIT)

Description

This course considers a range of philosophical questions about the foundations of morality, such as whether and in what sense morality is objective, the nature of moral discourse, and how we can come to know right from wrong. This course considers a range of philosophical questions about the foundations of morality, such as whether and in what sense morality is objective, the nature of moral discourse, and how we can come to know right from wrong.

Subjects

moral statements | moral statements | morality | morality | ethics | ethics | ethical inquiry | ethical inquiry | scientific inquiry | scientific inquiry | right and wrong | right and wrong | moral realism | moral realism | plato | plato | naturalism | naturalism | moral anti-realism | moral anti-realism | non-cognitivism | non-cognitivism | reason | reason

License

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STS.350 Social Study of Science and Technology (MIT) STS.350 Social Study of Science and Technology (MIT)

Description

This course surveys canonical and recent theories and methods in science studies. We will organize our discussions around the concept of "reproduction," referring variously to: Scientific reproduction (how results are replicated in lab, field, disciplinary contexts) Social reproduction (how social knowledge and relations are regenerated over time) Biological reproduction (how organic substance is managed in the genetic age) Electronic reproduction (how information is reassembled in techniques of transcription, simulation, computation). Examining intersections and disruptions of these genres of reproduction, we seek to map relations among our social, biological, and electronic lives. This course surveys canonical and recent theories and methods in science studies. We will organize our discussions around the concept of "reproduction," referring variously to: Scientific reproduction (how results are replicated in lab, field, disciplinary contexts) Social reproduction (how social knowledge and relations are regenerated over time) Biological reproduction (how organic substance is managed in the genetic age) Electronic reproduction (how information is reassembled in techniques of transcription, simulation, computation). Examining intersections and disruptions of these genres of reproduction, we seek to map relations among our social, biological, and electronic lives.

Subjects

Social | Social | study | study | science | science | technology | technology | interdisciplinary field | interdisciplinary field | social practice | social practice | history | history | philosophy | philosophy | sociology | sociology | scientific institutions | scientific institutions | knowledge | knowledge | anthropology | anthropology | feminism | feminism | critical race theory | critical race theory | post-colonial studies | post-colonial studies | queer theory | queer theory | human culture | human culture | politics | politics | theories | theories | methods | methods | reproduction | reproduction | social reproduction | social reproduction | biological reproduction | biological reproduction | electronic reproduction | electronic reproduction

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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STS.429 Food and Power in the Twentieth Century (MIT) STS.429 Food and Power in the Twentieth Century (MIT)

Description

In this class, food serves as both the subject and the object of historical analysis. As a subject, food has been transformed over the last 100 years, largely as a result of ever more elaborate scientific and technological innovations. From a need to preserve surplus foods for leaner times grew an elaborate array of techniques – drying, freezing, canning, salting, etc – that changed not only what people ate, but how far they could/had to travel, the space in which they lived, their relations with neighbors and relatives, and most of all, their place in the economic order of things. The role of capitalism in supporting and extending food preservation and development was fundamental. As an object, food offers us a way into cultural, political, economic, and techno-scientific hist In this class, food serves as both the subject and the object of historical analysis. As a subject, food has been transformed over the last 100 years, largely as a result of ever more elaborate scientific and technological innovations. From a need to preserve surplus foods for leaner times grew an elaborate array of techniques – drying, freezing, canning, salting, etc – that changed not only what people ate, but how far they could/had to travel, the space in which they lived, their relations with neighbors and relatives, and most of all, their place in the economic order of things. The role of capitalism in supporting and extending food preservation and development was fundamental. As an object, food offers us a way into cultural, political, economic, and techno-scientific hist

Subjects

History | History | food | food | analysis | analysis | transform | transform | technological innovations | technological innovations | preserve | preserve | surplus | surplus | drying | drying | freezing | freezing | canning | canning | salting | salting | travel | travel | space | space | lived | lived | relations | relations | neighbors | neighbors | relatives | relatives | economic order | economic order | capitalism | capitalism | preservation | preservation | development | development | cultural | cultural | political | political | economic | economic | techno-scientific history | techno-scientific history | mass-production techniques | mass-production techniques | industrial farming initiatives | industrial farming initiatives | consumption | consumption | vertical integration | vertical integration | business firms | business firms | globalization | globalization | race | race | gender identities | gender identities | labor movements | labor movements | America | America

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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