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24.973 Advanced Semantics (MIT) 24.973 Advanced Semantics (MIT)

Description

This course is the second of the three parts of our graduate introduction to semantics. The others are 24.970 Introduction to Semantics and 24.954 Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory. Like the other courses, this one is not meant as an overview of the field and its current developments. Our aim is to help you to develop the ability for semantic analysis, and we think that exploring a few topics in detail together with hands-on practical work is more effective than offering a bird's-eye view of everything. Once you have gained some experience in doing semantic analysis, reading around in the many recent handbooks and in current issues of major journals and attending our seminars and colloquia will give you all you need to prosper. Because we want to focus, we need to make difficult choices as This course is the second of the three parts of our graduate introduction to semantics. The others are 24.970 Introduction to Semantics and 24.954 Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory. Like the other courses, this one is not meant as an overview of the field and its current developments. Our aim is to help you to develop the ability for semantic analysis, and we think that exploring a few topics in detail together with hands-on practical work is more effective than offering a bird's-eye view of everything. Once you have gained some experience in doing semantic analysis, reading around in the many recent handbooks and in current issues of major journals and attending our seminars and colloquia will give you all you need to prosper. Because we want to focus, we need to make difficult choices as

Subjects

semantics | semantics | logic | logic | meaning | meaning | syntactic systems | syntactic systems | generative grammar | generative grammar | displacement | displacement | intensional semantics | intensional semantics | Hintikka's idea | Hintikka's idea | accessibility relations | accessibility relations | modality | modality | quantificational theory of modality | quantificational theory of modality | material implication analysis | material implication analysis | strict implication analysis | strict implication analysis | tense | tense | conditionals | conditionals | progressive | progressive | perfect | perfect | de re | de re | de dicto | de dicto | raised subjects | raised subjects | scope paradox | scope paradox | overt world variables | overt world variables | restrictors | restrictors | syntax movement | syntax movement | wh-movement | wh-movement | DP | DP | VP | VP

License

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24.921 Special Topics in Linguistics: Genericity (MIT) 24.921 Special Topics in Linguistics: Genericity (MIT)

Description

This course will investigate the semantics of generic sentences, i.e., sentences that are used to talk about habits, tendencies, dispositions, or kinds. For instance: Dogs are good pets. The giant panda is an endangered species. A soccer player makes lots of money. Mary smokes after dinner. This machine crushes oranges. This is a half-semester course. This course will investigate the semantics of generic sentences, i.e., sentences that are used to talk about habits, tendencies, dispositions, or kinds. For instance: Dogs are good pets. The giant panda is an endangered species. A soccer player makes lots of money. Mary smokes after dinner. This machine crushes oranges. This is a half-semester course.

Subjects

semantics of generic sentences | semantics of generic sentences | modality | modality | adverbial quantifiers | adverbial quantifiers | semantics of aspect | semantics of aspect

License

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24.910 Topics in Linguistics Theory (MIT) 24.910 Topics in Linguistics Theory (MIT)

Description

I realize that "Modes of Assertion" is a rather cryptic title for the course. What we will explore are ways of modulating the force of an assertion. This will engage us in formal semantics and pragmatics, the theory of speech acts and performative utterances, and quite a bit of empirical work on a not-too-well understood complex of data. "It is obvious that he made a big mistake." If you're like me you didn't feel much of a difference. But now see what happens when you embed the two sentences: "We have to fire him, because he obviously made a big mistake." "We have to fire him, because it is obvious that he made a big mistake." One of the two examples is unremarkable, the other suggests that the reason he needs to be fired is not that he made a big I realize that "Modes of Assertion" is a rather cryptic title for the course. What we will explore are ways of modulating the force of an assertion. This will engage us in formal semantics and pragmatics, the theory of speech acts and performative utterances, and quite a bit of empirical work on a not-too-well understood complex of data. "It is obvious that he made a big mistake." If you're like me you didn't feel much of a difference. But now see what happens when you embed the two sentences: "We have to fire him, because he obviously made a big mistake." "We have to fire him, because it is obvious that he made a big mistake." One of the two examples is unremarkable, the other suggests that the reason he needs to be fired is not that he made a big

Subjects

linguistic theory | linguistic theory | semantics | semantics | typology | typology | preformatics | preformatics | modality | modality | evidentiality | evidentiality | embedded assertions | embedded assertions | modes of assertion | modes of assertion | modulation | modulation | force | force | formal semantics | formal semantics | pragmatics | pragmatics | speech acts | speech acts | performative utterances | performative utterances | language constructions | language constructions | English | English | German | German | Quechua | Quechua | Tibetan | Tibetan | evidentiality marking | evidentiality marking | epistemic modality | epistemic modality | performatives | performatives | evidentials | evidentials | direct evidentiality | direct evidentiality | indirect evidentiality | indirect evidentiality | conditionals | conditionals | Faller?s ideas | Faller?s ideas | best possible grounds | best possible grounds

License

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6.821 Programming Languages (MIT) 6.821 Programming Languages (MIT)

Description

6.821 teaches the principles of functional, imperative, and logic programming languages. Topics covered include: meta-circular interpreters, semantics (operational and denotational), type systems (polymorphism, inference, and abstract types), object oriented programming, modules, and multiprocessing. The course involves substantial programming assignments and problem sets as well as a significant amount of reading. The course uses the Scheme+ programming language for all of its assignments. 6.821 teaches the principles of functional, imperative, and logic programming languages. Topics covered include: meta-circular interpreters, semantics (operational and denotational), type systems (polymorphism, inference, and abstract types), object oriented programming, modules, and multiprocessing. The course involves substantial programming assignments and problem sets as well as a significant amount of reading. The course uses the Scheme+ programming language for all of its assignments.

Subjects

Scheme | Scheme | Scheme+ | Scheme+ | programming | programming | programming language | programming language | functional programming language | functional programming language | imperative programming language | imperative programming language | ogic programming languages | ogic programming languages | meta-circular interpreters | meta-circular interpreters | operational semantics | operational semantics | denotational semantics | denotational semantics | type systems | type systems | polymorphism | polymorphism | inference | inference | abstract types | abstract types | object oriented programming | object oriented programming | modules | modules | multiprocessing | multiprocessing

License

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MAS.962 Special Topics in Media Technology: Computational Semantics (MIT) MAS.962 Special Topics in Media Technology: Computational Semantics (MIT)

Description

How do words get their meanings? How can word meanings be represented and used by machines? We will explore three families of approaches to these questions from a computational perspective. Relational / structural methods such as semantic networks represent the meaning of words in terms of their relations to other words. Knowledge of the world through perception and action leads to the notion of external grounding, a process by which word meanings are 'attached' to the world. How an agent theorizes about, and conceptualizes its world provides yet another foundation for word meanings. We will examine each of these perspectives, and consider ways to integrate them. How do words get their meanings? How can word meanings be represented and used by machines? We will explore three families of approaches to these questions from a computational perspective. Relational / structural methods such as semantic networks represent the meaning of words in terms of their relations to other words. Knowledge of the world through perception and action leads to the notion of external grounding, a process by which word meanings are 'attached' to the world. How an agent theorizes about, and conceptualizes its world provides yet another foundation for word meanings. We will examine each of these perspectives, and consider ways to integrate them.

Subjects

signifier | signifier | sign | sign | agent | agent | semiotics | semiotics | semantics | semantics | computational semantics | computational semantics | meaning | meaning | words | words | external grounding | external grounding | relational networks | relational networks

License

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24.900 Introduction to Linguistics (MIT) 24.900 Introduction to Linguistics (MIT)

Description

This class will provide some answers to basic questions about the nature of human language. Throughout the course, we will be learning (in many different ways) that human language is a surprisingly intricate -- yet law-governed and fascinating mental system. In the first 2/3 of the class, we will study some core aspects of this system in detail. In the last part of the class, we will use what we have learned to address a variety of questions, including how children acquire language, ways in which languages are affected by contact with other languages, and the representation of linguistic phenomena in the brain, among others. This class will provide some answers to basic questions about the nature of human language. Throughout the course, we will be learning (in many different ways) that human language is a surprisingly intricate -- yet law-governed and fascinating mental system. In the first 2/3 of the class, we will study some core aspects of this system in detail. In the last part of the class, we will use what we have learned to address a variety of questions, including how children acquire language, ways in which languages are affected by contact with other languages, and the representation of linguistic phenomena in the brain, among others.

Subjects

language | language | syntax | syntax | language acquisition | language acquisition | speech | speech | writing | writing | morphology | morphology | phonetics | phonetics | linguistics | linguistics | linguistic fieldwork | linguistic fieldwork | phonology | phonology | Animal Communication | Animal Communication | semantics | semantics | Historical linguistics | Historical linguistics

License

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MAS.962 Special Topics in Media Technology: Computational Semantics (MIT)

Description

How do words get their meanings? How can word meanings be represented and used by machines? We will explore three families of approaches to these questions from a computational perspective. Relational / structural methods such as semantic networks represent the meaning of words in terms of their relations to other words. Knowledge of the world through perception and action leads to the notion of external grounding, a process by which word meanings are 'attached' to the world. How an agent theorizes about, and conceptualizes its world provides yet another foundation for word meanings. We will examine each of these perspectives, and consider ways to integrate them.

Subjects

signifier | sign | agent | semiotics | semantics | computational semantics | meaning | words | external grounding | relational networks

License

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24.119 Mind and Machines (MIT) 24.119 Mind and Machines (MIT)

Description

This course is an introduction to many of the central issues in a branch of philosophy called philosophy of mind. Some of the questions we will discuss include the following. Can computers think? Is the mind an immaterial thing? Or is the mind the brain? Or does the mind stand to the brain as a computer program stands to the hardware? How can creatures like ourselves think thoughts that are "about" things? (For example, we can all think that Aristotle is a philosopher, and in that sense think "about" Aristotle, but what is the explanation of this quite remarkable ability?) Can I know whether your experiences and my experiences when we look at raspberries, fire trucks and stop lights are the same? Can consciousness be given a scientific explanation? This course is an introduction to many of the central issues in a branch of philosophy called philosophy of mind. Some of the questions we will discuss include the following. Can computers think? Is the mind an immaterial thing? Or is the mind the brain? Or does the mind stand to the brain as a computer program stands to the hardware? How can creatures like ourselves think thoughts that are "about" things? (For example, we can all think that Aristotle is a philosopher, and in that sense think "about" Aristotle, but what is the explanation of this quite remarkable ability?) Can I know whether your experiences and my experiences when we look at raspberries, fire trucks and stop lights are the same? Can consciousness be given a scientific explanation?

Subjects

artificial intelligence | artificial intelligence | psychology | psychology | philosophy | philosophy | Turing Machines | Turing Machines | consciousness | consciousness | computer limitations | computer limitations | computation | computation | neurophysiology | neurophysiology | Turing test | Turing test | the analog/digital distinction | the analog/digital distinction | Chinese Room argument | Chinese Room argument | causal efficacy of content | causal efficacy of content | inverted spectrum | inverted spectrum | mental representation | mental representation | procedural semantics | procedural semantics | connectionism | connectionism

License

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24.900 Introduction to Linguistics (MIT) 24.900 Introduction to Linguistics (MIT)

Description

This course studies what is language and what does knowledge of a language consist of. It asks how do children learn languages and is language unique to humans; why are there many languages; how do languages change; is any language or dialect superior to another; and how are speech and writing related. Context for these and similar questions is provided by basic examination of internal organization of sentences, words, and sound systems. No prior training in linguistics is assumed. This course studies what is language and what does knowledge of a language consist of. It asks how do children learn languages and is language unique to humans; why are there many languages; how do languages change; is any language or dialect superior to another; and how are speech and writing related. Context for these and similar questions is provided by basic examination of internal organization of sentences, words, and sound systems. No prior training in linguistics is assumed.

Subjects

language | language | linguistics | linguistics | syntax | syntax | phonetics | phonetics | consonants | consonants | vowels | vowels | McGurk effect | McGurk effect | phonology | phonology | phoneme | phoneme | allophone | allophone | lexicon | lexicon | affixes | affixes | topicalization | topicalization | pronunciation | pronunciation | semantics | semantics | truth conditions | truth conditions | synchronic | synchronic | diachronic | diachronic | language families | language families | Ebonics | Ebonics | dialect | dialect

License

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24.954 Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory (MIT) 24.954 Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory (MIT)

Description

The course introduces formal theories of context-dependency, presupposition, implicature, context-change, focus and topic. Special emphasis is on the division of labor between semantics and pragmatics. It also covers applications to the analysis of quantification, definiteness, presupposition projection, conditionals and modality, anaphora, questions and answers. The course introduces formal theories of context-dependency, presupposition, implicature, context-change, focus and topic. Special emphasis is on the division of labor between semantics and pragmatics. It also covers applications to the analysis of quantification, definiteness, presupposition projection, conditionals and modality, anaphora, questions and answers.

Subjects

context-dependency | context-dependency | presupposition | presupposition | implicature | implicature | context-change | context-change | focus | focus | topic | topic | semantics | semantics | pragmatics | pragmatics | quantification | quantification | definiteness | definiteness | presupposition projection | presupposition projection | conditionals | conditionals | modality | modality | anaphora | anaphora | questions | questions | answers | answers

License

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4.184 Architectural Design Workshop: Collage - Method and Form (MIT) 4.184 Architectural Design Workshop: Collage - Method and Form (MIT)

Description

This class investigates the theory, method, and form of collage. It studies not only the historical precedents for collage and their physical attributes, but the psychology and process that plays a part in the making of them. The class was broken into three parts, changing scales and methods each time, to introduce and study the rigor by which decisions were made in relation to the collage. The class was less about the making of art than the study of the processes by which art is made. This class investigates the theory, method, and form of collage. It studies not only the historical precedents for collage and their physical attributes, but the psychology and process that plays a part in the making of them. The class was broken into three parts, changing scales and methods each time, to introduce and study the rigor by which decisions were made in relation to the collage. The class was less about the making of art than the study of the processes by which art is made.

Subjects

collage | collage | modern art | modern art | painting | painting | art theory | art theory | deconstructivism | deconstructivism | semantics | semantics | syntactics | syntactics | art history | art history | id | id | ego | ego | superego | superego | psychology of art | psychology of art | meaning and representation | meaning and representation

License

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24.729 Topics in Philosophy of Language: Modeling Representation (MIT) 24.729 Topics in Philosophy of Language: Modeling Representation (MIT)

Description

The seminar will be devoted to understanding what we're up to when we ascribe contents to a person's assertions and mental attitudes. We seek to make clear the rules of the game for the philosophy of language. We'll survey classic discussions of the issue by Field, Lewis and Stalnaker. But much of the emphasis of the class will be on getting clear about the limitations of our theoretical tools. I'd like to focus on places where our theorizing runs into trouble, or breaks down altogether. The seminar will be devoted to understanding what we're up to when we ascribe contents to a person's assertions and mental attitudes. We seek to make clear the rules of the game for the philosophy of language. We'll survey classic discussions of the issue by Field, Lewis and Stalnaker. But much of the emphasis of the class will be on getting clear about the limitations of our theoretical tools. I'd like to focus on places where our theorizing runs into trouble, or breaks down altogether.

Subjects

radical interpretation | radical interpretation | mathematical truth | mathematical truth | self-location | self-location | degrees of belief | degrees of belief | incoherent belief | incoherent belief | language of thought | language of thought | representation system | representation system | modeling representation | modeling representation | intentionality | intentionality | philosophy of language | philosophy of language | Putnam's paradox | Putnam's paradox | semantics | semantics | logical omniscience | logical omniscience | epistemology | epistemology | knowledge argument | knowledge argument

License

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24.910 Topics in Linguistic Theory: Propositional Attitudes (MIT) 24.910 Topics in Linguistic Theory: Propositional Attitudes (MIT)

Description

This course explores topics related to the representation and expression of propositional attitudes (e.g. belief, knowledge, and desires) and speech acts (e.g. saying and asking) in natural language. The main focus will be on semantics of predicates such as believe, know, want, say, ask, etc. Other topics will include the syntax of main and embedded clauses and formal representation of the pragmatics of conversation. The course provides practice in written and oral communication. This course explores topics related to the representation and expression of propositional attitudes (e.g. belief, knowledge, and desires) and speech acts (e.g. saying and asking) in natural language. The main focus will be on semantics of predicates such as believe, know, want, say, ask, etc. Other topics will include the syntax of main and embedded clauses and formal representation of the pragmatics of conversation. The course provides practice in written and oral communication.

Subjects

linguistic theory | linguistic theory | linguistics | linguistics | propositional attitudes | propositional attitudes | semantics | semantics | presupposition | presupposition | sequence of tense | sequence of tense | self-locating attitudes | self-locating attitudes | logophors | logophors | CP structure | CP structure | embedded clauses | embedded clauses | control | control | raising | raising | pramatics | pramatics | evidentials | evidentials | expressive meaning | expressive meaning | conversation | conversation | common ground | common ground | assertion | assertion | embedding verbs | embedding verbs

License

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24.954 Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory (MIT) 24.954 Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory (MIT)

Description

The course introduces formal theories of context-dependency, presupposition, implicature, context-change, focus and topic. Special emphasis is on the division of labor between semantics and pragmatics. It also covers applications to the analysis of quantification, definiteness, presupposition projection, conditionals and modality, anaphora, questions and answers. The course introduces formal theories of context-dependency, presupposition, implicature, context-change, focus and topic. Special emphasis is on the division of labor between semantics and pragmatics. It also covers applications to the analysis of quantification, definiteness, presupposition projection, conditionals and modality, anaphora, questions and answers.

Subjects

context-dependency | context-dependency | presupposition | presupposition | implicature | implicature | context-change | context-change | focus and topic | focus and topic | division of labor | division of labor | semantics | semantics | pragmatics | pragmatics | quantification | quantification | definiteness | definiteness | presupposition projection | presupposition projection | conditionals | conditionals | modality | modality | anaphora | anaphora

License

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24.973 Advanced Semantics (MIT)

Description

This course is the second of the three parts of our graduate introduction to semantics. The others are 24.970 Introduction to Semantics and 24.954 Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory. Like the other courses, this one is not meant as an overview of the field and its current developments. Our aim is to help you to develop the ability for semantic analysis, and we think that exploring a few topics in detail together with hands-on practical work is more effective than offering a bird's-eye view of everything. Once you have gained some experience in doing semantic analysis, reading around in the many recent handbooks and in current issues of major journals and attending our seminars and colloquia will give you all you need to prosper. Because we want to focus, we need to make difficult choices as

Subjects

semantics | logic | meaning | syntactic systems | generative grammar | displacement | intensional semantics | Hintikka's idea | accessibility relations | modality | quantificational theory of modality | material implication analysis | strict implication analysis | tense | conditionals | progressive | perfect | de re | de dicto | raised subjects | scope paradox | overt world variables | restrictors | syntax movement | wh-movement | DP | VP

License

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24.960 Syntactic Models (MIT) 24.960 Syntactic Models (MIT)

Description

This course presents a comparison of different proposed architectures for the syntax module of grammar. The subject traces several themes across a wide variety of approaches, with emphasis on testable differences among models. Models discussed include ancient and medieval proposals, structuralism, early generative grammar, generative semantics, government-binding theory/minimalism, LFG, HPSG, TAG, functionalist perspectives and others. This course presents a comparison of different proposed architectures for the syntax module of grammar. The subject traces several themes across a wide variety of approaches, with emphasis on testable differences among models. Models discussed include ancient and medieval proposals, structuralism, early generative grammar, generative semantics, government-binding theory/minimalism, LFG, HPSG, TAG, functionalist perspectives and others.

Subjects

architectures | architectures | syntax module of grammar | syntax module of grammar | models | models | ancient and medieval proposals | ancient and medieval proposals | structuralism | structuralism | early generative grammar | early generative grammar | generative semantics | generative semantics | government-binding theory/minimalism | government-binding theory/minimalism | LFG | LFG | HPSG | HPSG | TAG | TAG | functionalist perspectives | functionalist perspectives

License

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6.821 Programming Languages (MIT)

Description

6.821 teaches the principles of functional, imperative, and logic programming languages. Topics covered include: meta-circular interpreters, semantics (operational and denotational), type systems (polymorphism, inference, and abstract types), object oriented programming, modules, and multiprocessing. The course involves substantial programming assignments and problem sets as well as a significant amount of reading. The course uses the Scheme+ programming language for all of its assignments.

Subjects

Scheme | Scheme+ | programming | programming language | functional programming language | imperative programming language | ogic programming languages | meta-circular interpreters | operational semantics | denotational semantics | type systems | polymorphism | inference | abstract types | object oriented programming | modules | multiprocessing

License

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24.910 Topics in Linguistics Theory (MIT)

Description

I realize that "Modes of Assertion" is a rather cryptic title for the course. What we will explore are ways of modulating the force of an assertion. This will engage us in formal semantics and pragmatics, the theory of speech acts and performative utterances, and quite a bit of empirical work on a not-too-well understood complex of data. "It is obvious that he made a big mistake." If you're like me you didn't feel much of a difference. But now see what happens when you embed the two sentences: "We have to fire him, because he obviously made a big mistake." "We have to fire him, because it is obvious that he made a big mistake." One of the two examples is unremarkable, the other suggests that the reason he needs to be fired is not that he made a big

Subjects

linguistic theory | semantics | typology | preformatics | modality | evidentiality | embedded assertions | modes of assertion | modulation | force | formal semantics | pragmatics | speech acts | performative utterances | language constructions | English | German | Quechua | Tibetan | evidentiality marking | epistemic modality | performatives | evidentials | direct evidentiality | indirect evidentiality | conditionals | Faller?s ideas | best possible grounds

License

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24.979 Topics in Semantics (MIT) 24.979 Topics in Semantics (MIT)

Description

This seminar will investigate the expression of gradability, comparison and degree in natural language. The course will address the following major issues, though we may also include other topics according to the interests and direction of the class: The underlying semantic representation of expressions of degree and the linguistic significance of scalar representations The logical form of comparative constructions, and the implications of comparatives for other aspects of the grammar The semantics of degree and the role of scalar representations in grammatical categories other than gradable adjectives This seminar will investigate the expression of gradability, comparison and degree in natural language. The course will address the following major issues, though we may also include other topics according to the interests and direction of the class: The underlying semantic representation of expressions of degree and the linguistic significance of scalar representations The logical form of comparative constructions, and the implications of comparatives for other aspects of the grammar The semantics of degree and the role of scalar representations in grammatical categories other than gradable adjectives

Subjects

semantics of grading and degree | semantics of grading and degree | Vague predicates | Vague predicates | Degrees relations | Degrees relations | Scale structure | Scale structure | degree modification | degree modification | Relative gradable adjectives | Relative gradable adjectives | absolute gradable adjectives | absolute gradable adjectives | standard of comparison | standard of comparison | Scope ambiguities | Scope ambiguities | superlatives | superlatives | polar opposition | polar opposition | negative polarity | negative polarity | Comparative quantifiers | Comparative quantifiers | Partitives | Partitives | Telicity | Telicity

License

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24.910 Topics in Linguistics Theory (MIT)

Description

I realize that "Modes of Assertion" is a rather cryptic title for the course. What we will explore are ways of modulating the force of an assertion. This will engage us in formal semantics and pragmatics, the theory of speech acts and performative utterances, and quite a bit of empirical work on a not-too-well understood complex of data. "It is obvious that he made a big mistake." If you're like me you didn't feel much of a difference. But now see what happens when you embed the two sentences: "We have to fire him, because he obviously made a big mistake." "We have to fire him, because it is obvious that he made a big mistake." One of the two examples is unremarkable, the other suggests that the reason he needs to be fired is not that he made a big

Subjects

linguistic theory | semantics | typology | preformatics | modality | evidentiality | embedded assertions | modes of assertion | modulation | force | formal semantics | pragmatics | speech acts | performative utterances | language constructions | English | German | Quechua | Tibetan | evidentiality marking | epistemic modality | performatives | evidentials | direct evidentiality | indirect evidentiality | conditionals | Faller?s ideas | best possible grounds

License

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24.973 Advanced Semantics (MIT) 24.973 Advanced Semantics (MIT)

Description

This course is the second of the three parts of our graduate introduction to semantics. The others are 24.970 "Introduction to Semantics" and 24.954 "Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory". Like the other courses, this one is not meant as an overview of the field and its current developments. Our aim is to help you develop the ability for semantic analysis, and we think that exploring a few topics in detail together with hands-on practical work is more effective than offering a bird's-eye view of everything. Once you have gained some experience in doing semantic analysis, reading around in the many recent handbooks and in current issues of major journals and attending our seminars and colloquia will give you all you need to prosper. Because we want to focus, we need to make This course is the second of the three parts of our graduate introduction to semantics. The others are 24.970 "Introduction to Semantics" and 24.954 "Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory". Like the other courses, this one is not meant as an overview of the field and its current developments. Our aim is to help you develop the ability for semantic analysis, and we think that exploring a few topics in detail together with hands-on practical work is more effective than offering a bird's-eye view of everything. Once you have gained some experience in doing semantic analysis, reading around in the many recent handbooks and in current issues of major journals and attending our seminars and colloquia will give you all you need to prosper. Because we want to focus, we need to make

Subjects

semantics | semantics | logic | logic | meaning | meaning | syntactic systems | syntactic systems | generative grammar | generative grammar

License

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24.921 Special Topics in Linguistics: Genericity (MIT)

Description

This course will investigate the semantics of generic sentences, i.e., sentences that are used to talk about habits, tendencies, dispositions, or kinds. For instance: Dogs are good pets. The giant panda is an endangered species. A soccer player makes lots of money. Mary smokes after dinner. This machine crushes oranges. This is a half-semester course.

Subjects

semantics of generic sentences | modality | adverbial quantifiers | semantics of aspect

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.900 Introduction to Linguistics (MIT) 24.900 Introduction to Linguistics (MIT)

Description

This core-curriculum linguistics class will provide some answers to basic questions about the nature of human language. Topics include the intricate system that governs language, how it is acquired, the similarities and differences among languages, and how spoken (and signed) language relates to written language, among others. This core-curriculum linguistics class will provide some answers to basic questions about the nature of human language. Topics include the intricate system that governs language, how it is acquired, the similarities and differences among languages, and how spoken (and signed) language relates to written language, among others.

Subjects

language | language | syntax | syntax | language acquisition | language acquisition | speech | speech | writing | writing | morphology | morphology | phonetics | phonetics | linguistics | linguistics | linguistic fieldwork | linguistic fieldwork | phonology | phonology | Animal Communication | Animal Communication | semantics | semantics | Historical linguistics | Historical linguistics

License

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6.844 Computability Theory of and with Scheme (MIT) 6.844 Computability Theory of and with Scheme (MIT)

Description

6.844 is a graduate introduction to programming theory, logic of programming, and computability, with the programming language Scheme used to crystallize computability constructions and as an object of study itself. Topics covered include: programming and computability theory based on a term-rewriting, "substitution" model of computation by Scheme programs with side-effects; computation as algebraic manipulation: Scheme evaluation as algebraic manipulation and term rewriting theory; paradoxes from self-application and introduction to formal programming semantics; undecidability of the Halting Problem for Scheme; properties of recursively enumerable sets, leading to Incompleteness Theorems for Scheme equivalences; logic for program specification and verification; and Hilbert's Tenth Prob 6.844 is a graduate introduction to programming theory, logic of programming, and computability, with the programming language Scheme used to crystallize computability constructions and as an object of study itself. Topics covered include: programming and computability theory based on a term-rewriting, "substitution" model of computation by Scheme programs with side-effects; computation as algebraic manipulation: Scheme evaluation as algebraic manipulation and term rewriting theory; paradoxes from self-application and introduction to formal programming semantics; undecidability of the Halting Problem for Scheme; properties of recursively enumerable sets, leading to Incompleteness Theorems for Scheme equivalences; logic for program specification and verification; and Hilbert's Tenth Prob

Subjects

Scheme | Scheme | programming theory | programming theory | logic of programming | logic of programming | computability | computability | programming language | programming language | Scheme evaluation | Scheme evaluation | algebraic manipulation | algebraic manipulation | term rewriting theory | term rewriting theory | programming semantics | programming semantics | Halting Problem for Scheme | Halting Problem for Scheme | Incompleteness Theorems | Incompleteness Theorems | Hilbert's Tenth Problem | Hilbert's Tenth Problem

License

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MAS.962 Common Sense Reasoning for Interactive Applications (MIT) MAS.962 Common Sense Reasoning for Interactive Applications (MIT)

Description

This course will explore the state of the art in common sense knowledge, and class projects will design and build interfaces that can exploit this knowledge to make more usable and helpful interfaces. This year's theme will be about how common sense knowledge differs in different languages and cultures, and how machine understanding of this knowledge can help increase communication between people, and between people and machines. This course will explore the state of the art in common sense knowledge, and class projects will design and build interfaces that can exploit this knowledge to make more usable and helpful interfaces. This year's theme will be about how common sense knowledge differs in different languages and cultures, and how machine understanding of this knowledge can help increase communication between people, and between people and machines.

Subjects

common sense reasoning | common sense reasoning | interactive applications | interactive applications | language | language | culture | culture | inference | inference | user goals | user goals | education | education | knowledge collection | knowledge collection | knowledge quality | knowledge quality | semantics | semantics | artificial intelligence | artificial intelligence | interface design | interface design | partial knowledge | partial knowledge | human-computer interaction | human-computer interaction | machine understanding | machine understanding | common sense knowledge | common sense knowledge

License

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