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7.342 To Divide or Not To Divide: Control of Cell Cycle and Growth by Extracellular Cues (MIT) 7.342 To Divide or Not To Divide: Control of Cell Cycle and Growth by Extracellular Cues (MIT)

Description

Cells, regardless of whether they are in an organ in the human body or a component of a bacterial colony, can sense the chemical composition of the environment, the presence of neighboring cells, and even the types of their neighboring cells. Depending on the identity of a cell and the information it receives from its environment, it can grow (increase in size), proliferate (make more cells), become quiescent (stop growing and dividing), differentiate (make different types of cells), or die. How cells achieve the astonishing feat of appropriately sensing and responding to their environment has been a major question in biology. In this course we will read and critically discuss the primary scientific literature with the goal of highlighting the basic principles of cell growth, adaptation, a Cells, regardless of whether they are in an organ in the human body or a component of a bacterial colony, can sense the chemical composition of the environment, the presence of neighboring cells, and even the types of their neighboring cells. Depending on the identity of a cell and the information it receives from its environment, it can grow (increase in size), proliferate (make more cells), become quiescent (stop growing and dividing), differentiate (make different types of cells), or die. How cells achieve the astonishing feat of appropriately sensing and responding to their environment has been a major question in biology. In this course we will read and critically discuss the primary scientific literature with the goal of highlighting the basic principles of cell growth, adaptation, a

Subjects

Cell growth | Cell growth | cell cycle | cell cycle | bacteria | bacteria | cell signaling | cell signaling | yeast | yeast | Genetic regulation | Genetic regulation | signaling pathways | signaling pathways | RAS | RAS | TOR (Target Of Rapamycin) | TOR (Target Of Rapamycin) | sporulation | sporulation | IME1 | IME1 | biofilms | biofilms

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7.343 The Radical Consequences of Respiration: Reactive Oxygen Species in Aging and Disease (MIT) 7.343 The Radical Consequences of Respiration: Reactive Oxygen Species in Aging and Disease (MIT)

Description

This course will start with a survey of basic oxygen radical biochemistry followed by a discussion of the mechanisms of action of cellular as well as dietary antioxidants. After considering the normal physiological roles of oxidants, we will examine the effects of elevated ROS and a failure of cellular redox capacity on the rate of organismal and cellular aging as well as on the onset and progression of several major diseases that are often age-related. Topics will include ROS-induced effects on stem cell regeneration, insulin resistance, heart disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. The role of antioxidants in potential therapeutic strategies for modulating ROS levels will also be discussed. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology D This course will start with a survey of basic oxygen radical biochemistry followed by a discussion of the mechanisms of action of cellular as well as dietary antioxidants. After considering the normal physiological roles of oxidants, we will examine the effects of elevated ROS and a failure of cellular redox capacity on the rate of organismal and cellular aging as well as on the onset and progression of several major diseases that are often age-related. Topics will include ROS-induced effects on stem cell regeneration, insulin resistance, heart disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. The role of antioxidants in potential therapeutic strategies for modulating ROS levels will also be discussed. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology D

Subjects

reactive oxygen species | reactive oxygen species | oxygen | oxygen | ROS | ROS | energy | energy | mitochondria | mitochondria | cell signaling | cell signaling | anti-pathogen | anti-pathogen | oxidative damage | oxidative damage | oncogene | oncogene | antioxidant | antioxidant | insulin resistance | insulin resistance | diabetes | diabetes | stem cell | stem cell | neurodegenerative | neurodegenerative | ischemic | ischemic | ATP | ATP | pathways | pathways | NADPH | NADPH | nox | nox | psd | psd | programmed cell death | programmed cell death | apoptosis | apoptosis | hsc | hsc | hematopoietic | hematopoietic

License

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7.06 Cell Biology (MIT) 7.06 Cell Biology (MIT)

Description

This course deals with the biology of cells of higher organisms: The structure, function, and biosynthesis of cellular membranes and organelles; cell growth and oncogenic transformation; transport, receptors, and cell signaling; the cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix, and cell movements; chromatin structure and RNA synthesis. This course deals with the biology of cells of higher organisms: The structure, function, and biosynthesis of cellular membranes and organelles; cell growth and oncogenic transformation; transport, receptors, and cell signaling; the cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix, and cell movements; chromatin structure and RNA synthesis.

Subjects

Biology | Biology | cells | cells | organisms | organisms | biosynthesis | biosynthesis | cellular membranes | cellular membranes | organelles | organelles | cell growth | cell growth | oncogenic transformation | oncogenic transformation | transport | transport | receptors | receptors | cell signaling | cell signaling | cytoskeleton | cytoskeleton | extracellular matrix | extracellular matrix | matrix | matrix | cell movements | cell movements | chromatin | chromatin | RNA | RNA | RNA synthesis | RNA synthesis

License

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14.661 Labor Economics I (MIT) 14.661 Labor Economics I (MIT)

Description

Neoclassical analysis of the labor market and its institutions. A systematic development of the theory of labor supply, labor demand, and human capital. Topics discussed also include wage and employment determination, turnover, search, immigration, unemployment, equalizing differences, and institutions in the labor market. There is particular emphasis on the interaction of theoretical and empirical modeling and the development of independent research interests. Neoclassical analysis of the labor market and its institutions. A systematic development of the theory of labor supply, labor demand, and human capital. Topics discussed also include wage and employment determination, turnover, search, immigration, unemployment, equalizing differences, and institutions in the labor market. There is particular emphasis on the interaction of theoretical and empirical modeling and the development of independent research interests.

Subjects

labor economics | public policy | schooling | learning | matching | experience | wages | minimum wage | college | investment | training | firms | corporations | labor | unions | panel data | neoclassical model | turnover models | turnover | economics | labor economics | public policy | schooling | learning | matching | experience | wages | minimum wage | college | investment | training | firms | corporations | labor | unions | panel data | neoclassical model | turnover models | turnover | economics | labor | labor | market | market | statistics | statistics | theory | theory | neoclassical | neoclassical | supply | supply | model | model | life-cycle | life-cycle | demand | demand | wages | wages | immigration | immigration | human capital | human capital | econometrics | econometrics | liquidity | liquidity | constraints | constraints | mobility | mobility | incentives | incentives | organization | organization | moral hazard | moral hazard | insurance | insurance | investments | investments | efficiency | efficiency | unemployment | unemployment | search | search | jobs | jobs | training | training | capital | capital | firm | firm | technology | technology | skills | skills | risk | risk | signaling | signaling | discrimination | discrimination | self-selection | self-selection | learning | learning | natives | natives

License

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14.123 Microeconomic Theory III (MIT) 14.123 Microeconomic Theory III (MIT)

Description

This half-semester course discusses decision theory and topics in game theory. We present models of individual decision-making under certainty and uncertainty. Topics include preference orderings, expected utility, risk, stochastic dominance, supermodularity, monotone comparative statics, background risk, game theory, rationalizability, iterated strict dominance multi-stage games, sequential equilibrium, trembling-hand perfection, stability, signaling games, theory of auctions, global games, repeated games, and correlation. This half-semester course discusses decision theory and topics in game theory. We present models of individual decision-making under certainty and uncertainty. Topics include preference orderings, expected utility, risk, stochastic dominance, supermodularity, monotone comparative statics, background risk, game theory, rationalizability, iterated strict dominance multi-stage games, sequential equilibrium, trembling-hand perfection, stability, signaling games, theory of auctions, global games, repeated games, and correlation.

Subjects

microeconomics | microeconomics | microeconomic theory | microeconomic theory | preference | preference | utility representation | utility representation | expected utility | expected utility | positive interpretation | positive interpretation | normative interpretation | normative interpretation | risk | risk | stochastic dominance | stochastic dominance | insurance | insurance | finance | finance | supermodularity | supermodularity | comparative statics | comparative statics | decision theory | decision theory | game theory | game theory | rationalizability | rationalizability | iterated strict dominance | iterated strict dominance | iterated conditional dominance | iterated conditional dominance | bargaining | bargaining | equilibrium | equilibrium | sequential equilibrium | sequential equilibrium | trembling-hand perfection | trembling-hand perfection | signaling games | signaling games | auctions | auctions | global games | global games | repeated games | repeated games | correlation | correlation

License

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14.661 Labor Economics I (MIT) 14.661 Labor Economics I (MIT)

Description

The aim of this course is to acquaint students with traditional topics in labor economics and to encourage the development of independent research interests. We will cover a systematic development of the theory of labor supply, labor demand, and human capital. Topics include wage and employment determination, turnover, search, immigration, unemployment, equalizing differences, and institutions in the labor market. There will be particular emphasis on the interaction between theoretical and empirical modeling. The aim of this course is to acquaint students with traditional topics in labor economics and to encourage the development of independent research interests. We will cover a systematic development of the theory of labor supply, labor demand, and human capital. Topics include wage and employment determination, turnover, search, immigration, unemployment, equalizing differences, and institutions in the labor market. There will be particular emphasis on the interaction between theoretical and empirical modeling.

Subjects

labor economics | labor economics | public policy | public policy | immigration | immigration | human capital | human capital | econometrics | econometrics | minimum wage | minimum wage | public education | public education | job training | job training | labor | labor | unions | unions | neoclassical model | neoclassical model | life-cycle | life-cycle | insurance | insurance | unemployment | unemployment | signaling | signaling

License

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9.15 Biochemistry and Pharmacology of Synaptic Transmission (MIT) 9.15 Biochemistry and Pharmacology of Synaptic Transmission (MIT)

Description

This course considers the process of neurotransmission, especially chemicals used in the brain and elsewhere to carry signals from nerve terminals to the structures they innervate. The class focuses on monoamine transmitters (acetylcholine; serotonin; dopamine and norepinephrine); it also examines amino acid and peptide transmitters and neuromodulators like adenosine. Macromolecules that mediate neurotransmitter synthesis, release, inactivation, and receptor-mediated actions are discussed, as well as factors that regulate their activity and the second-messenger systems they control. This course considers the process of neurotransmission, especially chemicals used in the brain and elsewhere to carry signals from nerve terminals to the structures they innervate. The class focuses on monoamine transmitters (acetylcholine; serotonin; dopamine and norepinephrine); it also examines amino acid and peptide transmitters and neuromodulators like adenosine. Macromolecules that mediate neurotransmitter synthesis, release, inactivation, and receptor-mediated actions are discussed, as well as factors that regulate their activity and the second-messenger systems they control.

Subjects

neurotransmission | neurotransmission | nerve terminals | nerve terminals | monoamine transmitters | monoamine transmitters | acetylcholine | acetylcholine | serotonin | serotonin | dopamine | dopamine | norepinephrine | norepinephrine | amino acid and peptide transmitters | amino acid and peptide transmitters | neuromodulators | neuromodulators | adenosine | adenosine | neurotransmitter synthesis | neurotransmitter synthesis | release | release | inactivation | inactivation | receptor-mediated | receptor-mediated | second-messenger | second-messenger | neurotransmitter | neurotransmitter | antidepressant | antidepressant | brain lipid | brain lipid | blood brain barrier | blood brain barrier | parkinson's disease | parkinson's disease | seratonin | seratonin | depression | depression | glutamate | glutamate | aspartate | aspartate | NDMA | NDMA | drug | drug | drug discovery | drug discovery | pharmaceutical | pharmaceutical | signaling pathway | signaling pathway | receptor | receptor | spinal cord | spinal cord | marijuana | marijuana | adensosine | adensosine | histamine | histamine

License

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7.342 Cell-material Crosstalk: Engineering Cell-Instructive Biomaterials (MIT) 7.342 Cell-material Crosstalk: Engineering Cell-Instructive Biomaterials (MIT)

Description

Biomaterials are substances that have been designed to direct the course of any therapeutic or diagnostic procedure by controlling interactions with biological systems. A large toolbox of non-biological materials has been engineered to study cell behavior at the cell-material interface. In this course, we will examine how this interface can be leveraged to study cellular systems and generate novel therapeutics. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Advanced Undergraduate Seminars are postdoctoral scientists with a strong int Biomaterials are substances that have been designed to direct the course of any therapeutic or diagnostic procedure by controlling interactions with biological systems. A large toolbox of non-biological materials has been engineered to study cell behavior at the cell-material interface. In this course, we will examine how this interface can be leveraged to study cellular systems and generate novel therapeutics. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Advanced Undergraduate Seminars are postdoctoral scientists with a strong int

Subjects

Biomaterials | Biomaterials | cell-material interface | cell-material interface | biology | biology | engineering | engineering | cell behavior | cell behavior | substrate materials | substrate materials | biological processes | biological processes | nonbiological materials | nonbiological materials | Mechanobiology | Mechanobiology | Biomimetic signaling | Biomimetic signaling | Nanoparticles | Nanoparticles

License

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7.016 Introductory Biology (MIT) 7.016 Introductory Biology (MIT)

Description

7.016 Introductory Biology provides an introduction to fundamental principles of biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics for understanding the functions of living systems. Taught for the first time in Fall 2013, this course covers examples of the use of chemical biology and twenty-first-century molecular genetics in understanding human health and therapeutic intervention. The MIT Biology Department Introductory Biology courses, 7.012, 7.013, 7.014, 7.015, and 7.016 all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these mol 7.016 Introductory Biology provides an introduction to fundamental principles of biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics for understanding the functions of living systems. Taught for the first time in Fall 2013, this course covers examples of the use of chemical biology and twenty-first-century molecular genetics in understanding human health and therapeutic intervention. The MIT Biology Department Introductory Biology courses, 7.012, 7.013, 7.014, 7.015, and 7.016 all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these mol

Subjects

biochemistry | biochemistry | molecular biology | molecular biology | genetics | genetics | human genetics | human genetics | pedigrees | pedigrees | biochemical genetics | biochemical genetics | chemical biology | chemical biology | molecular genetics | molecular genetics | recombinant DNA technology | recombinant DNA technology | cell biology | cell biology | cancer | cancer | viruses | viruses | HIV | HIV | bacteria | bacteria | antibiotics | antibiotics | human health | human health | therapeutic intervention | therapeutic intervention | cell signaling | cell signaling | evolution | evolution | reproduction | reproduction | infectious diseases | infectious diseases | therapeutics | therapeutics

License

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7.013 Introductory Biology (MIT) 7.013 Introductory Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material. 7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of human biology. Topics include genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, disease (infectious agents, inherited diseases and cancer), The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material. 7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of human biology. Topics include genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, disease (infectious agents, inherited diseases and cancer),

Subjects

biology | biology | biochemistry | biochemistry | genetics | genetics | molecular biology | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell cycle | cell signaling | cell signaling | cloning | cloning | stem cells | stem cells | cancer | cancer | immunology | immunology | virology | virology | genomics | genomics | molecular medicine | molecular medicine | DNA | DNA | RNA | RNA | proteins | proteins | replication | replication | transcription | transcription | mRNA | mRNA | translation | translation | ribosome | ribosome | nervous system | nervous system | amino acids | amino acids | polypeptide chain | polypeptide chain | cell biology | cell biology | neurobiology | neurobiology | gene regulation | gene regulation | protein structure | protein structure | protein synthesis | protein synthesis | gene structure | gene structure | PCR | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum | endoplasmic reticulum | human biology | human biology | inherited diseases | inherited diseases | developmental biology | developmental biology | evolution | evolution | human genetics | human genetics | human diseases | human diseases | infectious agents | infectious agents | infectious diseases | infectious diseases

License

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14.661 Labor Economics I (MIT) 14.661 Labor Economics I (MIT)

Description

The aim of this course is to acquaint students with traditional topics in labor economics and to encourage the development of independent research interests. This course is taught in two parts: Fall term and then in the subsequent Fall term. The aim of this course is to acquaint students with traditional topics in labor economics and to encourage the development of independent research interests. This course is taught in two parts: Fall term and then in the subsequent Fall term.

Subjects

Economics | Economics | labor | labor | market | market | statistics | statistics | theory | theory | neoclassical | neoclassical | supply | supply | model | model | life-cycle | life-cycle | demand | demand | wages | wages | immigration | immigration | human capital | human capital | econometrics | econometrics | liquidity | liquidity | constraints | constraints | mobility | mobility | incentives | incentives | organization | organization | moral hazard | moral hazard | insurance | insurance | investments | investments | efficiency | efficiency | unemployment | unemployment | search | search | jobs | jobs | training | training | capital | capital | firm | firm | technology | technology | skills | skills | risk | risk | signaling | signaling | discrimination | discrimination | self-selection | self-selection | learning | learning | natives | natives

License

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14.124 Microeconomic Theory IV (MIT) 14.124 Microeconomic Theory IV (MIT)

Description

The topic of the class is information economics. The purpose is to give an introduction to some of the main subjects in this field: risk sharing, moral hazard, adverse selection (signaling, screening), mechanism design, decision making under uncertainty. These subjects (and others) will be treated in more depth in the advanced theory courses on Contract Theory. The topic of the class is information economics. The purpose is to give an introduction to some of the main subjects in this field: risk sharing, moral hazard, adverse selection (signaling, screening), mechanism design, decision making under uncertainty. These subjects (and others) will be treated in more depth in the advanced theory courses on Contract Theory.

Subjects

information | information | economics | economics | microeconomic theory | microeconomic theory | money | money | risk sharing | risk sharing | moral hazard | moral hazard | adverse selection | adverse selection | signaling | signaling | screening | screening | mechanism design | mechanism design | decision making | decision making | uncertainty | uncertainty | Decision-making | Decision-making | information economics | information economics | incentive theory | incentive theory | contract theory | contract theory | choice | choice | choices | choices | microeconomic analysis | microeconomic analysis | risk | risk

License

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7.013 Introductory Biology (MIT) 7.013 Introductory Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of human biology. Topics include genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, disease (infectious agents, inherited diseases and cancer), The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of human biology. Topics include genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, disease (infectious agents, inherited diseases and cancer),

Subjects

biology | biology | biochemistry | biochemistry | genetics | genetics | molecular biology | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell cycle | cell signaling | cell signaling | cloning | cloning | stem cells | stem cells | cancer | cancer | immunology | immunology | virology | virology | genomics | genomics | molecular medicine | molecular medicine | DNA | DNA | RNA | RNA | proteins | proteins | replication | replication | transcription | transcription | mRNA | mRNA | translation | translation | ribosome | ribosome | nervous system | nervous system | amino acids | amino acids | polypeptide chain | polypeptide chain | cell biology | cell biology | neurobiology | neurobiology | gene regulation | gene regulation | protein structure | protein structure | protein synthesis | protein synthesis | gene structure | gene structure | PCR | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum | endoplasmic reticulum | human biology | human biology | inherited diseases | inherited diseases | developmental biology | developmental biology | evolution | evolution | human genetics | human genetics | human diseases | human diseases | infectious agents | infectious agents | infectious diseases | infectious diseases

License

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7.014 Introductory Biology (MIT) 7.014 Introductory Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.014 focuses on the application of these fundamental principles, toward an understanding of microorganisms as geochemical agents responsible for the evolution and renewal of the biosphere and of their role in human health The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.014 focuses on the application of these fundamental principles, toward an understanding of microorganisms as geochemical agents responsible for the evolution and renewal of the biosphere and of their role in human health

Subjects

microorganisms | microorganisms | geochemistry | geochemistry | geochemical agents | geochemical agents | biosphere | biosphere | bacterial genetics | bacterial genetics | carbon metabolism | carbon metabolism | energy metabolism | energy metabolism | productivity | productivity | biogeochemical cycles | biogeochemical cycles | molecular evolution | molecular evolution | population genetics | population genetics | evolution | evolution | population growth | population growth | biology | biology | biochemistry | biochemistry | genetics | genetics | molecular biology | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell cycle | cell signaling | cell signaling | cloning | cloning | stem cells | stem cells | cancer | cancer | immunology | immunology | virology | virology | genomics | genomics | molecular medicine | molecular medicine | DNA | DNA | RNA | RNA | proteins | proteins | replication | replication | transcription | transcription | mRNA | mRNA | translation | translation | ribosome | ribosome | nervous system | nervous system | amino acids | amino acids | polypeptide chain | polypeptide chain | cell biology | cell biology | neurobiology | neurobiology | gene regulation | gene regulation | protein structure | protein structure | protein synthesis | protein synthesis | gene structure | gene structure | PCR | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum | endoplasmic reticulum | ecology | ecology | communities | communities

License

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7.342 To Divide or Not To Divide: Control of Cell Cycle and Growth by Extracellular Cues (MIT)

Description

Cells, regardless of whether they are in an organ in the human body or a component of a bacterial colony, can sense the chemical composition of the environment, the presence of neighboring cells, and even the types of their neighboring cells. Depending on the identity of a cell and the information it receives from its environment, it can grow (increase in size), proliferate (make more cells), become quiescent (stop growing and dividing), differentiate (make different types of cells), or die. How cells achieve the astonishing feat of appropriately sensing and responding to their environment has been a major question in biology. In this course we will read and critically discuss the primary scientific literature with the goal of highlighting the basic principles of cell growth, adaptation, a

Subjects

Cell growth | cell cycle | bacteria | cell signaling | yeast | Genetic regulation | signaling pathways | RAS | TOR (Target Of Rapamycin) | sporulation | IME1 | biofilms

License

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14.124 Microeconomic Theory IV (MIT) 14.124 Microeconomic Theory IV (MIT)

Description

The topic of the class is information economics. The purpose is to give an introduction to some of the main subjects in this field: risk sharing, moral hazard, adverse selection (signaling, screening), mechanism design, decision making under uncertainty. These subjects (and others) will be treated in more depth in the advanced theory courses on Contract Theory. The topic of the class is information economics. The purpose is to give an introduction to some of the main subjects in this field: risk sharing, moral hazard, adverse selection (signaling, screening), mechanism design, decision making under uncertainty. These subjects (and others) will be treated in more depth in the advanced theory courses on Contract Theory.

Subjects

information | information | economics | economics | microeconomic theory | microeconomic theory | money | money | risk sharing | risk sharing | moral hazard | moral hazard | adverse selection | adverse selection | signaling | signaling | screening | screening | mechanism design | mechanism design | decision making | decision making | uncertainty | uncertainty | Decision-making | Decision-making | information economics | information economics | incentive theory | incentive theory | contract theory | contract theory | choice | choice | choices | choices | microeconomic analysis | microeconomic analysis | risk | risk

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7.012 Introduction to Biology (MIT) 7.012 Introduction to Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.012 focuses on the exploration of current research in cell biology, immunology, neurobiology, genomics, and molecular medicine.AcknowledgmentsThe study materials, problem sets, and quiz materials used during Fall 2004 for The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.012 focuses on the exploration of current research in cell biology, immunology, neurobiology, genomics, and molecular medicine.AcknowledgmentsThe study materials, problem sets, and quiz materials used during Fall 2004 for

Subjects

biology | biology | biochemistry | biochemistry | genetics | genetics | molecular biology | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell cycle | cell signaling | cell signaling | cloning | cloning | stem cells | stem cells | cancer | cancer | immunology | immunology | virology | virology | genomics | genomics | molecular medicine | molecular medicine | DNA | DNA | RNA | RNA | proteins | proteins | replication | replication | transcription | transcription | mRNA | mRNA | translation | translation | ribosome | ribosome | nervous system | nervous system | amino acids | amino acids | polypeptide chain | polypeptide chain | cell biology | cell biology | neurobiology | neurobiology | gene regulation | gene regulation | protein structure | protein structure | protein synthesis | protein synthesis | gene structure | gene structure | PCR | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum | endoplasmic reticulum

License

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9.15 Biochemistry and Pharmacology of Synaptic Transmission (MIT) 9.15 Biochemistry and Pharmacology of Synaptic Transmission (MIT)

Description

This course considers the process of neurotransmission, especially chemicals used in the brain and elsewhere to carry signals from nerve terminals to the structures they innervate. We focus on monoamine transmitters (acetylcholine; serotonin; dopamine and norepinephrine); we also examine amino acid and peptide transmitters and neuromodulators like adenosine. Macromolecules that mediate neurotransmitter synthesis, release, inactivation and receptor-mediated actions are discussed, as well as factors that regulate their activity and the second-messenger systems and ion fluxes that they control. The involvement of particular neurotransmitters in human diseases is considered. This course considers the process of neurotransmission, especially chemicals used in the brain and elsewhere to carry signals from nerve terminals to the structures they innervate. We focus on monoamine transmitters (acetylcholine; serotonin; dopamine and norepinephrine); we also examine amino acid and peptide transmitters and neuromodulators like adenosine. Macromolecules that mediate neurotransmitter synthesis, release, inactivation and receptor-mediated actions are discussed, as well as factors that regulate their activity and the second-messenger systems and ion fluxes that they control. The involvement of particular neurotransmitters in human diseases is considered.

Subjects

Neurotransmitter | Neurotransmitter | antidepressant | antidepressant | brain lipid | brain lipid | blood brain barrier | blood brain barrier | dopamine | dopamine | parkinson's disease | parkinson's disease | serotonin | serotonin | depression | depression | glutamate | glutamate | aspartate | aspartate | NDMA | NDMA | drug | drug | drug discovery | drug discovery | pharmaceutical | pharmaceutical | signaling pathway | signaling pathway | receptor | receptor | spinal cord | spinal cord | marijuana | marijuana | adensosine | adensosine | histamine. | histamine.

License

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14.11 Insights from Game Theory into Social Behavior (MIT) 14.11 Insights from Game Theory into Social Behavior (MIT)

Description

We will apply insights from game theory to explain human social behavior, focusing on novel applications which have heretofore been the realm of psychologists and philosophers—for example, why people speak indirectly, in what sense beauty is socially constructed, and where our moral intuitions come from—and eschewing traditional economic applications such as industrial organization or auctions. We will employ standard games such as the prisoners dilemma, coordination, hawk-dove, and costly signaling, and use standard game theory tools such as Nash Equilibria, Subgame Perfection, and Perfect Bayesian Equilibria. These tools will be taught from scratch and no existing knowledge of game theory, economics, or mathematics is required. At the same time, students familiar with these We will apply insights from game theory to explain human social behavior, focusing on novel applications which have heretofore been the realm of psychologists and philosophers—for example, why people speak indirectly, in what sense beauty is socially constructed, and where our moral intuitions come from—and eschewing traditional economic applications such as industrial organization or auctions. We will employ standard games such as the prisoners dilemma, coordination, hawk-dove, and costly signaling, and use standard game theory tools such as Nash Equilibria, Subgame Perfection, and Perfect Bayesian Equilibria. These tools will be taught from scratch and no existing knowledge of game theory, economics, or mathematics is required. At the same time, students familiar with these

Subjects

game theory | game theory | social behavior | social behavior | prisoners' dilemma | prisoners' dilemma | hawk-dove | hawk-dove | costly signaling | costly signaling | Nash Equilibria | Nash Equilibria | Subgame Perfection | Subgame Perfection | Pefect Bayesian Equilibria | Pefect Bayesian Equilibria

License

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7.012 Introduction to Biology (MIT) 7.012 Introduction to Biology (MIT)

Description

All three courses: 7.012, 7.013 and 7.014 cover the same core material which includes: the fundamental principles of biochemistry as they apply to introductory biology, genetics, molecular biology, basic recombinant DNA technology, and gene regulation.In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material, described below. Note: All three versions require a familiarity with some basic chemistry. For details, see the Chemistry Self-evaluation.7.012 focuses on cell biology, immunology, neurobiology, and includes an exploration into current research in cancer, genomics, and molecular medicine. 7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of cells, human genetics and diseases, infectious agents, cancer, immunology, molecular All three courses: 7.012, 7.013 and 7.014 cover the same core material which includes: the fundamental principles of biochemistry as they apply to introductory biology, genetics, molecular biology, basic recombinant DNA technology, and gene regulation.In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material, described below. Note: All three versions require a familiarity with some basic chemistry. For details, see the Chemistry Self-evaluation.7.012 focuses on cell biology, immunology, neurobiology, and includes an exploration into current research in cancer, genomics, and molecular medicine. 7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of cells, human genetics and diseases, infectious agents, cancer, immunology, molecular

Subjects

amino acids | amino acids | biochemistry | biochemistry | cancer | cancer | cell biology | cell biology | cell cycle | cell cycle | cell signaling | cell signaling | cloning | cloning | DNA | DNA | endoplasmic reticulum | endoplasmic reticulum | gene regulation | gene regulation | gene structure | gene structure | genetics | genetics | genomics | genomics | immunology | immunology | molecular biology | molecular biology | molecular medicine | molecular medicine | mRNA | mRNA | nervous system | nervous system | neurobiology | neurobiology | PCR | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | polymerase chain reaction | polypeptide chain | polypeptide chain | protein localization | protein localization | protein structure | protein structure | protein synthesis | protein synthesis | proteins | proteins | recombinant DNA | recombinant DNA | replication | replication | ribosome | ribosome | RNA | RNA | stem cells | stem cells | transcription | transcription | translation | translation | virology | virology | biology | biology

License

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20.420J Biomolecular Kinetics and Cellular Dynamics (BE.420J) (MIT) 20.420J Biomolecular Kinetics and Cellular Dynamics (BE.420J) (MIT)

Description

This subject deals primarily with kinetic and equilibrium mathematical models of biomolecular interactions, as well as the application of these quantitative analyses to biological problems across a wide range of levels of organization, from individual molecular interactions to populations of cells. This subject deals primarily with kinetic and equilibrium mathematical models of biomolecular interactions, as well as the application of these quantitative analyses to biological problems across a wide range of levels of organization, from individual molecular interactions to populations of cells.

Subjects

receptor | receptor | ligand | ligand | signaling | signaling | enzyme | enzyme | binding | binding | hybridization | hybridization | cell | cell | dynamics | dynamics | metabolism | metabolism | regulation | regulation | kinetics | kinetics | 20.420 | 20.420 | 10.410J | 10.410J | 10.538 | 10.538 | BE.420J | BE.420J | BE.420 | BE.420

License

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20.440 Analysis of Biological Networks (BE.440) (MIT) 20.440 Analysis of Biological Networks (BE.440) (MIT)

Description

This class analyzes complex biological processes from the molecular, cellular, extracellular, and organ levels of hierarchy. Emphasis is placed on the basic biochemical and biophysical principles that govern these processes. Examples of processes to be studied include chemotaxis, the fixation of nitrogen into organic biological molecules, growth factor and hormone mediated signaling cascades, and signaling cascades leading to cell death in response to DNA damage. In each case, the availability of a resource, or the presence of a stimulus, results in some biochemical pathways being turned on while others are turned off. The course examines the dynamic aspects of these processes and details how biochemical mechanistic themes impinge on molecular/cellular/tissue/organ-level functions. Chemica This class analyzes complex biological processes from the molecular, cellular, extracellular, and organ levels of hierarchy. Emphasis is placed on the basic biochemical and biophysical principles that govern these processes. Examples of processes to be studied include chemotaxis, the fixation of nitrogen into organic biological molecules, growth factor and hormone mediated signaling cascades, and signaling cascades leading to cell death in response to DNA damage. In each case, the availability of a resource, or the presence of a stimulus, results in some biochemical pathways being turned on while others are turned off. The course examines the dynamic aspects of these processes and details how biochemical mechanistic themes impinge on molecular/cellular/tissue/organ-level functions. Chemica

Subjects

systems | systems | networks | networks | biochemistry | biochemistry | biology | biology | chemistry | chemistry | chemotaxis | chemotaxis | lactation | lactation | interferon | interferon | response | response | DNA | DNA | replication | replication | translation | translation | transcription | transcription | RNA | RNA | IFN | IFN | signals | signals | signaling | signaling | cellular | cellular | receptor | receptor

License

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BE.440 Analysis of Biological Networks (MIT) BE.440 Analysis of Biological Networks (MIT)

Description

This class analyzes complex biological processes from the molecular, cellular, extracellular, and organ levels of hierarchy. Emphasis is placed on the basic biochemical and biophysical principles that govern these processes. Examples of processes to be studied include chemotaxis, the fixation of nitrogen into organic biological molecules, growth factor and hormone mediated signaling cascades, and signaling cascades leading to cell death in response to DNA damage. In each case, the availability of a resource, or the presence of a stimulus, results in some biochemical pathways being turned on while others are turned off. The course examines the dynamic aspects of these processes and details how biochemical mechanistic themes impinge on molecular/cellular/tissue/organ-level functions. Chemica This class analyzes complex biological processes from the molecular, cellular, extracellular, and organ levels of hierarchy. Emphasis is placed on the basic biochemical and biophysical principles that govern these processes. Examples of processes to be studied include chemotaxis, the fixation of nitrogen into organic biological molecules, growth factor and hormone mediated signaling cascades, and signaling cascades leading to cell death in response to DNA damage. In each case, the availability of a resource, or the presence of a stimulus, results in some biochemical pathways being turned on while others are turned off. The course examines the dynamic aspects of these processes and details how biochemical mechanistic themes impinge on molecular/cellular/tissue/organ-level functions. Chemica

Subjects

systems | systems | networks | networks | biochemistry | biochemistry | biology | biology | chemistry | chemistry | chemotaxis | chemotaxis | lactation | lactation | interferon | interferon | response | response | DNA | DNA | replication | replication | translation | translation | transcription | transcription | RNA | RNA | IFN | IFN | signals | signals | signaling | signaling | cellular | cellular | receptor | receptor

License

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BE.420J Biomolecular Kinetics and Cellular Dynamics (MIT) BE.420J Biomolecular Kinetics and Cellular Dynamics (MIT)

Description

This subject deals primarily with kinetic and equilibrium mathematical models of biomolecular interactions, as well as the application of these quantitative analyses to biological problems across a wide range of levels of organization, from individual molecular interactions to populations of cells. This subject deals primarily with kinetic and equilibrium mathematical models of biomolecular interactions, as well as the application of these quantitative analyses to biological problems across a wide range of levels of organization, from individual molecular interactions to populations of cells.

Subjects

receptor | receptor | ligand | ligand | signaling | signaling | enzyme | enzyme | binding | binding | hybridization | hybridization | cell | cell | dynamics | dynamics | metabolism | metabolism | regulation | regulation | kinetics | kinetics | BE.420 | BE.420 | 10.538J | 10.538J | 10.538 | 10.538

License

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7.341 DNA Damage Checkpoints: The Emergency Brake on the Road to Cancer (MIT) 7.341 DNA Damage Checkpoints: The Emergency Brake on the Road to Cancer (MIT)

Description

The DNA contained in human cells is under constant attack by both exogenous and endogenous agents that can damage one of its three billion base pairs. To cope with this permanent exposure to DNA-damaging agents, such as the sun's radiation or by-products of our normal metabolism, powerful DNA damage checkpoints have evolved that allow organisms to survive this constant assault on their genomes. In this class we will analyze classical and recent papers from the primary research literature to gain a profound understanding of checkpoints that act as powerful emergency brakes to prevent cancer. We will consider basic principles of cell proliferation and molecular details of the DNA damage response. We will discuss the methods and model organisms typically used in this field as well as how an The DNA contained in human cells is under constant attack by both exogenous and endogenous agents that can damage one of its three billion base pairs. To cope with this permanent exposure to DNA-damaging agents, such as the sun's radiation or by-products of our normal metabolism, powerful DNA damage checkpoints have evolved that allow organisms to survive this constant assault on their genomes. In this class we will analyze classical and recent papers from the primary research literature to gain a profound understanding of checkpoints that act as powerful emergency brakes to prevent cancer. We will consider basic principles of cell proliferation and molecular details of the DNA damage response. We will discuss the methods and model organisms typically used in this field as well as how an

Subjects

DNA | DNA | damage checkpoints | damage checkpoints | cancer | cancer | cells | cells | human cells | human cells | exogenous | exogenous | endogenous | endogenous | checkpoints | checkpoints | gene | gene | signaling | signaling | cancer biology | cancer biology | cancer prevention | cancer prevention | primary sources | primary sources | discussion | discussion | DNA damage | DNA damage | molecular | molecular | enzyme | enzyme | cell cycle | cell cycle | extracellular cues | extracellular cues | growth factors | growth factors | Cdk regulation | Cdk regulation | cyclin-dependent kinase | cyclin-dependent kinase | p53 | p53 | tumor suppressor | tumor suppressor | apoptosis | apoptosis | MDC1 | MDC1 | H2AX | H2AX | Rad50 | Rad50 | Fluorescence activated cell sorter | Fluorescence activated cell sorter | Chk1 | Chk1 | mutant | mutant

License

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