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2.18 Biomolecular Feedback Systems (MIT) 2.18 Biomolecular Feedback Systems (MIT)

Description

This course focuses on feedback control mechanisms that living organisms implement at the molecular level to execute their functions, with emphasis on techniques to design novel systems with prescribed behaviors. Students will learn how biological functions can be understood and designed using notions from feedback control. This course focuses on feedback control mechanisms that living organisms implement at the molecular level to execute their functions, with emphasis on techniques to design novel systems with prescribed behaviors. Students will learn how biological functions can be understood and designed using notions from feedback control.

Subjects

biomolecular feedback systems | biomolecular feedback systems | systems biology | systems biology | modeling | modeling | feedback | feedback | cell | cell | system | system | control | control | dynamical | dynamical | input/output | input/output | synthetic biology | synthetic biology | techniques | techniques | transcription | transcription | translation | translation | transcriptional regulation | transcriptional regulation | post-transcriptional regulation | post-transcriptional regulation | cellular subsystems | cellular subsystems | dynamic behavior | dynamic behavior | analysis | analysis | equilibrium | equilibrium | robustness | robustness | oscillatory behavior | oscillatory behavior | bifurcations | bifurcations | model reduction | model reduction | stochastic | stochastic | biochemical | biochemical | simulation | simulation | linear | linear | circuit | circuit | design | design | biological circuit design | biological circuit design | negative autoregulation | negative autoregulation | toggle switch | toggle switch | repressilator | repressilator | activator-repressor clock | activator-repressor clock | IFFL | IFFL | incoherent feedforward loop | incoherent feedforward loop | bacterial chemotaxis | bacterial chemotaxis | interconnecting components | interconnecting components | modularity | modularity | retroactivity | retroactivity | gene circuit | gene circuit

License

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7.349 Stem Cells: A Cure or Disease? (MIT) 7.349 Stem Cells: A Cure or Disease? (MIT)

Description

Have you ever considered going to a pharmacy to order some new cardiomyocytes (heart muscle cells) for your ailing heart? It might sound crazy, but recent developments in stem cell science have made this concept not so futuristic. In this course, we will explore the underlying biology behind the idea of using stem cells to treat disease, specifically analyzing the mechanisms that enable a single genome to encode multiple cell states ranging from neurons to fibroblasts to T cells. Overall, we hope to provide a comprehensive overview of this exciting new field of research and its clinical relevance. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literat Have you ever considered going to a pharmacy to order some new cardiomyocytes (heart muscle cells) for your ailing heart? It might sound crazy, but recent developments in stem cell science have made this concept not so futuristic. In this course, we will explore the underlying biology behind the idea of using stem cells to treat disease, specifically analyzing the mechanisms that enable a single genome to encode multiple cell states ranging from neurons to fibroblasts to T cells. Overall, we hope to provide a comprehensive overview of this exciting new field of research and its clinical relevance. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literat

Subjects

stem cells | stem cells | stem cell therapy | stem cell therapy | cellular reprogramming | cellular reprogramming | transdifferentiation | transdifferentiation | pluripotency | pluripotency | epigenetics | epigenetics | genome-wide sequencing | genome-wide sequencing | transcription-mediated reprogramming | transcription-mediated reprogramming | embryonic stem cell technology | embryonic stem cell technology | transcription factors | transcription factors | chromatin structure | chromatin structure | H3K4me3 | H3K4me3 | H3K27me3 | H3K27me3 | histone deacetylase 1 | histone deacetylase 1 | RNAi screens | RNAi screens | Oct4 | Oct4 | cloning | cloning | Dolly | Dolly | in vitro differentiation | in vitro differentiation | regenerative medicine | regenerative medicine

License

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7.60 Cell Biology: Structure and Functions of the Nucleus (MIT) 7.60 Cell Biology: Structure and Functions of the Nucleus (MIT)

Description

The goal of this course is to teach both the fundamentals of nuclear cell biology as well as the methodological and experimental approaches upon which they are based. Lectures and class discussions will cover the background and fundamental findings in a particular area of nuclear cell biology. The assigned readings will provide concrete examples of the experimental approaches and logic used to establish these findings. Some examples of topics include genome and systems biology, transcription, and gene expression. The goal of this course is to teach both the fundamentals of nuclear cell biology as well as the methodological and experimental approaches upon which they are based. Lectures and class discussions will cover the background and fundamental findings in a particular area of nuclear cell biology. The assigned readings will provide concrete examples of the experimental approaches and logic used to establish these findings. Some examples of topics include genome and systems biology, transcription, and gene expression.

Subjects

cell biology | cell biology | nucleus | nucleus | biology | biology | nuclear cell biology | nuclear cell biology | DNA replication | DNA replication | DNA repair | DNA repair | DNA | DNA | genome | genome | cell cycle control | cell cycle control | transcriptional regulation | transcriptional regulation | gene expression | gene expression | chromatin | chromatin | chromosomes | chromosomes | replication | replication | transcription | transcription | RNA | RNA | RNA interference | RNA interference | mRNA | mRNA | microRNA | microRNA | RNAi | RNAi

License

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7.342 Reading the Blueprint of Life: Transcription, Stem Cells and Differentiation (MIT) 7.342 Reading the Blueprint of Life: Transcription, Stem Cells and Differentiation (MIT)

Description

In this course, we will address how transcriptional regulators both prohibit and drive differentiation during the course of development. How does a stem cell know when to remain a stem cell and when to become a specific cell type? Are there global differences in the way the genome is read in multipotent and terminally differentiated cells? We will explore how stem cell pluripotency is preserved, how master regulators of cell-fate decisions execute developmental programs, and how chromatin regulators control undifferentiated versus differentiated states. Additionally, we will discuss how aberrant regulation of transcriptional regulators produces disorders such as developmental defects and cancer.This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at In this course, we will address how transcriptional regulators both prohibit and drive differentiation during the course of development. How does a stem cell know when to remain a stem cell and when to become a specific cell type? Are there global differences in the way the genome is read in multipotent and terminally differentiated cells? We will explore how stem cell pluripotency is preserved, how master regulators of cell-fate decisions execute developmental programs, and how chromatin regulators control undifferentiated versus differentiated states. Additionally, we will discuss how aberrant regulation of transcriptional regulators produces disorders such as developmental defects and cancer.This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at

Subjects

blueprint of life | blueprint of life | transcription | transcription | stem cells | stem cells | differentiation | differentiation | human tissues | human tissues | tissue regeneration | tissue regeneration | human disease | human disease | RNA and protein expression patterns | RNA and protein expression patterns | transcriptional regulation | transcriptional regulation | specialized gene expression programs | specialized gene expression programs | genome | genome | multipotent | multipotent | terminally differentiated | terminally differentiated | pluripotency | pluripotency | master regulators | master regulators | chromatin regulators | chromatin regulators | developmental defects | developmental defects | cancer | cancer

License

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7.A12 Freshman Seminar: Structural Basis of Genetic Material: Nucleic Acids (MIT) 7.A12 Freshman Seminar: Structural Basis of Genetic Material: Nucleic Acids (MIT)

Description

Since the discovery of the structure of the DNA double helix in 1953 by Watson and Crick, the information on detailed molecular structures of DNA and RNA, namely, the foundation of genetic material, has expanded rapidly. This discovery is the beginning of the "Big Bang" of molecular biology and biotechnology. In this seminar, students discuss, from a historical perspective and current developments, the importance of pursuing the detailed structural basis of genetic materials. Since the discovery of the structure of the DNA double helix in 1953 by Watson and Crick, the information on detailed molecular structures of DNA and RNA, namely, the foundation of genetic material, has expanded rapidly. This discovery is the beginning of the "Big Bang" of molecular biology and biotechnology. In this seminar, students discuss, from a historical perspective and current developments, the importance of pursuing the detailed structural basis of genetic materials.

Subjects

nucleic acids | nucleic acids | DNA | DNA | RNA | RNA | genetics | genetics | genes | genes | genetic material | genetic material | double helix | double helix | molecular biology | molecular biology | biotechnology | biotechnology | structure | structure | function | function | heredity | heredity | complementarity | complementarity | biological materials | biological materials | genetic code | genetic code | oligonucleotides | oligonucleotides | supercoiled DNA | supercoiled DNA | polyribosome | polyribosome | tRNA | tRNA | reverse transcription | reverse transcription | central dogma | central dogma | transcription | transcription

License

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2.18 Biomolecular Feedback Systems (MIT)

Description

This course focuses on feedback control mechanisms that living organisms implement at the molecular level to execute their functions, with emphasis on techniques to design novel systems with prescribed behaviors. Students will learn how biological functions can be understood and designed using notions from feedback control.

Subjects

biomolecular feedback systems | systems biology | modeling | feedback | cell | system | control | dynamical | input/output | synthetic biology | techniques | transcription | translation | transcriptional regulation | post-transcriptional regulation | cellular subsystems | dynamic behavior | analysis | equilibrium | robustness | oscillatory behavior | bifurcations | model reduction | stochastic | biochemical | simulation | linear | circuit | design | biological circuit design | negative autoregulation | toggle switch | repressilator | activator-repressor clock | IFFL | incoherent feedforward loop | bacterial chemotaxis | interconnecting components | modularity | retroactivity | gene circuit

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.60 Cell Biology: Structure and Functions of the Nucleus (MIT) 7.60 Cell Biology: Structure and Functions of the Nucleus (MIT)

Description

This course covers the fundamentals of nuclear cell biology as well as the methodological and experimental approaches upon which they are based. Topics include Eukaryotic genome structure, function, and expression, processing of RNA, and regulation of the cell cycle. The techniques and logic used to address important problems in nuclear cell biology is emphasized. Lectures cover broad topic areas in nuclear cell biology and class discussions focus on representative papers recently published in the field. This course covers the fundamentals of nuclear cell biology as well as the methodological and experimental approaches upon which they are based. Topics include Eukaryotic genome structure, function, and expression, processing of RNA, and regulation of the cell cycle. The techniques and logic used to address important problems in nuclear cell biology is emphasized. Lectures cover broad topic areas in nuclear cell biology and class discussions focus on representative papers recently published in the field.

Subjects

cell biology | cell biology | nucleus | nucleus | biology | biology | nuclear cell biology | nuclear cell biology | DNA replication | DNA replication | DNA repair | DNA repair | DNA | DNA | genome | genome | cell cycle control | cell cycle control | chromatin | chromatin | gene expression | gene expression | replication | replication | transcription | transcription | RNA | RNA | RNA interference | RNA interference | mRNA | mRNA | microRNA | microRNA | RNAi | RNAi

License

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BE.440 Analysis of Biological Networks (MIT) BE.440 Analysis of Biological Networks (MIT)

Description

This class analyzes complex biological processes from the molecular, cellular, extracellular, and organ levels of hierarchy. Emphasis is placed on the basic biochemical and biophysical principles that govern these processes. Examples of processes to be studied include chemotaxis, the fixation of nitrogen into organic biological molecules, growth factor and hormone mediated signaling cascades, and signaling cascades leading to cell death in response to DNA damage. In each case, the availability of a resource, or the presence of a stimulus, results in some biochemical pathways being turned on while others are turned off. The course examines the dynamic aspects of these processes and details how biochemical mechanistic themes impinge on molecular/cellular/tissue/organ-level functions. Chemica This class analyzes complex biological processes from the molecular, cellular, extracellular, and organ levels of hierarchy. Emphasis is placed on the basic biochemical and biophysical principles that govern these processes. Examples of processes to be studied include chemotaxis, the fixation of nitrogen into organic biological molecules, growth factor and hormone mediated signaling cascades, and signaling cascades leading to cell death in response to DNA damage. In each case, the availability of a resource, or the presence of a stimulus, results in some biochemical pathways being turned on while others are turned off. The course examines the dynamic aspects of these processes and details how biochemical mechanistic themes impinge on molecular/cellular/tissue/organ-level functions. Chemica

Subjects

systems | systems | networks | networks | biochemistry | biochemistry | biology | biology | chemistry | chemistry | chemotaxis | chemotaxis | lactation | lactation | interferon | interferon | response | response | DNA | DNA | replication | replication | translation | translation | transcription | transcription | RNA | RNA | IFN | IFN | signals | signals | signaling | signaling | cellular | cellular | receptor | receptor

License

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7.013 Introductory Biology (MIT) 7.013 Introductory Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of human biology. Topics include genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, disease (infectious agents, inherited diseases and cancer), The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of human biology. Topics include genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, disease (infectious agents, inherited diseases and cancer),

Subjects

biology | biology | biochemistry | biochemistry | genetics | genetics | molecular biology | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell cycle | cell signaling | cell signaling | cloning | cloning | stem cells | stem cells | cancer | cancer | immunology | immunology | virology | virology | genomics | genomics | molecular medicine | molecular medicine | DNA | DNA | RNA | RNA | proteins | proteins | replication | replication | transcription | transcription | mRNA | mRNA | translation | translation | ribosome | ribosome | nervous system | nervous system | amino acids | amino acids | polypeptide chain | polypeptide chain | cell biology | cell biology | neurobiology | neurobiology | gene regulation | gene regulation | protein structure | protein structure | protein synthesis | protein synthesis | gene structure | gene structure | PCR | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum | endoplasmic reticulum | human biology | human biology | inherited diseases | inherited diseases | developmental biology | developmental biology | evolution | evolution | human genetics | human genetics | human diseases | human diseases | infectious agents | infectious agents | infectious diseases | infectious diseases

License

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7.012 Introduction to Biology (MIT) 7.012 Introduction to Biology (MIT)

Description

All three courses: 7.012, 7.013 and 7.014 cover the same core material which includes: the fundamental principles of biochemistry as they apply to introductory biology, genetics, molecular biology, basic recombinant DNA technology, and gene regulation.In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material, described below. Note: All three versions require a familiarity with some basic chemistry. For details, see the Chemistry Self-evaluation.7.012 focuses on cell biology, immunology, neurobiology, and includes an exploration into current research in cancer, genomics, and molecular medicine. 7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of cells, human genetics and diseases, infectious agents, cancer, immunology, molecular All three courses: 7.012, 7.013 and 7.014 cover the same core material which includes: the fundamental principles of biochemistry as they apply to introductory biology, genetics, molecular biology, basic recombinant DNA technology, and gene regulation.In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material, described below. Note: All three versions require a familiarity with some basic chemistry. For details, see the Chemistry Self-evaluation.7.012 focuses on cell biology, immunology, neurobiology, and includes an exploration into current research in cancer, genomics, and molecular medicine. 7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of cells, human genetics and diseases, infectious agents, cancer, immunology, molecular

Subjects

amino acids | amino acids | biochemistry | biochemistry | cancer | cancer | cell biology | cell biology | cell cycle | cell cycle | cell signaling | cell signaling | cloning | cloning | DNA | DNA | endoplasmic reticulum | endoplasmic reticulum | gene regulation | gene regulation | gene structure | gene structure | genetics | genetics | genomics | genomics | immunology | immunology | molecular biology | molecular biology | molecular medicine | molecular medicine | mRNA | mRNA | nervous system | nervous system | neurobiology | neurobiology | PCR | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | polymerase chain reaction | polypeptide chain | polypeptide chain | protein localization | protein localization | protein structure | protein structure | protein synthesis | protein synthesis | proteins | proteins | recombinant DNA | recombinant DNA | replication | replication | ribosome | ribosome | RNA | RNA | stem cells | stem cells | transcription | transcription | translation | translation | virology | virology | biology | biology

License

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7.013 Introductory Biology (MIT) 7.013 Introductory Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material. 7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of human biology. Topics include genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, disease (infectious agents, inherited diseases and cancer), The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material. 7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of human biology. Topics include genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, disease (infectious agents, inherited diseases and cancer),

Subjects

biology | biology | biochemistry | biochemistry | genetics | genetics | molecular biology | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell cycle | cell signaling | cell signaling | cloning | cloning | stem cells | stem cells | cancer | cancer | immunology | immunology | virology | virology | genomics | genomics | molecular medicine | molecular medicine | DNA | DNA | RNA | RNA | proteins | proteins | replication | replication | transcription | transcription | mRNA | mRNA | translation | translation | ribosome | ribosome | nervous system | nervous system | amino acids | amino acids | polypeptide chain | polypeptide chain | cell biology | cell biology | neurobiology | neurobiology | gene regulation | gene regulation | protein structure | protein structure | protein synthesis | protein synthesis | gene structure | gene structure | PCR | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum | endoplasmic reticulum | human biology | human biology | inherited diseases | inherited diseases | developmental biology | developmental biology | evolution | evolution | human genetics | human genetics | human diseases | human diseases | infectious agents | infectious agents | infectious diseases | infectious diseases

License

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7.014 Introductory Biology (MIT) 7.014 Introductory Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.014 focuses on the application of these fundamental principles, toward an understanding of microorganisms as geochemical agents responsible for the evolution and renewal of the biosphere and of their role in human health The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.014 focuses on the application of these fundamental principles, toward an understanding of microorganisms as geochemical agents responsible for the evolution and renewal of the biosphere and of their role in human health

Subjects

microorganisms | microorganisms | geochemistry | geochemistry | geochemical agents | geochemical agents | biosphere | biosphere | bacterial genetics | bacterial genetics | carbon metabolism | carbon metabolism | energy metabolism | energy metabolism | productivity | productivity | biogeochemical cycles | biogeochemical cycles | molecular evolution | molecular evolution | population genetics | population genetics | evolution | evolution | population growth | population growth | biology | biology | biochemistry | biochemistry | genetics | genetics | molecular biology | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell cycle | cell signaling | cell signaling | cloning | cloning | stem cells | stem cells | cancer | cancer | immunology | immunology | virology | virology | genomics | genomics | molecular medicine | molecular medicine | DNA | DNA | RNA | RNA | proteins | proteins | replication | replication | transcription | transcription | mRNA | mRNA | translation | translation | ribosome | ribosome | nervous system | nervous system | amino acids | amino acids | polypeptide chain | polypeptide chain | cell biology | cell biology | neurobiology | neurobiology | gene regulation | gene regulation | protein structure | protein structure | protein synthesis | protein synthesis | gene structure | gene structure | PCR | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum | endoplasmic reticulum | ecology | ecology | communities | communities

License

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7.16 Experimental Molecular Biology: Biotechnology II (MIT) 7.16 Experimental Molecular Biology: Biotechnology II (MIT)

Description

The course applies molecular biology and reverse genetics approaches to the study of apoptosis, or programmed cell death (PCD), in Drosophila cells. RNA interference (RNAi), or double stranded RNA-mediated gene silencing, will be used to inhibit expression of candidate apoptosis-related genes in cultured Drosophila cells. Teams of 2 or 3 students will design and carry out experiments to address questions about the genes involved in the regulation and execution of PCD in this system. Some projects involve the use of DNA damaging agents or other cytotoxic chemicals or drugs to help understand the pathways that control a cell's decision to undergo apoptosis. Instruction and practice in written and oral communication are provided. The course applies molecular biology and reverse genetics approaches to the study of apoptosis, or programmed cell death (PCD), in Drosophila cells. RNA interference (RNAi), or double stranded RNA-mediated gene silencing, will be used to inhibit expression of candidate apoptosis-related genes in cultured Drosophila cells. Teams of 2 or 3 students will design and carry out experiments to address questions about the genes involved in the regulation and execution of PCD in this system. Some projects involve the use of DNA damaging agents or other cytotoxic chemicals or drugs to help understand the pathways that control a cell's decision to undergo apoptosis. Instruction and practice in written and oral communication are provided.

Subjects

RNAi | RNAi | RNA interference | RNA interference | programmed cell death | programmed cell death | Drosophilia | Drosophilia | PCD | PCD | mRNA | mRNA | lab notebook | lab notebook | scientific writing | scientific writing | RT-PCR | RT-PCR | S2 RNA | S2 RNA | S2 | S2 | cell culture | cell culture | genetic transcription | genetic transcription | dsRNA | dsRNA | bioinformatics | bioinformatics

License

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7.012 Introduction to Biology (MIT) 7.012 Introduction to Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.012 focuses on the exploration of current research in cell biology, immunology, neurobiology, genomics, and molecular medicine.AcknowledgmentsThe study materials, problem sets, and quiz materials used during Fall 2004 for The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.7.012 focuses on the exploration of current research in cell biology, immunology, neurobiology, genomics, and molecular medicine.AcknowledgmentsThe study materials, problem sets, and quiz materials used during Fall 2004 for

Subjects

biology | biology | biochemistry | biochemistry | genetics | genetics | molecular biology | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell cycle | cell signaling | cell signaling | cloning | cloning | stem cells | stem cells | cancer | cancer | immunology | immunology | virology | virology | genomics | genomics | molecular medicine | molecular medicine | DNA | DNA | RNA | RNA | proteins | proteins | replication | replication | transcription | transcription | mRNA | mRNA | translation | translation | ribosome | ribosome | nervous system | nervous system | amino acids | amino acids | polypeptide chain | polypeptide chain | cell biology | cell biology | neurobiology | neurobiology | gene regulation | gene regulation | protein structure | protein structure | protein synthesis | protein synthesis | gene structure | gene structure | PCR | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum | endoplasmic reticulum

License

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7.013 Introductory Biology (MIT) 7.013 Introductory Biology (MIT)

Description

The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. 7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of human biology. Topics include genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, disease (infectious agents, inherited diseases and cancer), developmental biology, neurobiology and evolution.Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized in all courses and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In add The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. 7.013 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of human biology. Topics include genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, disease (infectious agents, inherited diseases and cancer), developmental biology, neurobiology and evolution.Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized in all courses and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In add

Subjects

biology | biology | biochemistry | biochemistry | genetics | genetics | molecular biology | molecular biology | recombinant DNA | recombinant DNA | cell cycle | cell cycle | cell signaling | cell signaling | cloning | cloning | stem cells | stem cells | cancer | cancer | immunology | immunology | virology | virology | genomics | genomics | molecular medicine | molecular medicine | DNA | DNA | RNA | RNA | proteins | proteins | replication | replication | transcription | transcription | mRNA | mRNA | translation | translation | ribosome | ribosome | nervous system | nervous system | amino acids | amino acids | polypeptide chain | polypeptide chain | cell biology | cell biology | neurobiology | neurobiology | gene regulation | gene regulation | protein structure | protein structure | protein synthesis | protein synthesis | gene structure | gene structure | PCR | PCR | polymerase chain reaction | polymerase chain reaction | protein localization | protein localization | endoplasmic reticulum | endoplasmic reticulum | human biology | human biology | inherited diseases | inherited diseases | developmental biology | developmental biology | evolution | evolution | human genetics | human genetics | human diseases | human diseases | infectious agents | infectious agents | infectious diseases | infectious diseases

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Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.90J Computational Functional Genomics (MIT) 7.90J Computational Functional Genomics (MIT)

Description

The course focuses on casting contemporary problems in systems biology and functional genomics in computational terms and providing appropriate tools and methods to solve them. Topics include genome structure and function, transcriptional regulation, and stem cell biology in particular; measurement technologies such as microarrays (expression, protein-DNA interactions, chromatin structure); statistical data analysis, predictive and causal inference, and experiment design. The emphasis is on coupling problem structures (biological questions) with appropriate computational approaches. The course focuses on casting contemporary problems in systems biology and functional genomics in computational terms and providing appropriate tools and methods to solve them. Topics include genome structure and function, transcriptional regulation, and stem cell biology in particular; measurement technologies such as microarrays (expression, protein-DNA interactions, chromatin structure); statistical data analysis, predictive and causal inference, and experiment design. The emphasis is on coupling problem structures (biological questions) with appropriate computational approaches.

Subjects

systems biology | systems biology | genome structure | genome structure | DNA | DNA | RNA | RNA | transcription | transcription | stem cell | stem cell | biology | biology | microarray | microarray | gene expression | gene expression | statistical data analysis | statistical data analysis | chromatin | chromatin | gene sequence | gene sequence | genomic sequence | genomic sequence | motif | motif | protein | protein | error model | error model | diagnostic | diagnostic | gene clustering | gene clustering | phenotype | phenotype | clustering | clustering | proteome | proteome | 7.90 | 7.90 | 6.874 | 6.874

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.03 Genetics (MIT) 7.03 Genetics (MIT)

Description

This course discusses the principles of genetics with application to the study of biological function at the level of molecules, cells, and multicellular organisms, including humans. The topics include: structure and function of genes, chromosomes and genomes, biological variation resulting from recombination, mutation, and selection, population genetics, use of genetic methods to analyze protein function, gene regulation and inherited disease. This course discusses the principles of genetics with application to the study of biological function at the level of molecules, cells, and multicellular organisms, including humans. The topics include: structure and function of genes, chromosomes and genomes, biological variation resulting from recombination, mutation, and selection, population genetics, use of genetic methods to analyze protein function, gene regulation and inherited disease.

Subjects

genetics | genetics | gene | gene | DNA | DNA | RNA | RNA | mutation | mutation | genome | genome | Watson and Crick | Watson and Crick | replication | replication | transcription | transcription | DNA heliz | DNA heliz | double helix | double helix | mRNA | mRNA | messenger RNA | messenger RNA | translation | translation | ribosome | ribosome | promoter | promoter | genetic analysis | genetic analysis | alleles | alleles | genotype | genotype | wild type | wild type | phenotype | phenotype | haploid | haploid | diploid | diploid | auxotrophic mutation | auxotrophic mutation | homozygous | homozygous | heterozygous | heterozygous | recessive allele | recessive allele | dominant allele | dominant allele | complementation test | complementation test | locus | locus | incomplete dominance | incomplete dominance | incomplete penetrance | incomplete penetrance | true-breeding | true-breeding | gametes | gametes | codominant | codominant | meiosis | meiosis

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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20.440 Analysis of Biological Networks (BE.440) (MIT) 20.440 Analysis of Biological Networks (BE.440) (MIT)

Description

This class analyzes complex biological processes from the molecular, cellular, extracellular, and organ levels of hierarchy. Emphasis is placed on the basic biochemical and biophysical principles that govern these processes. Examples of processes to be studied include chemotaxis, the fixation of nitrogen into organic biological molecules, growth factor and hormone mediated signaling cascades, and signaling cascades leading to cell death in response to DNA damage. In each case, the availability of a resource, or the presence of a stimulus, results in some biochemical pathways being turned on while others are turned off. The course examines the dynamic aspects of these processes and details how biochemical mechanistic themes impinge on molecular/cellular/tissue/organ-level functions. Chemica This class analyzes complex biological processes from the molecular, cellular, extracellular, and organ levels of hierarchy. Emphasis is placed on the basic biochemical and biophysical principles that govern these processes. Examples of processes to be studied include chemotaxis, the fixation of nitrogen into organic biological molecules, growth factor and hormone mediated signaling cascades, and signaling cascades leading to cell death in response to DNA damage. In each case, the availability of a resource, or the presence of a stimulus, results in some biochemical pathways being turned on while others are turned off. The course examines the dynamic aspects of these processes and details how biochemical mechanistic themes impinge on molecular/cellular/tissue/organ-level functions. Chemica

Subjects

systems | systems | networks | networks | biochemistry | biochemistry | biology | biology | chemistry | chemistry | chemotaxis | chemotaxis | lactation | lactation | interferon | interferon | response | response | DNA | DNA | replication | replication | translation | translation | transcription | transcription | RNA | RNA | IFN | IFN | signals | signals | signaling | signaling | cellular | cellular | receptor | receptor

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.342 Reading the Blueprint of Life: Transcription, Stem Cells and Differentiation (MIT)

Description

In this course, we will address how transcriptional regulators both prohibit and drive differentiation during the course of development. How does a stem cell know when to remain a stem cell and when to become a specific cell type? Are there global differences in the way the genome is read in multipotent and terminally differentiated cells? We will explore how stem cell pluripotency is preserved, how master regulators of cell-fate decisions execute developmental programs, and how chromatin regulators control undifferentiated versus differentiated states. Additionally, we will discuss how aberrant regulation of transcriptional regulators produces disorders such as developmental defects and cancer.This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at

Subjects

blueprint of life | transcription | stem cells | differentiation | human tissues | tissue regeneration | human disease | RNA and protein expression patterns | transcriptional regulation | specialized gene expression programs | genome | multipotent | terminally differentiated | pluripotency | master regulators | chromatin regulators | developmental defects | cancer

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Chromatin Remodelling

Description

Dr Erika Mancini explains how malfunctions in the regulation of chromatin structure often leads to complex multi-system diseases and cancer, notably leukemia. Dr Erika Mancini is interested in the role of chromatin in the regulation of gene transcription. All our cells contain the same set of genes, but only some of them are transcribed at any point in a particular tissue. Regulation of gene transcription is strongly linked to chromatin, physical packaging of the DNA within the nucleus. Molecular Mechanisms influencing DNA packaging Chromatin plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression. The movement of nucleosomes, packing and unpacking DNA, is governed by chromatin remodelling ATPases. Malfunctions in the regulation of chromatin structure often leads to complex multi-sy Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

disease | leukemia | chromatin remodelling | transcription regulation | Medicine | gene | heart diseases | disease | leukemia | chromatin remodelling | transcription regulation | Medicine | gene | heart diseases

License

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Chromatin Remodelling

Description

Dr Erika Mancini explains how malfunctions in the regulation of chromatin structure often leads to complex multi-system diseases and cancer, notably leukemia. Dr Erika Mancini is interested in the role of chromatin in the regulation of gene transcription. All our cells contain the same set of genes, but only some of them are transcribed at any point in a particular tissue. Regulation of gene transcription is strongly linked to chromatin, physical packaging of the DNA within the nucleus. Molecular Mechanisms influencing DNA packaging Chromatin plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression. The movement of nucleosomes, packing and unpacking DNA, is governed by chromatin remodelling ATPases. Malfunctions in the regulation of chromatin structure often leads to complex multi-sy Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

disease | leukemia | chromatin remodelling | transcription regulation | Medicine | gene | heart diseases | disease | leukemia | chromatin remodelling | transcription regulation | Medicine | gene | heart diseases

License

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The sounds of German The sounds of German

Description

This is a module framework. It can be viewed online or downloaded as a zip file. As taught in Autumn Semester 2009. This module investigates the sounds of German and how they can be described accurately (“phonetics and phonology”). Students will learn to transcribe German using the notation of the International Phonetic Association, and we will look in particular at aspects of German pronunciation that are hard to master because they are different to English or similar to French. We will also look at how foreign words (including English words) are integrated into the German sound system, and at regional variation in spoken German. Practical transcription skills will form a major part of coursework, including one of the two assignments. Suitable for study at undergraduate level 1. D This is a module framework. It can be viewed online or downloaded as a zip file. As taught in Autumn Semester 2009. This module investigates the sounds of German and how they can be described accurately (“phonetics and phonology”). Students will learn to transcribe German using the notation of the International Phonetic Association, and we will look in particular at aspects of German pronunciation that are hard to master because they are different to English or similar to French. We will also look at how foreign words (including English words) are integrated into the German sound system, and at regional variation in spoken German. Practical transcription skills will form a major part of coursework, including one of the two assignments. Suitable for study at undergraduate level 1. D

Subjects

UNow | UNow | German language | German language | ukoer | ukoer | phonetics and phonology | phonetics and phonology | International Phonetic Association | International Phonetic Association | German pronunciation | German pronunciation | German sound system | German sound system | regional variation in spoken German | regional variation in spoken German | practical transcription skills | practical transcription skills

License

Except for third party materials (materials owned by someone other than The University of Nottingham) and where otherwise indicated, the copyright in the content provided in this resource is owned by The University of Nottingham and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike UK 2.0 Licence (BY-NC-SA) Except for third party materials (materials owned by someone other than The University of Nottingham) and where otherwise indicated, the copyright in the content provided in this resource is owned by The University of Nottingham and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike UK 2.0 Licence (BY-NC-SA)

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Sarah Cuthill, arrested for stealing clothes Sarah Cuthill, arrested for stealing clothes

Description

Subjects

portrait | portrait | eye | eye | girl | girl | hat | hat | mouth | mouth | bag | bag | newcastle | newcastle | nose | nose | costume | costume | clothing | clothing | coat | coat | fine | fine | grain | grain | deception | deception | property | property | blouse | blouse | clothes | clothes | criminal | criminal | crime | crime | gloves | gloves | mugshot | mugshot | ribbon | ribbon | unusual | unusual | ww1 | ww1 | silkscarf | silkscarf | dailylife | dailylife | scratch | scratch | theft | theft | policestation | policestation | crease | crease | firstworldwar | firstworldwar | arrested | arrested | arrest | arrest | stealing | stealing | prisoner | prisoner | homefront | homefront | fascinating | fascinating | digitalimage | digitalimage | withdrawn | withdrawn | charges | charges | microfilm | microfilm | larceny | larceny | lodgings | lodgings | blackborder | blackborder | northshields | northshields | transcription | transcription | socialhistory | socialhistory | £5 | £5 | offence | offence | courtcase | courtcase | blackandwhitephotograph | blackandwhitephotograph | admitted | admitted | criminalrecord | criminalrecord | publicrecords | publicrecords | annieclark | annieclark | neutralbackground | neutralbackground | cuthill | cuthill | elizabethfitzgerald | elizabethfitzgerald | newspaperreport | newspaperreport | easthedleyhope | easthedleyhope | sarahcuthill | sarahcuthill | northshieldspolicecourt | northshieldspolicecourt | 19021916 | 19021916 | northshieldspolicestation | northshieldspolicestation | £119s10d | £119s10d | northshieldslocalstudieslibrary | northshieldslocalstudieslibrary | whitleypolice | whitleypolice | shieldsdailynews | shieldsdailynews | criminalfacesofnorthshieldsfirstworldwar | criminalfacesofnorthshieldsfirstworldwar | 20july1916 | 20july1916 | 78princesstreet | 78princesstreet | 13charlottestreet | 13charlottestreet | dectivesergthall | dectivesergthall | 21postofficerow | 21postofficerow | £16s | £16s

License

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Lawrence Armstrong alias Hanby, soldier, arrested for theft Lawrence Armstrong alias Hanby, soldier, arrested for theft

Description

Subjects

eye | eye | face | face | hat | hat | shop | shop | emblem | emblem | soldier | soldier | army | army | nose | nose | head | head | mark | mark | military | military | coat | coat | grain | grain | property | property | criminal | criminal | crime | crime | button | button | mugshot | mugshot | fold | fold | unusual | unusual | ww1 | ww1 | pocket | pocket | cigarettes | cigarettes | striking | striking | shoulder | shoulder | theft | theft | policestation | policestation | crease | crease | wrinkle | wrinkle | firstworldwar | firstworldwar | youngman | youngman | attentive | attentive | accused | accused | arrested | arrested | arrest | arrest | stealing | stealing | prisoner | prisoner | homefront | homefront | distracted | distracted | fascinating | fascinating | committed | committed | charged | charged | £1 | £1 | 5s | 5s | northshields | northshields | transcription | transcription | imprisoned | imprisoned | tobacconist | tobacconist | socialhistory | socialhistory | newsreport | newsreport | militaryuniform | militaryuniform | blackframe | blackframe | blackandwhitephotograph | blackandwhitephotograph | criminalrecord | criminalrecord | publicrecords | publicrecords | savillestreet | savillestreet | northumberlandfusiliers | northumberlandfusiliers | neutralbackground | neutralbackground | dressring | dressring | pawnticket | pawnticket | 1stnorthumberlandfusiliers | 1stnorthumberlandfusiliers | northshieldspolicecourt | northshieldspolicecourt | henrynicholson | henrynicholson | 19021916 | 19021916 | northshieldspolicestation | northshieldspolicestation | northshieldslocalstudieslibrary | northshieldslocalstudieslibrary | shieldsdailynews | shieldsdailynews | criminalfacesofnorthshieldsfirstworldwar | criminalfacesofnorthshieldsfirstworldwar | aliashanby | aliashanby | microfilmcopies | microfilmcopies | lawrencearmstrong | lawrencearmstrong | valoneharrison | valoneharrison | 30september1915 | 30september1915 | pleadedguilty | pleadedguilty | detectivemason | detectivemason

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Melanoma

Description

Melanoma or skin cancer is one of the fastest rising cancer types. When identified early, melanoma is relatively easy to cure, but once it starts to metastasise, it becomes very difficult to treat. DEREGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION The interface between signal transduction and transcription regulation coordinates gene expression. Deregulation of transcription is a key factor in cancer. Professor Colin Goding studies how a precise programme of transcription regulation is achieved, particularly in the transition between normal and cancer stem cells, and the parallels with normal stem cell populations. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

transcription regulation | melanoma | cancer | stem cells | transcription regulation | melanoma | cancer | stem cells

License

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