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24.241 Logic I (MIT) 24.241 Logic I (MIT)

Description

Introduction to the aims and techniques of formal logic. The logic of truth functions and quantifiers. The concepts of validity and truth and their relation to formal deduction. Applications of logic and the place of logic in philosophy. Introduction to the aims and techniques of formal logic. The logic of truth functions and quantifiers. The concepts of validity and truth and their relation to formal deduction. Applications of logic and the place of logic in philosophy.

Subjects

formal logic | formal logic | truth functions | truth functions | quantifiers | quantifiers | validity | validity | truth | truth | formal deduction | formal deduction | applications of logic | applications of logic | logic in philosophy | logic in philosophy

License

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SP.2H3 Ancient Philosophy and Mathematics (MIT) SP.2H3 Ancient Philosophy and Mathematics (MIT)

Description

Western philosophy and theoretical mathematics were born together, and the cross-fertilization of ideas in the two disciplines was continuously acknowledged throughout antiquity. In this course, we read works of ancient Greek philosophy and mathematics, and investigate the way in which ideas of definition, reason, argument and proof, rationality and irrationality, number, quality and quantity, truth, and even the idea of an idea were shaped by the interplay of philosophic and mathematical inquiry. Western philosophy and theoretical mathematics were born together, and the cross-fertilization of ideas in the two disciplines was continuously acknowledged throughout antiquity. In this course, we read works of ancient Greek philosophy and mathematics, and investigate the way in which ideas of definition, reason, argument and proof, rationality and irrationality, number, quality and quantity, truth, and even the idea of an idea were shaped by the interplay of philosophic and mathematical inquiry.

Subjects

mathematics | mathematics | geometry | geometry | history | history | philosophy | philosophy | Greek philosophy | Greek philosophy | Plato | Plato | Euclid | Euclid | Aristotle | Aristotle | Rene Descartes | Rene Descartes | Nicomachus | Nicomachus | Francis Bacon | Francis Bacon | number | number | irrational number | irrational number | ratio | ratio | ethics | ethics | logos | logos | logic | logic | ancient knowing | ancient knowing | modern knowing | modern knowing | Greek conception of number | Greek conception of number | idea of number | idea of number | courage | courage | justice | justice | pursuit of truth | pursuit of truth | truth as a surd | truth as a surd

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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ES.SP.2H3 Ancient Philosophy and Mathematics (MIT) ES.SP.2H3 Ancient Philosophy and Mathematics (MIT)

Description

Western philosophy and theoretical mathematics were born together, and the cross-fertilization of ideas in the two disciplines was continuously acknowledged throughout antiquity. In this course, we read works of ancient Greek philosophy and mathematics, and investigate the way in which ideas of definition, reason, argument and proof, rationality and irrationality, number, quality and quantity, truth, and even the idea of an idea were shaped by the interplay of philosophic and mathematical inquiry. Western philosophy and theoretical mathematics were born together, and the cross-fertilization of ideas in the two disciplines was continuously acknowledged throughout antiquity. In this course, we read works of ancient Greek philosophy and mathematics, and investigate the way in which ideas of definition, reason, argument and proof, rationality and irrationality, number, quality and quantity, truth, and even the idea of an idea were shaped by the interplay of philosophic and mathematical inquiry.

Subjects

mathematics | mathematics | geometry | geometry | history | history | philosophy | philosophy | Greek philosophy | Greek philosophy | Plato | Plato | Euclid | Euclid | Aristotle | Aristotle | Rene Descartes | Rene Descartes | Nicomachus | Nicomachus | Francis Bacon | Francis Bacon | number | number | irrational number | irrational number | ratio | ratio | ethics | ethics | logos | logos | logic | logic | ancient knowing | ancient knowing | modern knowing | modern knowing | Greek conception of number | Greek conception of number | idea of number | idea of number | courage | courage | justice | justice | pursuit of truth | pursuit of truth | truth as a surd | truth as a surd

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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ES.2H3 Ancient Philosophy and Mathematics (MIT) ES.2H3 Ancient Philosophy and Mathematics (MIT)

Description

Western philosophy and theoretical mathematics were born together, and the cross-fertilization of ideas in the two disciplines was continuously acknowledged throughout antiquity. In this course, we read works of ancient Greek philosophy and mathematics, and investigate the way in which ideas of definition, reason, argument and proof, rationality and irrationality, number, quality and quantity, truth, and even the idea of an idea were shaped by the interplay of philosophic and mathematical inquiry. Western philosophy and theoretical mathematics were born together, and the cross-fertilization of ideas in the two disciplines was continuously acknowledged throughout antiquity. In this course, we read works of ancient Greek philosophy and mathematics, and investigate the way in which ideas of definition, reason, argument and proof, rationality and irrationality, number, quality and quantity, truth, and even the idea of an idea were shaped by the interplay of philosophic and mathematical inquiry.

Subjects

mathematics | mathematics | geometry | geometry | history | history | philosophy | philosophy | Greek philosophy | Greek philosophy | Plato | Plato | Euclid | Euclid | Aristotle | Aristotle | Rene Descartes | Rene Descartes | Nicomachus | Nicomachus | Francis Bacon | Francis Bacon | number | number | irrational number | irrational number | ratio | ratio | ethics | ethics | logos | logos | logic | logic | ancient knowing | ancient knowing | modern knowing | modern knowing | Greek conception of number | Greek conception of number | idea of number | idea of number | courage | courage | justice | justice | pursuit of truth | pursuit of truth | truth as a surd | truth as a surd

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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ES.2H3 Ancient Philosophy and Mathematics (MIT) ES.2H3 Ancient Philosophy and Mathematics (MIT)

Description

Western philosophy and theoretical mathematics were born together, and the cross-fertilization of ideas in the two disciplines was continuously acknowledged throughout antiquity. In this course, we read works of ancient Greek philosophy and mathematics, and investigate the way in which ideas of definition, reason, argument and proof, rationality and irrationality, number, quality and quantity, truth, and even the idea of an idea were shaped by the interplay of philosophic and mathematical inquiry. Western philosophy and theoretical mathematics were born together, and the cross-fertilization of ideas in the two disciplines was continuously acknowledged throughout antiquity. In this course, we read works of ancient Greek philosophy and mathematics, and investigate the way in which ideas of definition, reason, argument and proof, rationality and irrationality, number, quality and quantity, truth, and even the idea of an idea were shaped by the interplay of philosophic and mathematical inquiry.

Subjects

mathematics | mathematics | geometry | geometry | history | history | philosophy | philosophy | Greek philosophy | Greek philosophy | Plato | Plato | Euclid | Euclid | Aristotle | Aristotle | Rene Descartes | Rene Descartes | Nicomachus | Nicomachus | Francis Bacon | Francis Bacon | number | number | irrational number | irrational number | ratio | ratio | ethics | ethics | logos | logos | logic | logic | ancient knowing | ancient knowing | modern knowing | modern knowing | Greek conception of number | Greek conception of number | idea of number | idea of number | courage | courage | justice | justice | pursuit of truth | pursuit of truth | truth as a surd | truth as a surd

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see https://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Rules, truths and theories: an introduction to ethical reasoning

Description

Part 1 of 7 in Marianne Talbot's "A Romp Through Ethics for Complete Beginners". In this episode we examine moral dilemmas, moral truth and moral knowledge, freewill and determinism. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

moral knowledge | morals | freewill | philosophy | moral dilemmas | determinism | ethics | moral truth | moral knowledge | morals | freewill | philosophy | moral dilemmas | determinism | ethics | moral truth | 2011-01-31

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Rules, truths and theories: an introduction to ethical reasoning (Slides)

Description

Part 1 of 7 in Marianne Talbot's "A Romp Through Ethics for Complete Beginners". In this episode we examine moral dilemmas, moral truth and moral knowledge, freewill and determinism. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

moral knowledge | morals | freewill | philosophy | moral dilemmas | determinism | ethics | moral truth | moral knowledge | morals | freewill | philosophy | moral dilemmas | determinism | ethics | moral truth | 2011-01-31

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Rules, truths and theories: an introduction to ethical reasoning

Description

Part 1 of 7 in Marianne Talbot's "A Romp Through Ethics for Complete Beginners". In this episode we examine moral dilemmas, moral truth and moral knowledge, freewill and determinism. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

moral knowledge | morals | freewill | philosophy | moral dilemmas | determinism | ethics | moral truth | moral knowledge | morals | freewill | philosophy | moral dilemmas | determinism | ethics | moral truth | 2011-01-31

License

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Reality (MIT) Reality (MIT)

Description

An examination of philosophical issues on the theme of relativism. Are moral standards relative to cultures and/or moral frameworks? Are there incompatible or non-comparable ways of thinking about the world that are somehow equally good? Is science getting closer to the truth? Is rationality--the notion of a good reason to believe something--relative to cultural norms? What are selves? Is there a coherent form of relativism about the self? Discussion of these questions through the writings of contemporary philosophers such as Thomas Kuhn, Karl Popper, Gilbert Harman, Judith Thomson, and Derek Parfit. Emphasis on ways of making these vague questions precise, and critical evaluation of philosophical arguments. An examination of philosophical issues on the theme of relativism. Are moral standards relative to cultures and/or moral frameworks? Are there incompatible or non-comparable ways of thinking about the world that are somehow equally good? Is science getting closer to the truth? Is rationality--the notion of a good reason to believe something--relative to cultural norms? What are selves? Is there a coherent form of relativism about the self? Discussion of these questions through the writings of contemporary philosophers such as Thomas Kuhn, Karl Popper, Gilbert Harman, Judith Thomson, and Derek Parfit. Emphasis on ways of making these vague questions precise, and critical evaluation of philosophical arguments.

Subjects

relativism | relativism | moral standards | moral standards | science | science | truth | truth | rationality | rationality | cultural norms | cultural norms | Thomas Kuhn | Thomas Kuhn | Karl Popper | Karl Popper | Gilbert Harman | Gilbert Harman | Judith Thomson | Judith Thomson | Derek Parfit | Derek Parfit

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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6.945 Adventures in Advanced Symbolic Programming (MIT) 6.945 Adventures in Advanced Symbolic Programming (MIT)

Description

This course covers concepts and techniques for the design and implementation of large software systems that can be adapted to uses not anticipated by the designer. Applications include compilers, computer-algebra systems, deductive systems, and some artificial intelligence applications. Topics include combinators, generic operations, pattern matching, pattern-directed invocation, rule systems, backtracking, dependencies, indeterminacy, memoization, constraint propagation, and incremental refinement. Substantial weekly programming assignments are an integral part of the subject. There will be extensive programming assignments, using MIT/GNU Scheme. Students should have significant programming experience in Scheme, Common Lisp, Haskell, CAML or some other "functional" language. This course covers concepts and techniques for the design and implementation of large software systems that can be adapted to uses not anticipated by the designer. Applications include compilers, computer-algebra systems, deductive systems, and some artificial intelligence applications. Topics include combinators, generic operations, pattern matching, pattern-directed invocation, rule systems, backtracking, dependencies, indeterminacy, memoization, constraint propagation, and incremental refinement. Substantial weekly programming assignments are an integral part of the subject. There will be extensive programming assignments, using MIT/GNU Scheme. Students should have significant programming experience in Scheme, Common Lisp, Haskell, CAML or some other "functional" language.

Subjects

Scheme | Scheme | symbolic programming | symbolic programming | additive systems | additive systems | generic operations | generic operations | language layers | language layers | pattern-directed invocation | pattern-directed invocation | searching | searching | amb | amb | backtracking | backtracking | propagation systems | propagation systems | constraints | constraints | truth maintenance | truth maintenance | continuations | continuations | structure and interpretation of computer programs | structure and interpretation of computer programs

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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21A.225J Violence, Human Rights, and Justice (MIT) 21A.225J Violence, Human Rights, and Justice (MIT)

Description

This course examines the contemporary problem of political violence and the way that human rights have been conceived as a means to protect and promote freedom, peace and justice for citizens against the abuses of the state. This course examines the contemporary problem of political violence and the way that human rights have been conceived as a means to protect and promote freedom, peace and justice for citizens against the abuses of the state.

Subjects

Anthropology | Anthropology | political | political | violence | violence | human rights | human rights | freedom | freedom | peace | peace | justice | justice | citizens | citizens | state | state | historical debates | historical debates | cultural | cultural | natural | natural | western European | western European | moral values | moral values | differences | differences | culture | culture | religion | religion | gender | gender | relationships | relationships | individuals | individuals | collective groups | collective groups | ethnography | ethnography | case studies | case studies | conflict | conflict | globe | globe | war crimes tribunals | war crimes tribunals | truth commissions | truth commissions | individual | individual | collective | collective | traumas | traumas | rule of law | rule of law | representative governance | representative governance | 21A.225 | 21A.225 | SP.621 | SP.621

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.900 Introduction to Linguistics (MIT) 24.900 Introduction to Linguistics (MIT)

Description

This course studies what is language and what does knowledge of a language consist of. It asks how do children learn languages and is language unique to humans; why are there many languages; how do languages change; is any language or dialect superior to another; and how are speech and writing related. Context for these and similar questions is provided by basic examination of internal organization of sentences, words, and sound systems. No prior training in linguistics is assumed. This course studies what is language and what does knowledge of a language consist of. It asks how do children learn languages and is language unique to humans; why are there many languages; how do languages change; is any language or dialect superior to another; and how are speech and writing related. Context for these and similar questions is provided by basic examination of internal organization of sentences, words, and sound systems. No prior training in linguistics is assumed.

Subjects

language | language | linguistics | linguistics | syntax | syntax | phonetics | phonetics | consonants | consonants | vowels | vowels | McGurk effect | McGurk effect | phonology | phonology | phoneme | phoneme | allophone | allophone | lexicon | lexicon | affixes | affixes | topicalization | topicalization | pronunciation | pronunciation | semantics | semantics | truth conditions | truth conditions | synchronic | synchronic | diachronic | diachronic | language families | language families | Ebonics | Ebonics | dialect | dialect

License

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24.251 Introduction to Philosophy of Language (MIT) 24.251 Introduction to Philosophy of Language (MIT)

Description

This course explores the nature of meaning and truth, and their bearing on the use of language in communication. No knowledge of logic or linguistics is presupposed. This course explores the nature of meaning and truth, and their bearing on the use of language in communication. No knowledge of logic or linguistics is presupposed.

Subjects

Meaning and reference | Meaning and reference | empiricist theories | empiricist theories | psychological theories | psychological theories | truth-conditional theories | truth-conditional theories | pretense and attitude ascriptions | pretense and attitude ascriptions | hidden indexical theory | hidden indexical theory | implicature theory | implicature theory | pragmatic theory | pragmatic theory

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.729 Topics in Philosophy of Language: Modeling Representation (MIT) 24.729 Topics in Philosophy of Language: Modeling Representation (MIT)

Description

The seminar will be devoted to understanding what we're up to when we ascribe contents to a person's assertions and mental attitudes. We seek to make clear the rules of the game for the philosophy of language. We'll survey classic discussions of the issue by Field, Lewis and Stalnaker. But much of the emphasis of the class will be on getting clear about the limitations of our theoretical tools. I'd like to focus on places where our theorizing runs into trouble, or breaks down altogether. The seminar will be devoted to understanding what we're up to when we ascribe contents to a person's assertions and mental attitudes. We seek to make clear the rules of the game for the philosophy of language. We'll survey classic discussions of the issue by Field, Lewis and Stalnaker. But much of the emphasis of the class will be on getting clear about the limitations of our theoretical tools. I'd like to focus on places where our theorizing runs into trouble, or breaks down altogether.

Subjects

radical interpretation | radical interpretation | mathematical truth | mathematical truth | self-location | self-location | degrees of belief | degrees of belief | incoherent belief | incoherent belief | language of thought | language of thought | representation system | representation system | modeling representation | modeling representation | intentionality | intentionality | philosophy of language | philosophy of language | Putnam's paradox | Putnam's paradox | semantics | semantics | logical omniscience | logical omniscience | epistemology | epistemology | knowledge argument | knowledge argument

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.729 Topics in Philosophy of Language: Vagueness (MIT) 24.729 Topics in Philosophy of Language: Vagueness (MIT)

Description

The objective of the graduate-level course is to give people a sense of what "accounting for vagueness" is all about, why it's hard, and why it's important. This will involve surveying some prominent accounts of vagueness. The objective of the graduate-level course is to give people a sense of what "accounting for vagueness" is all about, why it's hard, and why it's important. This will involve surveying some prominent accounts of vagueness.

Subjects

vagueness | vagueness | sorites paradox | sorites paradox | truth | truth | supervaluationism | supervaluationism | epistemicism | epistemicism | contextualism | contextualism | nihilism | nihilism | relativism | relativism | logical revisionism | logical revisionism | interdeterminacy | interdeterminacy | language | language | inexact knowledge | inexact knowledge | logic | logic

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.251 Introduction to Philosophy of Language (MIT) 24.251 Introduction to Philosophy of Language (MIT)

Description

In this introductory course on the philosophy of language, we examine views on the nature of meaning, reference, truth, and their relationships. Other topics may include relationships between language and logic, language and knowledge, language and reality, language and acts performed through its use. No knowledge of logic or linguistics presupposed. In this introductory course on the philosophy of language, we examine views on the nature of meaning, reference, truth, and their relationships. Other topics may include relationships between language and logic, language and knowledge, language and reality, language and acts performed through its use. No knowledge of logic or linguistics presupposed.

Subjects

philosophy of language | philosophy of language | nature of meaning | nature of meaning | nature of reference | nature of reference | nature of truth | nature of truth | language and logic | language and logic | language and knowledge | language and knowledge | language and reality | language and reality | language and acts performed through its use | language and acts performed through its use

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.241 Logic I (MIT) 24.241 Logic I (MIT)

Description

This course provides an introduction to the aims and techniques of formal logic. Logic is the science of correct argument, and our study of logic will aim to understand what makes a correct argument good, that is, what is it about the structure of a correct argument that guarantees that, if the premises are all true, the conclusion will be true as well? Our subject (though, to be sure, we can only scratch the surface) will be truth and proof, and the connection between them. This course provides an introduction to the aims and techniques of formal logic. Logic is the science of correct argument, and our study of logic will aim to understand what makes a correct argument good, that is, what is it about the structure of a correct argument that guarantees that, if the premises are all true, the conclusion will be true as well? Our subject (though, to be sure, we can only scratch the surface) will be truth and proof, and the connection between them.

Subjects

techniques of formal logic | techniques of formal logic | truth functions | truth functions | quantifiers | quantifiers | validity | validity | formal deduction | formal deduction | logic applications | logic applications | philosophy | philosophy

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.251 Introduction to Philosophy of Language (MIT) 24.251 Introduction to Philosophy of Language (MIT)

Description

This course is an introduction to the philosophy of language. It examines different views on the nature of meaning, truth and reference, with special focus on the problem of understanding how linguistic communication works. This course is an introduction to the philosophy of language. It examines different views on the nature of meaning, truth and reference, with special focus on the problem of understanding how linguistic communication works.

Subjects

nature of meaning | reference | truth | and their relationships | nature of meaning | reference | truth | and their relationships | relationships between language and logic | language and knowledge | language and reality | language and acts performed through its use | relationships between language and logic | language and knowledge | language and reality | language and acts performed through its use | logic | logic | linguistics | linguistics | language | language | philosophy | philosophy

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.242 Logic II (MIT) 24.242 Logic II (MIT)

Description

This course begins with an introduction to the theory of computability, then proceeds to a detailed study of its most illustrious result: Kurt Gödel's theorem that, for any system of true arithmetical statements we might propose as an axiomatic basis for proving truths of arithmetic, there will be some arithmetical statements that we can recognize as true even though they don't follow from the system of axioms. In my opinion, which is widely shared, this is the most important single result in the entire history of logic, important not only on its own right but for the many applications of the technique by which it's proved. We'll discuss some of these applications, among them: Church's theorem that there is no algorithm for deciding when a formula is valid in the predicate calculus; This course begins with an introduction to the theory of computability, then proceeds to a detailed study of its most illustrious result: Kurt Gödel's theorem that, for any system of true arithmetical statements we might propose as an axiomatic basis for proving truths of arithmetic, there will be some arithmetical statements that we can recognize as true even though they don't follow from the system of axioms. In my opinion, which is widely shared, this is the most important single result in the entire history of logic, important not only on its own right but for the many applications of the technique by which it's proved. We'll discuss some of these applications, among them: Church's theorem that there is no algorithm for deciding when a formula is valid in the predicate calculus;

Subjects

Logic | Logic | theory of computability | theory of computability | Kurt G?del | Kurt G?del | theorem | theorem | system | system | true | true | arithmetical | arithmetical | statements | statements | axiomatic basis | axiomatic basis | proving | proving | truths of arithmetic | truths of arithmetic | history applications | history applications | technique | technique | Church?s theorem | Church?s theorem | algorithm | algorithm | formula | formula | valid | valid | predicate calculus | predicate calculus | Tarski?s theorem | Tarski?s theorem | G?del?s second incompleteness theorem. | G?del?s second incompleteness theorem.

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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24.03 Relativism, Reason, and Reality (MIT) 24.03 Relativism, Reason, and Reality (MIT)

Description

Are moral standards relative to cultures and/or moral frameworks? Are there incompatible or non-comparable ways of thinking about the world that are somehow equally good? Is science getting closer to the truth? Is rationality--the notion of a good reason to believe something--relative to cultural norms? What are selves? Is there a coherent form of relativism about the self? Guided by the writings of Thomas Kuhn, Gilbert Harman, Judith Thomson, John Perry and Derek Parfit, we attempt to make these vague questions precise, and we make a start at answering them. Are moral standards relative to cultures and/or moral frameworks? Are there incompatible or non-comparable ways of thinking about the world that are somehow equally good? Is science getting closer to the truth? Is rationality--the notion of a good reason to believe something--relative to cultural norms? What are selves? Is there a coherent form of relativism about the self? Guided by the writings of Thomas Kuhn, Gilbert Harman, Judith Thomson, John Perry and Derek Parfit, we attempt to make these vague questions precise, and we make a start at answering them.

Subjects

relativism | relativism | moral standards | moral standards | science | science | truth | truth | rationality | rationality | cultural norms | cultural norms | Thomas Kuhn | Thomas Kuhn | Karl Popper | Karl Popper | Gilbert Harman | Gilbert Harman | Judith Thomson | Judith Thomson | Derek Parfit | Derek Parfit

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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PE.550 Designing Your Life (MIT) PE.550 Designing Your Life (MIT)

Description

This course provides an exciting, eye-opening, and thoroughly useful inquiry into what it takes to live an extraordinary life, on your own terms. The instructors address what it takes to succeed, to be proud of your life, and to be happy in it. Participants tackle career satisfaction, money, body, vices, and relationship to themselves. They learn how to confront issues in their lives, how to live life, and how to learn from it. A short version of this course meets during the Independent Activities Period (IAP), which is a special 4-week term at MIT that runs from the first week of January until the end of the month. Then this semester-long extension of the IAP course is taught to interested members of the MIT community. This not-for-credit course is sponsored by the Department of Science, This course provides an exciting, eye-opening, and thoroughly useful inquiry into what it takes to live an extraordinary life, on your own terms. The instructors address what it takes to succeed, to be proud of your life, and to be happy in it. Participants tackle career satisfaction, money, body, vices, and relationship to themselves. They learn how to confront issues in their lives, how to live life, and how to learn from it. A short version of this course meets during the Independent Activities Period (IAP), which is a special 4-week term at MIT that runs from the first week of January until the end of the month. Then this semester-long extension of the IAP course is taught to interested members of the MIT community. This not-for-credit course is sponsored by the Department of Science,

Subjects

design | design | living an extraordinary life | living an extraordinary life | life coaching | life coaching | excuses | excuses | mistakes | mistakes | changes | changes | empowerment | empowerment | love | love | vision | vision | action plan | action plan | wisdom | wisdom | balance | balance | communication | communication | fears | fears | accountability | accountability | truth | truth | setting goals | setting goals | community | community | personal growth | personal growth | leadership roles | leadership roles | career | career | promises | promises | consequences | consequences | haunting incidents | haunting incidents | healing | healing | lies | lies | cleaning up | cleaning up | integrity | integrity

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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PE.550 Designing Your Life (MIT) PE.550 Designing Your Life (MIT)

Description

This course provides an exciting, eye-opening, and thoroughly useful inquiry into what it takes to live an extraordinary life, on your own terms. The instructors address what it takes to succeed, to be proud of your life, and to be happy in it. Participants tackle career satisfaction, money, body, vices, and relationship to themselves and others. They learn how to address issues in their lives, how to live life, and how to learn from it. This course is offered during the Independent Activities Period (IAP), which is a special 4-week term at MIT that runs from the first week of January until the end of the month. This not-for-credit course is sponsored by the Department of Science, Technology, and Society. A similar, semester-long version of this course is taught in the Sloan Fellows Progra This course provides an exciting, eye-opening, and thoroughly useful inquiry into what it takes to live an extraordinary life, on your own terms. The instructors address what it takes to succeed, to be proud of your life, and to be happy in it. Participants tackle career satisfaction, money, body, vices, and relationship to themselves and others. They learn how to address issues in their lives, how to live life, and how to learn from it. This course is offered during the Independent Activities Period (IAP), which is a special 4-week term at MIT that runs from the first week of January until the end of the month. This not-for-credit course is sponsored by the Department of Science, Technology, and Society. A similar, semester-long version of this course is taught in the Sloan Fellows Progra

Subjects

design | design | living an extraordinary life | living an extraordinary life | life coaching | life coaching | excuses | excuses | mistakes | mistakes | changes | changes | empowerment | empowerment | love | love | vision | vision | action plan | action plan | wisdom | wisdom | balance | balance | communication | communication | fears | fears | accountability | accountability | truth | truth | setting goals | setting goals | community | community | personal growth | personal growth | leadership roles | leadership roles | career | career

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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s Argument Concerning Induction

Description

Part 3.1. Briefly introduces the problem of induction: that is, the problem that it is difficult to justify claims to knowledge of the world through pure reason, i.e. without experience. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

knowledge | philosophy | experience | truth | induction | hume | knowledge | philosophy | experience | truth | induction | hume

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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s Famous Argument

Description

Part 3.2. Responses to and justifications of Hume's argument concerning the problem of induction. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

knowledge | philosophy | reichenbach | experience | reason | truth | mellor | strawson | induction | hume | knowledge | philosophy | reichenbach | experience | reason | truth | mellor | strawson | induction | hume

License

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4.3 Cartesian Dualism

Description

Part 4.3. Introduces Descartes' idea of dualism, that there is a separation between the mind and the body, as well as some of the philosophical issues surrounding this idea. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

dualism | body | scepticism | descartes | knowledge | meditations | philosophy | mind | truth | skepticism | dualism | body | scepticism | descartes | knowledge | meditations | philosophy | mind | truth | skepticism

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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