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TALAT Lecture 1501: Properties, Characteristics and Alloys of Aluminium

Description

This lecture provides a survey of the aluminium alloys available to the user; it describes their various properties; it gives an insight into the choice of aluminium for a proposed application. In the context of this lecture not every individual alloy and its properties have been treated in detail, but rather divided into alloy types with reference to the most commonly used alloys. For further details on alloy properties the reader is referred to available databanks like ALUSELECT of the European Aluminium Association (EAA) or to the European and national materials standards. Good engineering background in materials, design and manufacturing processes is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | properties | selection criteria | production | industry | recycled aluminium | secondary aluminium | atomic structure | crystal structure | density | electrical conductivity | resistivity | thermal conductivity | reflectance | non-magnetic | emissivity | corrosion resistance | thermal expansion | melting temperature | latent heat | specific heat | identification | aluminium - copper alloys | aluminium - manganese alloys | aluminium - silicon alloys | aluminium - magnesium alloys | aluminium - magnesium - silicon alloys | aluminium - zinc - magnesium alloys | aluminium - zinc - magnesium - copper alloys | ingot | casting | work hardening | dispersion hardening | solid solution hardening | precipitation hardening | temper designations | non heat-treatable alloys | heat-treatable alloys | applications | mechanical properties | tensile strength | strength/weight ratio | proof stress | elastic properties | elongation | compression | bearing | shear | hardness | ductility | creep | impact strength | elevated temperatures | low temperatures | fracture characteristics | fatigue | corematerials | ukoer

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Federal Mexican firing line corner - calle Independencia at Hotel Diligencias, first day Apr. 21 Federal Mexican firing line corner - calle Independencia at Hotel Diligencias, first day Apr. 21

Description

Subjects

veracruz | veracruz | hadsell | hadsell | rppc | rppc | veracruzincident | veracruzincident | battleofveracruz | battleofveracruz | unitedstatesoccupationofveracruz | unitedstatesoccupationofveracruz

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TALAT Lecture 1501: Properties, Characteristics and Alloys of Aluminium

Description

This lecture provides a survey of the aluminium alloys available to the user; it describes their various properties; it gives an insight into the choice of aluminium for a proposed application. In the context of this lecture not every individual alloy and its properties have been treated in detail, but rather divided into alloy types with reference to the most commonly used alloys. For further details on alloy properties the reader is referred to available databanks like ALUSELECT of the European Aluminium Association (EAA) or to the European and national materials standards. Good engineering background in materials, design and manufacturing processes is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | eaa | talat | training in aluminium application technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | properties | selection criteria | production | industry | recycled aluminium | secondary aluminium | atomic structure | crystal structure | density | electrical conductivity | resistivity | thermal conductivity | reflectance | non-magnetic | emissivity | corrosion resistance | thermal expansion | melting temperature | latent heat | specific heat | identification | aluminium - copper alloys | aluminium - manganese alloys | aluminium - silicon alloys | aluminium - magnesium alloys | aluminium - magnesium - silicon alloys | aluminium - zinc - magnesium alloys | aluminium - zinc - magnesium - copper alloys | ingot | casting | work hardening | dispersion hardening | solid solution hardening | precipitation hardening | temper designations | non heat-treatable alloys | heat-treatable alloys | applications | mechanical properties | tensile strength | strength/weight ratio | proof stress | elastic properties | elongation | compression | bearing | shear | hardness | ductility | creep | impact strength | elevated temperatures | low temperatures | fracture characteristics | fatigue | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Zn, cold rolled - mechanical twins

Description

This sample was cold rolled. Zinc has a hexagonal structure so it contains only two independent slip systems. However, for slip to occur, five slip systems are required so zinc does not undergo general plasticity. Instead it forms mechanical twins as an alternative to dislocation motion to accommodate the deformation.

Subjects

alloy | mechanical twins | metal | twinning | zinc | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 65, Zn 35 (wt%) B4 brass, chill cast

Description

An good example of dendritic solidification, which occurs when the solidification front becomes unstable with respect to small perturbations. This results in the growth of the perturbations, producing dendrites (from the Greek for tree). Interdendritic β phase and purple-grey ZnO inclusions.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | dendrite | metal | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 55, Zn 45 (wt%) brass, rapidly cooled

Description

Brasses with greater than 40% zinc usually consist of β primary dendrites surrounded by α phase. The lack of such a microstructure in this sample indicates that the cooling rate during casting was sufficiently rapid that dendrites were unable to form and consequently the microstructure consists entirely of β phase.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 55, Zn 45 (wt%) brass, rapidly cooled

Description

Brasses with greater than 40% zinc usually consist of β primary dendrites surrounded by α phase. The lack of such a microstructure in this sample indicates that the cooling rate during casting was sufficiently rapid that dendrites were unable to form and consequently the microstructure consists entirely of β phase.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 55, Zn 45 (wt%) brass, rapidly cooled

Description

Brasses with greater than 40% zinc usually consist of β primary dendrites surrounded by α phase. The lack of such a microstructure in this sample indicates that the cooling rate during casting was sufficiently rapid that dendrites were unable to form and consequently the microstructure consists entirely of β phase.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 52.5, Zn 47.5 (wt%) brass, as cast

Description

β brass consisting of large grains of β phase with Widmanstätten γ forming from the grain boundaries.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | widmanstätten | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 52.5, Zn 47.5 (wt%) brass, as cast

Description

β brass consisting of large grains of β phase with Widmanstätten γ forming from the grain boundaries.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | widmanstätten | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 52.5, Zn 47.5 (wt%) brass, as cast

Description

β brass consisting of large grains of β phase with Widmanstätten γ forming from the grain boundaries.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | widmanstätten | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 60, Zn 40 (wt%), slow cooling - equiaxed grains

Description

This sample was homogenised at 850 C and slowly furnace cooled to give ? and ? equiaxed grains. The slow cooling allows sufficient time for the required diffusion of solute between solidifying grains to occur to maintain equilibrium.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | zinc | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

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Cu 55, Zn 45 (wt%) brass, as cast, dendritic

Description

A cast alloy of high zinc brass, consisting of β dendrites. The α precipitates out of solution at the crystal boundaries, forming a structure of β dendrites surrounded by α. This is known as a Widmanstätten structure because a geometrical pattern of α forms on certain crystallographic orientations of the β lattice.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | widmanstätten | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 55, Zn 45 (wt%) brass, as cast, dendritic

Description

A cast alloy of high zinc brass, consisting of β dendrites. The α precipitates out of solution at the crystal boundaries, forming a structure of β dendrites surrounded by α. This is known as a Widmanstätten structure because a geometrical pattern of α forms on certain crystallographic orientations of the β lattice.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | widmanstätten | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 60, Zn 40 (wt%), slow cooling - equiaxed grains

Description

This sample was homogenised at 850 C and slowly furnace cooled to give ? and ? equiaxed grains. The slow cooling allows sufficient time for the required diffusion of solute between solidifying grains to occur to maintain equilibrium.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | zinc | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 55, Zn 45 (wt%) brass, as cast, dendritic

Description

A cast alloy of high zinc brass, consisting of β dendrites. The α precipitates out of solution at the crystal boundaries, forming a structure of β dendrites surrounded by α. This is known as a Widmanstätten structure because a geometrical pattern of α forms on certain crystallographic orientations of the β lattice.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | widmanstätten | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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tten microstructure

Description

This sample has been air cooled. The fast cooling rate changes the morphology to a 'basket weave' appearance known as a Widmansttten microstructure. The ? phase precipitates out of the single ? phase during cooling to give ? plates in a ? matrix. The plates form in order to minimise strain energy.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | tten | zinc | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

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Brass, exhibiting grain boundary nucleation

Description

A high zinc brass that forms large grains of β phase (yellow areas, due to higher copper content) and subsequently grains of γ form on β grain boundaries and also on non-metallic inclusions in the alloy.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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tten microstructure

Description

This sample has been air cooled. The fast cooling rate changes the morphology to a 'basket weave' appearance known as a Widmansttten microstructure. The ? phase precipitates out of the single ? phase during cooling to give ? plates in a ? matrix. The plates form in order to minimise strain energy.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | tten | zinc | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Brass, exhibiting grain boundary nucleation

Description

A high zinc brass that forms large grains of β phase (yellow areas, due to higher copper content) and subsequently grains of γ form on β grain boundaries and also on non-metallic inclusions in the alloy.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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C - Widmansttten microstructure

Description

This sample was quenched and held at 300 C for one hour. It has a Widmansttten microstructure with the ? phase precipitating out of the single ? phase during cooling to give ? plates in a ? matrix. The low temperature at which the transformation takes place leads to less diffusion and results in a finer structure.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | quenching | tten | zinc | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

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Brass, exhibiting grain boundary nucleation

Description

A high zinc brass that forms large grains of β phase (yellow areas, due to higher copper content) and subsequently grains of γ form on β grain boundaries and also on non-metallic inclusions in the alloy.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | metal | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 50, Zn 50 (wt%) brass, as cast

Description

As cast copper rich brass showing copper dendrites in a matrix of α (copper) and β phases.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | dendrite | metal | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 50, Zn 50 (wt%) brass, as cast

Description

The centre of a cast brass sample showing the equiaxed zone where nucleation has occurred ahead of the solidification front.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | dendrite | metal | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cu 50, Zn 50 (wt%) brass, as cast

Description

As cast copper rich brass showing copper dendrites in a matrix of α (copper) and β phases.

Subjects

alloy | brass | copper | dendrite | metal | zinc | doitpoms | university of cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer | Engineering | H000

License

Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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