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Cast iron with magnesium induced spheroidised graphite

Description

Cast iron is a brittle material and it is advantageous to process it in such a way to improve its ductility. The brittleness is partially due to the graphite flakes which act as nucleation sites for cracks. Therefore it is an advantage to have the graphite present as spheres. This can be achieved by a heat treatment regime or by the addition of a small amount of Mg which poisons the graphite growth directions.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | iron | manganese | metal | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Cast iron with magnesium induced spheroidised graphite

Description

Cast iron is a brittle material and it is advantageous to process it in such a way to improve its ductility. The brittleness is partially due to the graphite flakes which act as nucleation sites for cracks. Therefore it is an advantage to have the graphite present as spheres. This can be achieved by a heat treatment regime or by the addition of a small amount of Mg which poisons the graphite growth directions.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | iron | manganese | metal | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

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Cast iron with magnesium induced spheroidised graphite

Description

Cast iron is a brittle material and it is advantageous to process it in such a way to improve its ductility. The brittleness is partially due to the graphite flakes which act as nucleation sites for cracks. Therefore it is an advantage to have the graphite present as spheres. This can be achieved by a heat treatment regime or by the addition of a small amount of Mg which poisons the graphite growth directions.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | iron | manganese | metal | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

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Cast iron with magnesium induced spheroidised graphite

Description

Cast iron is a brittle material and it is advantageous to process it in such a way to improve its ductility. The brittleness is partially due to the graphite flakes which act as nucleation sites for cracks. Therefore it is an advantage to have the graphite present as spheres. This can be achieved by a heat treatment regime or by the addition of a small amount of Mg which poisons the graphite growth directions.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | iron | manganese | metal | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cast iron with magnesium induced spheroidised graphite

Description

Cast iron is a brittle material and it is advantageous to process it in such a way to improve its ductility. The brittleness is partially due to the graphite flakes which act as nucleation sites for cracks. Therefore it is an advantage to have the graphite present as spheres. This can be achieved by a heat treatment regime or by the addition of a small amount of Mg which poisons the graphite growth directions.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | iron | manganese | metal | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cast iron with magnesium induced spheroidised graphite

Description

Cast iron is a brittle material and it is advantageous to process it in such a way to improve its ductility. The brittleness is partially due to the graphite flakes which act as nucleation sites for cracks. Therefore it is an advantage to have the graphite present as spheres. This can be achieved by a heat treatment regime or by the addition of a small amount of Mg which poisons the graphite growth directions.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | iron | manganese | metal | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cast iron with magnesium induced spheroidised graphite

Description

Cast iron is a brittle material and it is advantageous to process it in such a way to improve its ductility. The brittleness is partially due to the graphite flakes which act as nucleation sites for cracks. Therefore it is an advantage to have the graphite present as spheres. This can be achieved by a heat treatment regime or by the addition of a small amount of Mg which poisons the graphite growth directions.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | iron | metal | spheroidal | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

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Cast iron with magnesium induced spheroidised graphite

Description

Cast iron is a brittle material and it is advantageous to process it in such a way to improve its ductility. The brittleness is partially due to the graphite flakes which act as nucleation sites for cracks. Therefore it is an advantage to have the graphite present as spheres. This can be achieved by a heat treatment regime or by the addition of a small amount of Mg which poisons the graphite growth directions.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | iron | metal | spheroidal | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cast iron with magnesium induced spheroidised graphite

Description

Cast iron is a brittle material and it is advantageous to process it in such a way to improve its ductility. The brittleness is partially due to the graphite flakes which act as nucleation sites for cracks. Therefore it is an advantage to have the graphite present as spheres. This can be achieved by a heat treatment regime or by the addition of a small amount of Mg which poisons the graphite growth directions.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | iron | metal | spheroidal | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cast iron with magnesium induced spheroidised graphite

Description

Cast iron is a brittle material and it is advantageous to process it in such a way to improve its ductility. The brittleness is partially due to the graphite flakes which act as nucleation sites for cracks. Therefore it is an advantage to have the graphite present as spheres. This can be achieved by a heat treatment regime or by the addition of a small amount of Mg which poisons the graphite growth directions.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | iron | metal | spheroidal | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Cast iron with magnesium induced spheroidised graphite

Description

Cast iron is a brittle material and it is advantageous to process it in such a way to improve its ductility. The brittleness is partially due to the graphite flakes which act as nucleation sites for cracks. Therefore it is an advantage to have the graphite present as spheres. This can be achieved by a heat treatment regime or by the addition of a small amount of Mg which poisons the graphite growth directions.

Subjects

alloy | carbon | cast iron | iron | metal | spheroidal | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

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C for 17 hours.

Description

During the devitrification process, the glass changes from being completely amorphous to partially crystalline, as it adsorbs moisture from the atmosphere. Devitrified glass has a frosty or cloudy, iridescent appearance. Devitrification occurs naturally over long periods of time, but can be induced by heating to high temperatures for prolonged periods of time.

Subjects

ceramic | devitrification | glass | silica | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

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C for 17 hours

Description

During the devitrification process, the glass changes from being completely amorphous to partially crystalline, as it adsorbs moisture from the atmosphere. Devitrified glass has a frosty or cloudy, iridescent appearance. Devitrification occurs naturally over long periods of time, but can be induced by heating to high temperatures for prolonged periods of time. Compare this micrograph with micrograph ID 544, which shows the same sample rotated through 45.

Subjects

ceramic | devitrification | glass | silica | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

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C for 17 hours

Description

During the devitrification process, the glass changes from being completely amorphous to partially crystalline, as it adsorbs moisture from the atmosphere. Devitrified glass has a frosty or cloudy, iridescent appearance. Devitrification occurs naturally over long periods of time, but can be induced by heating to high temperatures for prolonged periods of time. Compare this micrograph with micrograph ID 543, which shows the same sample rotated through 45.

Subjects

ceramic | devitrification | glass | silica | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

License

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Vapour-grown carbon nanotubes

Description

Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) allows the synthesis of high purity nanotubes of controlled length and diameter. The nanotubes in this specimen were formed in the heated zone of the apparatus whilst using ferrocene dissolved in toluene. The fibres are of high purity and their diameters range from 400 to 500 nm.

Subjects

carbon | carbon nanotube | chemical vapour deposition (CVD) | ferrocene | nanotube | polymer | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Strain induced birefringence in a thermoformed PET cup

Description

The base of the cup is the least strained part of the sheet. Nevertheless, residual strain, increasing with radius, is evident when the specimen is viewed between crossed polars. The polymer chains are more highly aligned where the strain is greatest and this leads to greater birefringence (rotation of polarised light). Hence a circumferential pattern of colours is observed. If heated above the glass-transition temperature of PET (70-80 C), the cup will tend to retract towards its unstrained form of a sheet. The dark 'Maltese cross', spreading out horizontally and vertically from the centre, indicates the extinction directions or the orientations of the two polarising films, where the intensity of transmitted light is lowest. Note: most clear plastic cups are made from polystyren

Subjects

alignment | birefringence | cup | drawing | polyester | polyethylene terephthalate (PET) | polymer | strain | thermoforming | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Injection-moulded polystyrene ruler

Description

The colours in the image are the result of birefringence and relate to the residual strain in the polystyrene. The pattern of strain is indicative of the flow of material during the injection process and it highlights the injection point (known as a 'gate') at the end of the ruler; the molecular alignment is greatest near this point. Towards the edges of the ruler and along its length, the material becomes more relaxed and as the molecular alignment falls, the retardation of light is less. If heated above the glass transition temperature of polystyrene (about 100 C), the material will tend to relax, particularly along the centreline, near the gate. This will result in a wrinkled form.

Subjects

alignment | birefringence | injection moulding | polymer | polystyrene (PS) | ruler | sprue | strain | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Injection-moulded polystyrene (PS) case

Description

The colours in the image are the result of birefringence and relate to the residual strain in the polystyrene. The pattern of strain is indicative of the flow of material during the injection process and it highlights the injection point (known as a 'sprue') which can also be identified by a small lump on the surface; the molecular alignment is greatest near this point. Towards the edges of the ruler and along its length, the material becomes more relaxed and as the molecular alignment falls, the retardation of light is less. If heated above the glass transition temperature of polystyrene (about 100 C), the material will tend to relax, particularly near the sprue. This will result in a wrinkling of the component.

Subjects

alignment | birefringence | injection moulding | polymer | polystyrene (PS) | sprue | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Cross-section of an aluminium casting

Description

Solidification initiates on the mould walls because this is where the melt is coolest and because inhomogeneities promote nucleation. Selective growth then occurs, whereby the grains which have their easy growth direction parallel to the heat flow direction grow fastest, and cut off the paths of less well-aligned grains. This results in a 'columnar zone' which may extend to the centre of the casting but often gives way to an 'equiaxed zone'. The equiaxed grains may result from sedimentation from the free surface, from the detachment of dendrite tips, or simply from heterogeneous nucleation ahead of the advancing front (though the latter is only likely if deliberate 'melt inoculation' has been implemented).

Subjects

alloy | aluminium | cast | casting | chill zone | columnar | equiaxed | metal | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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FORMGRIP closed cell aluminium foam

Description

Additions such as SiC are made to molten aluminium or aluminium alloy to modify the melt viscosity and make it suitable for foaming. 1 to 3 wt% of pre-oxidised titanium hydride is then added to the melt which is solidified to form a precursor which can be foamed in a controlled manner by a subsequent heat treatment. The resulting foam has a relatively fine and uniform cell structure.

Subjects

alloy | aluminium | aluminium foam | cell | composite foam | composite material | foam | FORMGRIP | metal | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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FOAMCARP closed cell aluminium foam

Description

Additions such as SiC are made to molten aluminium or aluminium alloy to modify the melt viscosity and make it suitable for foaming. Calcium carbonate is then added to the melt which is solidified to form a precursor which can be foamed in a controlled manner by a subsequent heat treatment. The resulting foam has a fine and relatively uniform cell structure.

Subjects

alloy | aluminium | aluminium foam | cell | composite foam | composite material | foam | FOAMCARP | metal | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Small ceramic pot showing centimetre scale crystals within the glaze

Description

Careful heat treatment of the glaze produces a very small number of willemite (zinc orthosilicate, Zn2SiO4) nuclei which can grow to centimetre dimensions over the course of a few hours at a suitably high temperature. Cobalt in the glaze composition segregates preferentially to the willemite crystals, colouring them blue.

Subjects

ceramic | crystalline glaze | devitrification | willemite | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Small ceramic pot showing centimetre scale crystals within the glaze

Description

Careful heat treatment of the glaze produces a very small number of willemite (zinc orthosilicate, Zn2SiO4) nuclei which can grow to centimetre dimensions over the course of a few hours at a suitably high temperature. Cobalt in the glaze composition segregates preferentially to the willemite crystals, colouring them blue.

Subjects

ceramic | crystalline glaze | devitrification | willemite | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Ni-Superalloy, heat treated above gamma-prime solvus

Description

Micrograph shows a close up of the secondary ?' present within the centre of ? grains. This form of ?' grows with prolonged exposure to temperature and forms the blocky primary ?' found on the grain boundaries. View schematic diagram of ?' microstructure

Subjects

nickel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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Ni-Superalloy, heat treated above gamma-prime solvus

Description

This micrograph shows a high magnification image of The morphology of ?' is discernible as grey 'blocky' precipitates, approximately 2?m in diameter. The small white particles present, due to their atomic contrast visible in back-scattered mode, are discernable as MC carbides. View schematic diagram of ?' microstructure

Subjects

nickel | DoITPoMS | University of Cambridge | micrograph | corematerials | ukoer

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