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Finding the best malaria treatments

Description

Dr Mehul Dhorda heads the Asia Regional Centre of the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN). Artemisinin resistance is firmly established in many parts of Southeast Asia and threatens the lives of millions of people. To improve regional intelligence and aid containment efforts, Dr Dhorda promotes the collection of high quality data on malaria drug resistance. His research aims to simplify and harmonise data, securely store results and analyse comparative or collective pooled analyses. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

malaria | antimalarial resistance | artemisinin resistance | artemisinin | drug resistance | data | malaria | antimalarial resistance | artemisinin resistance | artemisinin | drug resistance | data

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Malaria control in Africa

Description

Professor Bob Snow from our KEMRI-Wellcome programme in Nairobi, Kenya, tells us how his research brings together epidemiological profiles and government policies to maximise malaria control programmes in Africa Quality data is vital to design better malaria control programmes. This project helps various African countries gather epidemiological evidence to better control malaria. Professor Bob Snow showed how sub-regional, evidence-based platforms can effectively change malaria treatment policies. Professor Bob Snow has developed a large programme of work on the phenotype of malaria disease, its relationship to parasite exposure and its wider public health burden. Technical advisor to the Kenyan Government (and member of a number of international malaria advisory panels), Professor Snow p Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

translational medicine | Global health | malaria | malaria control | Kenya | translational medicine | Global health | malaria | malaria control | Kenya

License

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Malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong sub-region

Description

Dr Lorenz von Seidlein from our MORU unit in Bangkok, Thailand, tells us about his research on malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong sub-region Multidrug resistant P. falciparum malaria is now established in parts of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia, causing high treatment failure rates for artemisinin combination therapies, the main falciparum malaria medicines. A further spread from Myanmar to India then sub-Saharan Africa would be a global public health disaster. TME seeks the best ways to eliminate drug-resistant malaria, using both technical solutions and novel ways that engage entire communities. Dr Lorenz von Seidlein coordinates MORU?s Targeted Malaria Elimination (TME) study, which seeks to eliminate artemisinin resistant falciparum malaria by treating entire communities that ha Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

translational medicine | Global health | malaria | malaria elimination | mekong | translational medicine | Global health | malaria | malaria elimination | mekong

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Malaria in Kenya

Description

There is a great need for better treatments for malaria and for a preventative malaria vaccine. SPACIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY & VACCINES Understanding the variation of malaria risk between houses, villages or region, and how malaria is transmitted in and around that variability helps develop better malaria control programmes and use their resources more wisely. Since malaria control tools are becoming less effective with time, progress in vaccine design is essential. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

malaria | malaria vaccines | Epidemiology | malaria | malaria vaccines | Epidemiology

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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3.052 Nanomechanics of Materials and Biomaterials (MIT) 3.052 Nanomechanics of Materials and Biomaterials (MIT)

Description

This course focuses on the latest scientific developments and discoveries in the field of nanomechanics, the study of forces and motion on extremely tiny (10-9 m) areas of synthetic and biological materials and structures. At this level, mechanical properties are intimately related to chemistry, physics, and quantum mechanics. Most lectures will consist of a theoretical component that will then be compared to recent experimental data (case studies) in the literature. The course begins with a series of introductory lectures that describes the normal and lateral forces acting at the atomic scale. The following discussions include experimental techniques in high resolution force spectroscopy, atomistic aspects of adhesion, nanoindentation, molecular details of fracture, chemical force microsc This course focuses on the latest scientific developments and discoveries in the field of nanomechanics, the study of forces and motion on extremely tiny (10-9 m) areas of synthetic and biological materials and structures. At this level, mechanical properties are intimately related to chemistry, physics, and quantum mechanics. Most lectures will consist of a theoretical component that will then be compared to recent experimental data (case studies) in the literature. The course begins with a series of introductory lectures that describes the normal and lateral forces acting at the atomic scale. The following discussions include experimental techniques in high resolution force spectroscopy, atomistic aspects of adhesion, nanoindentation, molecular details of fracture, chemical force microsc

Subjects

biology | biology | biological engineering | biological engineering | cells | cells | AFM | AFM | atomic force microscope | atomic force microscope | nanoindentation | nanoindentation | gecko | gecko | malaria | malaria | nanotube | nanotube | collagen | collagen | polymer | polymer | seashell | seashell | biomimetics | biomimetics | molecule | molecule | atomic | atomic | bonding | bonding | adhesion | adhesion | quantum mechanics | quantum mechanics | physics | physics | chemistry | chemistry | protein | protein | DNA | DNA | bone | bone | lipid | lipid

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.340 Unusual Biology: The Science of Emerging Pathogens (MIT) 7.340 Unusual Biology: The Science of Emerging Pathogens (MIT)

Description

Infectious diseases represent a serious global public health problem. They have the potential to kill millions of people, whether they emerge naturally as outbreaks or pandemics, or deliberately through bioterrorism. Some examples of diseases caused by emerging pathogens are the Bubonic Plague, Toxoplasmosis, African Sleeping Sickness, and Chagas Disease. Each day, infectious disease scientists serve on the front lines protecting us from such threats. In this course students will learn how to design and critique experiments through the discussion of primary research articles that explore the molecular basis of disease caused by emerging pathogens. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students w Infectious diseases represent a serious global public health problem. They have the potential to kill millions of people, whether they emerge naturally as outbreaks or pandemics, or deliberately through bioterrorism. Some examples of diseases caused by emerging pathogens are the Bubonic Plague, Toxoplasmosis, African Sleeping Sickness, and Chagas Disease. Each day, infectious disease scientists serve on the front lines protecting us from such threats. In this course students will learn how to design and critique experiments through the discussion of primary research articles that explore the molecular basis of disease caused by emerging pathogens. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students w

Subjects

pathogens | pathogens | Infectious diseases | Infectious diseases | parasite | parasite | host cell | host cell | gene expression | gene expression | Toxoplasma rhoptry protein 16 (ROP16) | Toxoplasma rhoptry protein 16 (ROP16) | Toxoplasma gondii | Toxoplasma gondii | STAT6 | STAT6 | Plasmodium falciparum | Plasmodium falciparum | malaria | malaria | RON8 | RON8 | Trypanosoma cruzi | Trypanosoma cruzi | Chagas disease | Chagas disease | Listeria monocytogenes | Listeria monocytogenes | Leishmaniasis | Leishmaniasis | Francisella | Francisella | pathogen proliferation | pathogen proliferation

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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7.340 Under the Radar Screen: How Bugs Trick Our Immune Defenses (MIT) 7.340 Under the Radar Screen: How Bugs Trick Our Immune Defenses (MIT)

Description

In this course, we will explore the specific ways by which microbes defeat our immune system and the molecular mechanisms that are under attack (phagocytosis, the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway, MHC I/II antigen presentation). Through our discussion and dissection of the primary research literature, we will explore aspects of host-pathogen interactions. We will particularly emphasize the experimental techniques used in the field and how to read and understand research data. Technological advances in the fight against microbes will also be discussed, with specific examples. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about In this course, we will explore the specific ways by which microbes defeat our immune system and the molecular mechanisms that are under attack (phagocytosis, the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway, MHC I/II antigen presentation). Through our discussion and dissection of the primary research literature, we will explore aspects of host-pathogen interactions. We will particularly emphasize the experimental techniques used in the field and how to read and understand research data. Technological advances in the fight against microbes will also be discussed, with specific examples. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about

Subjects

HIV | HIV | mycobacterium tuberculosis | mycobacterium tuberculosis | malaria | malaria | influenza | influenza | immune system | immune system | pathogens | pathogens | viruses | viruses | bacteria | bacteria | parasites | parasites | microbes | microbes | phagocytosis | phagocytosis | ubiquitin/proteasome pathway | ubiquitin/proteasome pathway | MHC I/II antigen presentation | MHC I/II antigen presentation | Salmonella | Salmonella | pathogen-associated molecular patterns | pathogen-associated molecular patterns | PAMP | PAMP | Toll-like receptors | Toll-like receptors | TLR | TLR | Vaccinia virus | Vaccinia virus | Proteasome | Proteasome | Ubiquitin; deubiquinating enzymes | Ubiquitin; deubiquinating enzymes | DUB | DUB | Herpes simplex virus | Herpes simplex virus | HSV | HSV | Yersinia | Yersinia | viral budding | viral budding | Human cytomegalovirus | Human cytomegalovirus | HCMV | HCMV | Histocompatiblity | Histocompatiblity | AIDS | AIDS | Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpes virus | Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpes virus | Mixoma virus | Mixoma virus | Epstein Barr virus | Epstein Barr virus | EBV | EBV | Burkitt?s B cell lymphoma | Burkitt?s B cell lymphoma

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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Artemisinin therapy for malaria by Professor Nick White

Description

Professor Nick White talks about the future of artemisinin and other drug therapies for malaria. Malaria kills more than half a million people every year. Following a number of groundbreaking clinical trials, Professor Nick White and his Thailand team successfully demonstrated the effectiveness of artemisinin drug therapy for malaria in adults, children and infants. He also pioneered artemisinin combination therapy, the first-line treatment for malaria worldwide. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

Global health | artemisinin | drug discovery | drug resistance | malaria | Global health | artemisinin | drug discovery | drug resistance | malaria

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Can we block malaria transmission by Sumi Biswas

Description

Dr Sumi Biswas talks about the development of a vaccine aimed at the mosquito stage of the malaria parasite cycle Malaria transmission-blocking vaccines aim to induce immunity against the parasites that infect mosquitoes. Such vaccines will prevent malaria transmission on a wider scale, focusing on the community rather than the individual. Dr Sumi Biswas is working on the development of transmission-blocking vaccines to prevent the spread of malaria.

Subjects

vaccines | malaria | Jenner Institute | clinical trials | ukoer | vaccines | malaria | Jenner Institute | clinical trials

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Viral vectored vaccine development

Description

Professor Sarah Gilbert talks about her work on viral vectored vaccines. Professor Sarah Gilbert has been making and testing vaccines designed to induce T cell responses for ten years, chiefly using antigens from malaria and influenza. Based at the Jenner Institute, several of the vaccines developed in Professor Gilberts laboratory have progressed into Clinical Trials. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

immunology | tuberculosis and influenza | malaria | T cell | immune response | vaccine | clinical trials | immunology | tuberculosis and influenza | malaria | T cell | immune response | vaccine | clinical trials

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Progress in Malaria Vaccine Research

Description

Dr Simon Draper tells us about his progress in malaria vaccine research. Dr Simon Draper's research interests include studies of vaccine induced malaria immunity. His group focuses on translational medicine. They will take their most promising vaccine candidates and manufacture them as clinical grade material. The next step is proof of concept clinical trials in healthy volunteers. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

immunology | vaccine | malaria | clinical trials | immunology | vaccine | malaria | clinical trials

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Malaria vaccine for P. vivax

Description

Dr Arturo Reyes-Sandoval tells us about his research on a vaccine against Plasmodium vivax. Dr Reyes Sandoval aims to develop a novel malaria vaccine against Plasmodium vivax, one of the four malaria parasites that affect humans. P. vivax is found in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Western Pacific. 40 percent of the world's population is exposed to the disease that is responsible for around 130 to 350 million clinical cases every year. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

recombinant viral vectors | Plasmodium vivax | malaria vaccines | recombinant viral vectors | Plasmodium vivax | malaria vaccines

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Genomics and Global Health

Description

Professor Dominic Kwiatkowski talks about his work on global health, how genomics can help us fight infections such as malaria. Prof. Dominic Kwiatkowski aims to reduce the burden of infectious disease in the developing world. He translates advances in genome science into clinical and epidemiological applications. He mostly works on malaria but many of his tools and methodologies in genetics, statistics, informatics and ethics have applications for other diseases. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

Global health | Epidemiology | malaria | human genome | network | Global health | Epidemiology | malaria | human genome | network

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Tropical Medicine in Kenya

Description

Professor Kevin Marsh tells us about his research on Tropical Medicine in Kenya. Prof. Kevin Marsh has a broad research interest in child health in the tropics, with a particular focus in the immune epidemiology of malaria. Prof. Marsh is director of the KEMRI Wellcome Programme in Kenya; he also coordinates the malaria immunology group within the programme. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

Global health | Epidemiology | immunology | malaria | Global health | Epidemiology | immunology | malaria

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Iron Metabolism

Description

Dr Hal Drakesmith tells us how his work on iron availability can help us fight infections. Iron plays essential biochemical roles in oxygen binding, ATP synthesis and DNA metabolism. The level of iron available in different tissues is controlled by the small peptide hormone hepcidin. Dr Hal Drakesmith studies how hepcidin is modulated during infections, since iron availability plays an important role in the course of major infectious diseases such as HIV, malaria and Hepatitis C. Genetic variation plays an important role in individual susceptibility to many common diseases. New insights into genetic variants which modulate gene expression allow us to better understand why people develop these diseases. We can then target treatments much more effectively. Ultimately, we will be able to iden Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

malaria | hiv | Immune System | infection | hepcidin | iron | hepatitis C | ferroportin | malaria | hiv | Immune System | infection | hepcidin | iron | hepatitis C | ferroportin

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Malaria and Global Health

Description

Dr Climent Casals-Pascual explains how the development of new tools to diagnose and manage malaria more effectively will allow us to decrease the mortality of this condition. Dr Climent Casals-Pascual is interested in severe malaria, particularly its diagnosis and clinical management. Clinical symptoms of severe malaria are similar to those of other diseases like pneumonia and meningitis. In tropical countries, poor diagnosis often results in sub-optimal treatments. Integrating proteomic, genomic and clinical data will help us explain differences in clinical outcome in severe malaria. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

Medicine | Africa | tropical diseases | malaria | developing world | Medicine | Africa | tropical diseases | malaria | developing world

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Malaria Vaccines

Description

Professor Adrian Hill has been studying the immune system and malaria susceptibility in African children for years. We asked him about his latest findings in the development of vaccines against malaria. Professor Hill develops vaccines against malaria based on inducing cellular immune responses (T lymphocytes) instead of the more commonly used stimulation of antibodies. Prophylactic vaccines developed in Oxford are now showing great promise in clinical trials. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

jenner | malaria | Africa | vaccines | developing world | tropical diseases | jenner | malaria | Africa | vaccines | developing world | tropical diseases

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Artemisinin therapy for malaria by Professor Nick White

Description

Professor Nick White talks about the future of artemisinin and other drug therapies for malaria. Malaria kills more than half a million people every year. Following a number of groundbreaking clinical trials, Professor Nick White and his Thailand team successfully demonstrated the effectiveness of artemisinin drug therapy for malaria in adults, children and infants. He also pioneered artemisinin combination therapy, the first-line treatment for malaria worldwide. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

Global health | artemisinin | drug discovery | drug resistance | malaria | Global health | artemisinin | drug discovery | drug resistance | malaria

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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Viral vectored vaccine development

Description

Professor Sarah Gilbert talks about her work on viral vectored vaccines. Professor Sarah Gilbert has been making and testing vaccines designed to induce T cell responses for ten years, chiefly using antigens from malaria and influenza. Based at the Jenner Institute, several of the vaccines developed in Professor Gilberts laboratory have progressed into Clinical Trials. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

immunology | tuberculosis and influenza | malaria | T cell | immune response | vaccine | clinical trials | immunology | tuberculosis and influenza | malaria | T cell | immune response | vaccine | clinical trials

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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http://mediapub.it.ox.ac.uk/feeds/129165/video.xml

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Progress in Malaria Vaccine Research

Description

Dr Simon Draper tells us about his progress in malaria vaccine research. Dr Simon Draper's research interests include studies of vaccine induced malaria immunity. His group focuses on translational medicine. They will take their most promising vaccine candidates and manufacture them as clinical grade material. The next step is proof of concept clinical trials in healthy volunteers. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

immunology | vaccine | malaria | clinical trials | immunology | vaccine | malaria | clinical trials

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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http://mediapub.it.ox.ac.uk/feeds/129165/video.xml

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Malaria vaccine for P. vivax

Description

Dr Arturo Reyes-Sandoval tells us about his research on a vaccine against Plasmodium vivax. Dr Reyes Sandoval aims to develop a novel malaria vaccine against Plasmodium vivax, one of the four malaria parasites that affect humans. P. vivax is found in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Western Pacific. 40 percent of the world's population is exposed to the disease that is responsible for around 130 to 350 million clinical cases every year. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

recombinant viral vectors | Plasmodium vivax | malaria vaccines | recombinant viral vectors | Plasmodium vivax | malaria vaccines

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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http://mediapub.it.ox.ac.uk/feeds/129165/video.xml

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Genomics and Global Health

Description

Professor Dominic Kwiatkowski talks about his work on global health, how genomics can help us fight infections such as malaria. Prof. Dominic Kwiatkowski aims to reduce the burden of infectious disease in the developing world. He translates advances in genome science into clinical and epidemiological applications. He mostly works on malaria but many of his tools and methodologies in genetics, statistics, informatics and ethics have applications for other diseases. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

Global health | Epidemiology | malaria | human genome | network | Global health | Epidemiology | malaria | human genome | network

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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http://mediapub.it.ox.ac.uk/feeds/129165/video.xml

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Tropical Medicine in Kenya

Description

Professor Kevin Marsh tells us about his research on Tropical Medicine in Kenya. Prof. Kevin Marsh has a broad research interest in child health in the tropics, with a particular focus in the immune epidemiology of malaria. Prof. Marsh is director of the KEMRI Wellcome Programme in Kenya; he also coordinates the malaria immunology group within the programme. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

Global health | Epidemiology | immunology | malaria | Global health | Epidemiology | immunology | malaria

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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http://mediapub.it.ox.ac.uk/feeds/129165/video.xml

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Iron Metabolism

Description

Dr Hal Drakesmith tells us how his work on iron availability can help us fight infections. Iron plays essential biochemical roles in oxygen binding, ATP synthesis and DNA metabolism. The level of iron available in different tissues is controlled by the small peptide hormone hepcidin. Dr Hal Drakesmith studies how hepcidin is modulated during infections, since iron availability plays an important role in the course of major infectious diseases such as HIV, malaria and Hepatitis C. Genetic variation plays an important role in individual susceptibility to many common diseases. New insights into genetic variants which modulate gene expression allow us to better understand why people develop these diseases. We can then target treatments much more effectively. Ultimately, we will be able to iden Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

malaria | hiv | Immune System | infection | hepcidin | iron | hepatitis C | ferroportin | malaria | hiv | Immune System | infection | hepcidin | iron | hepatitis C | ferroportin

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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http://mediapub.it.ox.ac.uk/feeds/129165/video.xml

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Malaria and Global Health

Description

Dr Climent Casals-Pascual explains how the development of new tools to diagnose and manage malaria more effectively will allow us to decrease the mortality of this condition. Dr Climent Casals-Pascual is interested in severe malaria, particularly its diagnosis and clinical management. Clinical symptoms of severe malaria are similar to those of other diseases like pneumonia and meningitis. In tropical countries, poor diagnosis often results in sub-optimal treatments. Integrating proteomic, genomic and clinical data will help us explain differences in clinical outcome in severe malaria. Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

Medicine | Africa | tropical diseases | malaria | developing world | Medicine | Africa | tropical diseases | malaria | developing world

License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

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http://mediapub.it.ox.ac.uk/feeds/129165/video.xml

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