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3.40J Physical Metallurgy (MIT) 3.40J Physical Metallurgy (MIT)

Description

Discusses structure-property relationships in metallic alloys selected to illustrate some basic concepts of physical metallurgy and alloy design. Fundamentals of annealing, spinodal decomposition, nucleation, growth, and particle coarsening. Concentrates on structure, structure formation, and structure-properties relationships. Also considers structural features: grain size, interstitial and substitutional solutes, precipitates, second-phase particles, and eutectoids. Examples from advanced structural alloys and low-dimensional alloys for magnetic recording media and integrated circuits. Discusses structure-property relationships in metallic alloys selected to illustrate some basic concepts of physical metallurgy and alloy design. Fundamentals of annealing, spinodal decomposition, nucleation, growth, and particle coarsening. Concentrates on structure, structure formation, and structure-properties relationships. Also considers structural features: grain size, interstitial and substitutional solutes, precipitates, second-phase particles, and eutectoids. Examples from advanced structural alloys and low-dimensional alloys for magnetic recording media and integrated circuits.

Subjects

metallic alloys | metallic alloys | physical metallurgy | physical metallurgy | alloy design | alloy design | annealing | annealing | spinodal decomposition | spinodal decomposition | nucleation | nucleation | particle coarsening | particle coarsening | structure | structure | structure formation | structure formation | structure-properties relationships | structure-properties relationships | structural features | structural features | 3.40 | 3.40 | 22.71 | 22.71

License

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike). For further information see http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/index.htm

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3.094 Materials in Human Experience (MIT) 3.094 Materials in Human Experience (MIT)

Description

This course examines the ways in which people in ancient and contemporary societies have selected, evaluated, and used materials of nature, transforming them to objects of material culture. Some examples are: glass in ancient Egypt and Rome; sounds and colors of powerful metals in Mesoamerica; cloth and fiber technologies in the Inca empire. It also explores ideological and aesthetic criteria often influential in materials development. Laboratory/workshop sessions provide hands-on experience with materials discussed in class. This course complements 3.091. This course examines the ways in which people in ancient and contemporary societies have selected, evaluated, and used materials of nature, transforming them to objects of material culture. Some examples are: glass in ancient Egypt and Rome; sounds and colors of powerful metals in Mesoamerica; cloth and fiber technologies in the Inca empire. It also explores ideological and aesthetic criteria often influential in materials development. Laboratory/workshop sessions provide hands-on experience with materials discussed in class. This course complements 3.091.

Subjects

ancient and contemporary societies | ancient and contemporary societies | materials of nature | materials of nature | objects of material culture | objects of material culture | glass | glass | ancient Egypt and Rome | ancient Egypt and Rome | metals | metals | Mesoamerica | Mesoamerica | cloth and fiber technologies | cloth and fiber technologies | the Inca empire | the Inca empire | ideological and aesthetic criteria | ideological and aesthetic criteria | materials development | materials development | ancient glass | ancient glass | ancient Andean metallurgy | ancient Andean metallurgy | rubber processing | rubber processing | materials processing | materials processing | materials engineering | materials engineering | pre-modern technology | pre-modern technology | ceramics | ceramics | fibers | fibers | ideology | ideology | values | values | anthropology | anthropology | archaeology | archaeology | history | history | culture | culture

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Cistercian Monks as Metallurgists - Iron Technology at Rievalx Abbey c. 1130-1600 AD (24 Feb 2011)

Description

Gerry McDonnell gives a talk for the Ian Ramsay Seminar Series on 24th February 2011. Iron was fundamental to the construction and operation of any large scale building in medieval Europe, whether castle or abbey. The long-standing interpretation of the development of iron smelting technology in England argued for a step change in technology in the late 15th Century when small scale bloomery iron production was replaced by blast furnaces producing a tonne of cast iron per day. This model has been undermined by the recent evidence of 'blast-furnaces' in Scandinavia in the 10/11th centuries AD. Therefore the Cistercians monasteries with their strong European network could play a major role in the evolution of iron technology in Europe spanning the critical period of technological develop Wales; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

Subjects

metallurgy | Cistercian Monks | industrial revolution | philosophy | technology | metallurgy | Cistercian Monks | industrial revolution | philosophy | technology | 2011-02-24

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STS.089 Technology and Innovation in Africa (MIT) STS.089 Technology and Innovation in Africa (MIT)

Description

What do technology and innovation mean from Africa? This is the central question of this course, which tackles a double absence: Of the meanings and role of technology in African history, on the one hand, and of Africa's place in the global history of technology, on the other. This course alternates between technologies from outside and technologies from within Africa and their itineraries in everyday life, and it is designed to provide students with grounded understandings of technology in Africa for intellectual and action-oriented purposes. What do technology and innovation mean from Africa? This is the central question of this course, which tackles a double absence: Of the meanings and role of technology in African history, on the one hand, and of Africa's place in the global history of technology, on the other. This course alternates between technologies from outside and technologies from within Africa and their itineraries in everyday life, and it is designed to provide students with grounded understandings of technology in Africa for intellectual and action-oriented purposes.

Subjects

technology | technology | innovation | innovation | Africa | Africa | entrepreneurship | entrepreneurship | colonization | colonization | food production | food production | textiles | textiles | cotton | cotton | climate engineering | climate engineering | mining | mining | metallurgy | metallurgy | medicine | medicine | culture | culture | guns | guns | horses | horses | cell phones | cell phones | music | music

License

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TALAT Lecture 1100.01: Introduction: Aluminium, a Light Metal

Description

This lecture provides basic information about the history of aluminium, the principles behind the production of primary metal, environmental properties, potential applications, areas of application. The lecture is recommended for those situations, where a brief, general background information about aluminium is needed as an introduction of other subject areas of aluminium application technologies. This lecture is part of the self-contained course "Aluminium in Product Development", which is treated under TALAT lectures 2100.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | production | markets | environment | application | structure | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 1101: Resources and Production of Aluminium

Description

This lecture illustrates the natural abundance of the element and the history of its extraction from the ore; it shows the properties of pure aluminium, outlines the importance of alloys to commercial development and shows the range of alloys available and their classification; it describes the principal markets for aluminium; it illustrates the basic processes used in the production of primary aluminium and the main fabricating routes used to provide the products needed by manufacturing industry; it outlines the structure of the European aluminium industry and the historical contexts which shaped its growth.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | production | markets | environment | exploitation | primary aluminium | construction | transportation | properties | packaging | electrical engineering | semi-fabricating | rolling | forging | casting | extrusion | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 1102: Environmental Factors

Description

This lecture reviews the environmental factors affecting the aluminium industry and the remedial practices followed; it describes the concept of a product life cycle and the importance of recycling; it also describes the secondary aluminium industry, its history, processes, products and structure; it outlines the methodology used to calculate recycling rates and summarizes the scope and size of the European aluminium industry.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | production | markets | environment | life cycle | secondary aluminium | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 1201: Introduction to Aluminium as an Engineering Material

Description

This lecture provides an introduction to metallurgical concepts necessary to understand how structural features of aluminium alloys are influenced by alloy composition, processing and heat treatment, and the basic affects of these parameters on the mechanical properties, and hence engineering applications, of the alloys. It is assumed that the reader has some elementary knowledge of physics, chemistry and mathematics.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | alloy | atomic structure | crystal defects | crystal structure | crystals and atomic bonding | dislocations | grain growth | mechanical properties | microstructure | phase transformations | physical properties | plastic deformation | recrystallisation | slip | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 1202: Metallography of Aluminium Alloys

Description

This lecture aims at providing a survey of the metallographic techniques available for the examination of aluminium and its alloys. The information must be sufficient to be sure that the students and the users are able to choose the most suitable technique to solve their problems in the examination of samples. The lecture should contain a direct understanding of the main problems in the metallography of the different classes of aluminium materials.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | metallography | sample preparation | grinding | polishing | etching | anodising | electropolishing | dimpling | ion milling | polarised light | electron channelling | interference contrast | high resolution electron microscopy | SEM | TEM | HREM | HVEM | optical microscopy | high voltage electron microscopy | commercial purity | wrought alloys | foundry alloys | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 1203: Phase Diagrams

Description

This lecture aims at developing a qualitative understanding of binary phase diagrams by reference to the model systems Cu-Ni, Ni-Pt, Au-Ni and Ag-Cu, and also by reference to the Phase Rule. It applies the basic concepts of phase diagrams to binary aluminium alloys; it also aims at extending the discussion to an outline of ternary phase diagrams, and at showing how a so-called pseudo-binary section can be applied with benefit to the Al-Mg-Si system for alloys balanced in Mg2Si.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | binary phase diagrams | ternary phase diagrams | model binary systems | pseudo-binary diagrams | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 1204: Precipitation Hardening

Description

This lecture provides an introduction to the metallurgy of precipitation hardening, with a presentation of the fundamental mechanisms involved and illustrations from alloys which form the basis for engineering alloys. The Al-Mg2Si system is discussed in some detail because of its commercial importance. The microstructural aspects of precipitation hardening are illustrated by examples, many of which were obtained by electron microscopy; an outline of the background to electron microscopy is given in an appendix. Familiarity with the subject matter covered in earlier lectures 1201, 1202 and 1203 is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | age hardening | Guinier-Preston zones | GP zones | solute clusters | homogeneous nucleation | supersaturated solid solution | precipitation | coherency | coarsening | precipitate-free zones | Ostwald ripening | ageing sequence | depletion | heterogeneous nucleation | slip | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 1205: Introduction to Mechanical Properties, Casting, Forming, Joining and Corrosion

Description

This lecture provides background, basic information on mechanical properties and testing, solidification and casting, joining and corrosion of aluminium and its alloys. Basic knowledge of physics and chemistry and some familiarity with lectures 1201 and 1203 is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | mechanical properties | tensile testing | hardness testing | solidification | casting | joining | brazing | corrosion | corrosion protection | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 1251: Mechanical Working / Forming of Shapes

Description

This lecture outlines of the metallurgical principles of mechanical working and forming of shapes from aluminium. Basic knowledge of physics and chemistry and some familiarity with TALAT lectures 1201 through 1205 is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | mechanical working | forming | shape | microstructure | mechanical properties | flat rolling | extrusion | forging | sheet | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 1252: Corrosion and Corrosion Protection

Description

This lecture outlines the metallurgical principles of corrosion and corrosion protection of aluminium alloys. Basic knowledge of physics and chemistry and some familiarity with TALAT lectures 1201 through 1205 is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | corrosion | crevice corrosion | poultice corrosion | fretting corrosion | stress corrosion | galvanic corrosion | pitting corrosion | intergranular corrosion | exfoliation | kinetic reactivity | electrochemical circuit | electrolytic corrosion | corrosion protection | anodising | chemical conversion coatings | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 1253: Creep

Description

This lecture constitutes an introduction to creep and to the creep response of aluminium and its alloys. It provides basic information on creep and its mechanisms; it gives a description of the more extensively used mathematical relations among creep variables (time, stress and temperature); it illustrates the creep response of pure Aluminium and of Al-Mg alloys; it provides a synthesis of the information available in the literature on the creep behaviour of a number of new alloys and composites in the form of a series of figures elaborated on the basis of the data reported in same sources. Basic knowledge of physics and chemistry and some familiarity with TALAT lectures 1201 through 1205 is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | creep | creep curve | creep rate | diffusion | time to rupture | pure metals | solid solutions | creep strength | creep rupture | creep response | creep-resistant | composite | dispersion-strengthened | high strength alloys | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 1254: Fatigue

Description

This lecture describes the most significant correlation among foundry processes, microstructures and defects of castings and fatigue behaviour of Al casting alloys. No prior knowledge is strictly necessary; however, the basic concepts developed in TALAT lectures 2400 and 3200 are very useful for the comprehension of this lecture.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | fatigue | casting | microstructure | component | process | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 1255: Metallurgical Background to Alloy Selection and Specifications for Wrought, Cast and Special Applications

Description

This lecture outlines the metallurgical principles of alloy selection and specifications. Basic knowledge of physics and chemistry and some familiarity with TALAT lectures 1201 through 1205 is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | alloy selection | wrought alloys | cast alloys | aerospace alloys | hot isostatic processing | particulate processing | rapid solidification processing | particulate metal matrix composites | Al-Li based alloys | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 1301: The Rolling of Aluminium: the Process and the Product

Description

This lecture provides sufficient information on the rolling of aluminium and the characteristics of rolled products to ensure that students, users and potential users can understand the production features that affect properties and economics. It shows how, in consequence, alloy choice for an end application depends not only on the characteristics required for that end use but also on semi-fabrication requirements.General knowledge in materials engineering and some knowledge about aluminium alloy constitution and heat treatment is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | production | properties | semi-finished products | sheet | plate | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 1302: Aluminium Extrusion: Alloys, Shapes and Properties

Description

This lecture provides sufficient information on the extrusion of aluminum and the performance of extruded products to ensure that students, users and potential users of those products can understand the fabrication features that affect properties and economics. It shows how, in consequence, alloy choice for any end application depends not only on the characteristics required for that end use but also on production requirements. General knowledge in materials engineering and some knowledge about aluminium alloy constitution and heat treatment is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | production | properties | semi-finished products | extrusion | 6000 series alloys | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 1401: Aluminium Powder Metallurgy

Description

This lecture outlines the differences between conventionally produced and powder metallurgy aluminium with respect to potential uses; it aims at learning about the various processes to produce and to consolidate alloy powders; it illustrates the extension of the useful property range beyond that of limits of conventionally processed aluminium alloys; it explains the advantages and disadvantages of aluminium produced by powder metallurgy; it shows the potential of aluminium produced by the route of powder metallurgy. Knowledge in metallurgy, materials science, materials engineering is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | advanced materials | powder fabrication | rapid solidification | caracterisation | powder | precompaction | cold compaction | sintering | hot consolidation | post consolidation | spray forming | P/M 7 XXX alloys | high strength alloys | elevated temperatures | mechanical alloying | high modulus | safety | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 1402: Aluminium Matrix Composite Materials

Description

This lecture provides understanding of the state-of-the-art of aluminium matrix composite materials; it outlines the properties of aluminium matrix composite materials as a basis for materials selection; it explains the limits of useful applications; it demonstrates the various types of aluminium matrix composites. Knowledge in metallurgy, materials science, materials engineering is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | advanced materials | continuous fibre composites | discontinuously reinforced composites | particulate composites | density | thermal properties | stiffness | plastic properties | fatigue | wear resistance | interfaces | manufacturing techniques | liquid state | solid state | spray methods | in-situ production | automotive | aerospace | electronic | communication | application | sports and leisure market | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 1501: Properties, Characteristics and Alloys of Aluminium

Description

This lecture provides a survey of the aluminium alloys available to the user; it describes their various properties; it gives an insight into the choice of aluminium for a proposed application. In the context of this lecture not every individual alloy and its properties have been treated in detail, but rather divided into alloy types with reference to the most commonly used alloys. For further details on alloy properties the reader is referred to available databanks like ALUSELECT of the European Aluminium Association (EAA) or to the European and national materials standards. Good engineering background in materials, design and manufacturing processes is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | properties | selection criteria | production | industry | recycled aluminium | secondary aluminium | atomic structure | crystal structure | density | electrical conductivity | resistivity | thermal conductivity | reflectance | non-magnetic | emissivity | corrosion resistance | thermal expansion | melting temperature | latent heat | specific heat | identification | aluminium - copper alloys | aluminium - manganese alloys | aluminium - silicon alloys | aluminium - magnesium alloys | aluminium - magnesium - silicon alloys | aluminium - zinc - magnesium alloys | aluminium - zinc - magnesium - copper alloys | ingot | casting | work hardening | dispersion hardening | solid solution hardening | precipitation hardening | temper designations | non heat-treatable alloys | heat-treatable alloys | applications | mechanical properties | tensile strength | strength/weight ratio | proof stress | elastic properties | elongation | compression | bearing | shear | hardness | ductility | creep | impact strength | elevated temperatures | low temperatures | fracture characteristics | fatigue | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 1502: Criteria in Material Selection

Description

This lecture gives a background to why, by whom, when and how material selection is performed; it describes the pitfalls of non-systematic approaches; it gives the concept of pre-selection and how it is applied; it creates an understanding about unbiased selection of materials and how it is performed; it explains discriminating material selection and how it is applied; it demonstrates optimization in material selection and how it is applied. Elementary background in materials engineering is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | properties | selection criteria | design | materials selection | pre-selection | discriminating materials selection | property values | optimisation | semi-systematic methods | systematic methods | materials cost | weight savings | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 1601: Process modelling applied to age hardening aluminium alloys

Description

This lecture describes the methodology for physical modelling of materials problems, with particular emphasis on heat treatment and welding of age hardening alloys materials; it establishes mathematical relations between different process variables (e.g. alloy composition, heat treatment procedure, welding conditions) and the alloy strength or hardness, based on sound physical principles (e.g. thermodynamics, kinetic theory, dislocation mechanics); it motivates faster process development, optimization of process and properties and development of real-time control. Knowledge in metallurgy, materials science, materials engineering is assumed.

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | material science | isothermal age hardening | modeling | calibration | isothermal reversion | isothermal precipitation | natural ageing | thermal cycles | corematerials | ukoer

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TALAT Lecture 2101.01: Understanding aluminium as a material

Description

This lecture is an introduction to aluminium alloys, fabrication methods and properties. It provides information about the classification of aluminium alloys, new alloys and composites; shaping processes, processing chains and component shapes; microstructure and the interaction between microstructure and properties. It promotes understanding of the fact that the correct choice of materials demands knowledge of alloys, shaping processes and microstructure and the interaction among them. The lecture is recommended for those situations, where a brief, general background information about aluminium is needed as an introduction of other subject areas of aluminium application technologies. This lecture is part of the self-contained course "Aluminium in Product Development", which is treated u

Subjects

aluminium | aluminum | european aluminium association | EAA | Training in Aluminium Application Technologies | training | metallurgy | technology | lecture | design | product | material characteristics | alloying elements | classification | composites | shaping processes | processing chain | component | sheet | extruded product | impact-extruded product | cast | microstructure | properties | atomic structure | dislocations | work hardening | atoms in solution | precipitation | solution heat treatment | artificial ageing | grains | dendrites | innovation | corematerials | ukoer

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